GCMs with Implicit and Explicit cloudrain processes for simulation of extreme precipitation frequency

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1 GCMs with Implicit and Explicit cloudrain processes for simulation of extreme precipitation frequency In Sik Kang Seoul National University Young Min Yang (UH) and Wei Kuo Tao (GSFC)

2 Content 1. Conventional GCM precipitation processes 2. Precipitation processes in a Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) 3. The GCM with cloud microphysics All results with AGCM 50km horizontal resolution

3 Thermodynamic equations & Reynolds averaging Governing equations for dry static energy (s) and water vapor (q) C: condensation-evaporation R: Radiative heating After Reynolds averaging (over a grid)

4 Conventional GCM precipitation processes 1. Convective rain (sub-grid scale) Convective parameterization based on a quasi equilibrium condition 2. Large-scale condensation (grid scale) Function of relative humidity with auto conversion time scale Convective rain Large-scale condensation l u Cloud water, l u Precipiation rate: R Precipitation Convective adjustment Time scale Autoconversion Time scale Condensation ( ) T>0 T<0 Cloud water Cloud ice Falling down Without Time scale Precipitation

5 TRMM Annual mean (50km) precipitation BULK scheme without triggering BULK scheme with triggering (wcb > 0.2 m s-1) Ratio of convective to totalno precipitation Ratio of convective to total precipitation convective parameterization (NOCONV)

6 Frequency of 3 hourly precipitation 100 TRMM BULK_Original BULK_Triggering No convection 10 Frequency (%) Precipitation (mm/day)

7 Precipitation processes in a cloud resolving model (CRM) CRM experiments Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (Tao et al. 1993) Two dimensional model with cyclic boundary conditions 1km horizontal resolution with 41 vertical level and 256km domain size TOGA COARE forcing data

8 Precipitation CRM vs. OBS 6 hour mean precipitation (mm day 1 ) Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (Tao et al. 1993) simulation with TOGA COARE forcing for boreal winter

9 CRM Microphysics Cloud Microphysics AGCM parameterization Condensation Cloud water Accretion Freezing Snow Accretion Deposition Cloud ice Accretion Rain Melting Graupel Precipitation

10 Budget of microphysical processes (a)light precipitation ( 0 10 mm day 1 ) (b) Heavy precipitation ( > 60 mm day 1 ) <Unit> Cloud species : g/g Processes : g/g/s

11 Relationship between precipitation and graupel Rainfall vs. Graupel Rainfall vs. Accretion of cloud water to graupel

12 Development of GCM with cloud microphysics Convective parameterization Large-scale condensation Cloud microphysics Model resolution : 50km Dynamical core : Spectral -> Finite volume methods Climatological SST, 4 year integration

13 The GCM with cloud microphysics

14 Global model with CRM physics Superparameterization GCM grid CRM (2D) NASA/GSFC, CSU Horizontal Resolution of CRM: 4km Explicit global CRM NICAM (Japan) 14, 7, 3.5km GCM with cloud microphysics (50 km, CRM & Parameterization combined)

15 Required computing resources for climate simulation * Computing resources : 1,000 CPU IPCC model (200km) : 2 hours for 10 years simulation Explicit global CRM (1km) : 50 years for 10 year simulation GCM with cloud microphysics (50km) : 2 weeks for 10 years simulation This is suitable for climate researches as a next generation model

16 Modification of cloud microphysics 1. Less condensation due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution (50km) => Modification of condensation process by using the parameterization used in the large scale condensation scheme (Le Treut and Li 1991) 2. Insufficient accretion due to weak vertical motion => Decrease of the terminal velocity of cloud hydrometers (Satoh and Matsuda 2009) GCM with microphysics TRMM GCM with Modified microphysics

17 Biases of vertical structure of cloud water Adding vertical mixing Diffusion type of convective scheme Too excessive cloud water

18 Annual mean precipitation TRMM Modified Microphysics Modified Microphysics + Convection

19 Frequency of 3 hourly precipitation 100 TRMM MPS MMPS+CONV BULK 10 Frequency (%) Precipitation (mm/day)

20 Global distribution of 3 hourly light & heavy precipitation TRMM BULK+LSC Microphysics+ shallow convection

21 Hovmuller diagram of daily mean precipitation (10 S-10 N) TRMM Parameterization Modified microphysics and convection

22 Summary GCM requires Cloud Microphysics for Simulation of heavy and extreme precipitation reasonably well - The GCMs with convective parameterization produce too much light rain but less heavy precipitation compared to the observed. - Graupel and Accretion are important hydro-meteor and hydorprocess for heavy precipitation. A paper submitted to Climate Dynamics

23 Thank you!

24 Global distribution of 3 hourly light & heavy precipitation TRMM BULK+LSC NOCONV

25 Increase of vertical mixing Deep convective parameterization - BULK scheme without precipitational processes Diffusion type of shallow convection scheme - Vertical mixing of temperature and moisture - No precipitation processes s t shc q t shc 1 z 1 K z s Ll K q Ll z z Cloud Top Top -1 Top -2 Vertical profile of K K=0 K=0.5 K=1.5 s : dry static energy q : specific humidity l:cloudwater L : latent heat of condensation ρ :densityofair z : altitude over bar : grid average value prime : perturbation from grid average value 3~4 levels Cloud Bottom K=2.5 K=0.75 K: eddy diffusion coefficient K=0

26 Modification of cloud microphysics Condensation using sub grid scale variability Unsaturated 10km 1km Saturated water vapor (unsaturated) water vapor (saturated) Cloud liquid water Parameterization of sub-grid scale variability Saturated fraction (Le Treut and Li 1991) Accretion processes - Less accretion due to coarse resolution - Increase of collection efficiency Increase of accretion -E RW =>1.0 g g -1 to 2.0 g g -1 cloud water rain water Terminal velocity - At coarse resolution, accretion processes is weak - Decrease of terminal velocity => increase of cloud hydrometer => increase of accretion -a =>2.14 m/s -1 to 1.8 m s -1

27 Wheeler-Kiladis diagram GPCP (20yrs) Parameterization (6yrs) Modified microphysics and convection (6yrs)

28 GCM simulation with cloud microphysics (50km) Annual mean precipitation TRMM GCM with parameterizations GCM with microphysics Animation of 3hourly precipitation TRMM GCM with parameterization GCM with microphysics

29 Coupled model with cloud microphysicsng CGCM with microphysics and convection (ongoing)

30 Global distribution of 3 hourly light & heavy precipitation TRMM BULK+LSC NOCONV

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