Heterogeneous firms and trade costs: a reading of French access to European agrofood

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Heterogeneous firms and trade costs: a reading of French access to European agrofood"

Transcription

1 Heterogeneous firms and trade costs: a reading of Frenc access to European agrofood markets Cevassus-Lozza E., Latouce K. INRA, UR 34, F Nantes, France Abstract Tis article offers a new reading of intra-european trade based on recent developments in new international economics (Melitz, 2003; Caney, 2008). Tese models take te eterogeneity of firms into account and offer a micro-economic analysis of te process of selection at work for firms entering markets. An exporting firm as to bear certain specific costs to break into a market, and only sufficiently productive firms are able to do so. Using individual data for Frenc agro-food firms and te distribution of teir exports across European markets, tis article sows tat access conditions to te various European markets are not identical for Frenc firms: te Belgian market would seem to be a natural extension of te Frenc market, wereas te markets of small, distant countries (Austria, Finland or Sweden) are te least accessible. Econometric analysis based on analysis bot of te firm selection process and of te value of teir exports sows tat te standard geograpical variables (distance, country size) affecting te single European market still play a maor role in te coice of export markets. Results also reveal tat tere are still remaining trade costs at entry to te different European markets; but tese trade frictions don t matter to all firms in te same way. Te iger te firm experience, te lower te impact of trade costs. Keywords firm eterogeneity, trade costs, European Integration. I. INTRODUCTION Te aim of te implementation of te Single European Market in 993 was te free, unimpeded circulation of goods between European countries. Tis implementation was based on te abolition of all tecnical barriers to trade, implying armonisation of food regulations. Beyond te positive impact of tis armonisation as igligted by Henry de Fraan and Vancauteren [] or Cevassus-Lozza et al [2], Head and Mayer [3] sowed tat trade barriers, in 2000, still exist between European (EU) countries, resulting in te persistence of a certain level of market fragmentation. Is tis fragmentation still a reality for Frenc agro-food exporters? Do Frenc firms enoy te same access conditions to all European countries? And if differences do exist, are tese due to structural trade conditions (market size, linguistic barriers and distance) or do tey arise from trade costs wic would suggest tat te European market is still fragmented? Tere is an abundant literature dealing wit trade costs and teir components. Anderson and Van Wincoop [4] define te latter as all costs incurred in getting a good to a final consumer oter tan te production of te good itself. Tey correspond to a variety of costs ranging from trade related policies (tariffs, non tariff measures suc as standards, excange rates...), to transport and logistics, information and marketing and also cultural barriers. Numerous empirical papers, often based on a gravity equation, attempt to assess, at a macro or sectoral level, te impact of tese trade costs on bilateral trade between countries. Most of tem focus on specific trade barriers; but some oters, using te now well known "Border Effect" metodology ([5] or [6]) attempt to capture a global image of all impediments to trade related to te existence of te national borders. Even toug tese studies give a useful measure of tese trade impediments, tey are based on te ypotesis of a representative firm, and do not explain ow tese trade costs affect te excange flows. At a micro-level, te growing empirical and teoretical literature gives an insigt on tis issue. Several empirical studies ([7], [8]) ave first sown tat only more productive firms export. Melitz [9] provided a general equilibrium model sowing tat firms self-select into export markets. Caney [0] goes furter and analyses te access conditions to different export markets. A market wit ig entry barriers will be very selective, and only te best performing firms will be able to break into it by selling greater quantities of teir product (intensive margins). Inversely, a more open market will be accessible to a larger number of less productive firms exporting smaller quantities (extensive margins). However, watever te level of observation, trade costs are unobserved.

2 2 Referring to Caney's model, te aim of tis article is to assess, from individual firm data, a global image of te trade impediments occurring at entry to te different European markets. Our obective is to analyse te access Frenc firms ave on te EU markets. We assume tat te eterogeneity of entry costs between markets is revealed by te firms caracteristics exporting to tese markets. Moreover, numerous studies ( [], [2] ) ave pointed out te key role of experience in te firm decision. Using a survey on UK firms, Kneller and Pisu [3] (2007) identify wat are te most common barriers to export firms report to face. Tey sow tat export experience may cange significantly te barriers to exporting perceived by firms. Following tis statement, we evaluate in tis paper to wat extent trade barriers at entry of European markets matter to all firms in te same way. Te remainder of te paper is structured as follows: section 2 presents te contributions of recent models in new international economics, particularly te model of Caney [0]. Tis model leads onto an empirical section focusing on te number of firms exporting to a destination market. By tis analysis an interpretation of te accessibility of EU markets is put forward. Finally, two sets of econometric estimations are proposed : te first one estimates te value of firms' exports, taking into account te selection at work at entry to different EU markets. Te aim is to test te extent to wic EU market access eterogeneity is only due to market geograpy, or instead attributable to oter specific costs for eac importer, tus potentially revealing tat te EU market integration is incomplete. Te second one takes into account te export experience of te firms. II. TRADE COSTS AND FIRM HETEROGENEIT : CHANE s MODEL A. Te main ypoteses Te consumer utility of disposing of a set Ω of products (determined in equilibrium) and of consuming q o units of good O (single omogeneous good) and q (ω) units of variety ω of sector (H+ sectors wit H sectors producing a continuum of differentiated goods) may be expressed: U q σ µ H σ σ µ o o ( ( ω) ) σ ω q d Ω = wit σ te elasticity of substitution between te two varieties of good and µ is te preference coefficient of te subacent Cobb-Douglas function, between te omogenous good and te differentiated goods. All countries ave access to te same tecnology. Countries differ by size (L n ) and productivity (w n ). To deliver products to country, firms from country i face various trade barriers generating fixed or variable costs. Fixed costs (f i ) may be all te costs due to product compliance (label, packaging ) but also induced by te new distribution networks to invest, te marketing/advertising strategy Variable costs (τ i ) depend on te excanged quantity of product and are included in te model as iceberg-type costs. Firms work using tecnology wit increasing returns to scale due to te fixed costs. Eac firm as a labour productivity ϕ. Te cost of producing and of selling q i units of good to market for a firm wit productivity ϕ is: i i c i( = wτ qi+ fi () ϕ Te random variable Φ wic represents firm productivity ϕ follows a Pareto distribution on [,+ [ wit distribution function written as: P ( Φ< = ϕ were is inverse to eterogeneity measure. Given tat demand is isoelastic, te optimal price fixed by a firm wit productivity ϕ in country is a constant mark-up over te unit cost: σ iτ i pi( = w (2) σ ϕ Tus, given () and (2), te export value from i to, by a firm of productivity ϕ is : σ pi( x i= pi( qi( = µ (3) P B. Definition of te firm s self-select export process Te productivity tresold. Te firms able to export to are tose wic are able to bear te market entry costs. A firm will export only if profit exceeds 0. Te productivity tresold ( ϕ ) is terefore defined for nil profit condition. Tus given (), (2) and (3), ϕ i is : fi σ wiτ i ϕi = λ wit λ P being a constant. Caney sows tat te price index P depends upon te caracteristics of te importing country and is a function of te distribution law for firms entering tis market. Hence, e obtains te following expression of te productivity tresold. i

3 3 wiτ i σ ϕi = λ2 fi (4) θ were is te world revenue and θ is a variant of te trade remoteness of Anderson and van Wincoop [4]. θ N = σ k= ( ) ( k / )( wkτ k ) fk were k represent all te potential trading partners of Te value of exports. Tus, te export value depends upon te above select σ process : ( / > ) = θ x ϕ ϕ ϕ λ i i σ 3 ϕ (5) wiτ i wit λ 3 being a constant. III. PRODUCTIVIT THRESHOLD AND ACCESS TO THE DIFFERENT EU MARKETS : SOME STLISED FACTS. On te basis of te above equations, wat picture emerges of te European market? Te problem resides in measuring costs faced by firms entering a market. Neverteless, it is possible using te selection equation to catc te degree of accessibility of te various European markets for Frenc firms. According to equation (4), te eterogeneous entry costs generate an inverse relationsip between te productivity tresold for exporting to tis market and te number of exporting firms to a market. In fact, te number of firms able to break into a market is te set of firms N i wit productivity ϕ were Ni ϕ > ϕi. Tus, Ni= Ni P( Φ> ϕi) = ( ϕi ) were Ni Ni is te total number of exporting firms of country i. To validate tis relationsip, we ave used data for individual Frenc firms from two sources: - Te register of Frenc Customs (2004), wic identifies, for eac exporting firm located in France, te destination of its exports per product, by value and quantity. - Te file of te annual surveys of enterprises (INSEE: 2004), wic provides individual information about te firms wit more tan 20 employees (main activity, location, turnover, number of employees, level of productivity calculated as value added per employee). Figure validates tis inverse relationsip between te percentage of firms and te minimum productivity level of firms exporting to a country. Markets wit te igest productivity tresolds are tose wit te smallest number of exporting firms. Tere are four groups of countries for Frenc firms: - Unsurprisingly, Belgium is te most accessible market. 82 % of Frenc exporting agrofood firms export to Belgium and te productivity tresold is te lowest. - Germany, Spain, Great Britain, te Neterlands and Italy ave very similar productivity tresolds - Te two oter groups gater te smallest and/or most distant countries including new member states. For te latter exporting firms need to be te most productive in order to access to tese markets. % of Frenc firms e xporting to te country BE DE ESGB IT NL DK GR PT ATIE SE PL HU LT MT SK FI CZ C EE Productivity tresold - first quartile (tousands euros) Fig. Number of Frenc firms per EU markets and productivity tresold. Tese results give an overview of te differences in European market accessibility for Frenc exporting firms. However, tis market ierarcy seems to reflect bot te EU geograpy for Frenc firms and te EU istory. Can we conclude ten tat te EU market is still fragmented? IV. ECONOMETRIC RESULTS: THE GLOBAL IMAGE OF TRADE COSTS FOR FRENCH EXPORTERS. A. Does only geograpy matter for Frenc exporters to European markets? Equations 4 and 5 give te two main steps of te exporting process : first, te decision of te firm i to export towards te market and second, te traded volume. In order to take te self-select process into account, we implemented an Heckman procedure defined as follows : Contrary to oter autors ([7], [4],[5]) wo analyse te decisions of firms to export or not, we ave taken tis decision as exogenous. We only analyse te trade pattern of exporting firms. SI LV

4 4 [ x( ϕ i/ ϕ )] ln [regression of te exported value ] for i ϕ i> ϕ ln i lnϕ > 0 ϕ [selected equation ] Explicative variables come from te structural equations 4 and 5. is te sare of in total EU imports of subsector (Comext database). ϕ i is te firm productivity calculated using te INSEE-EAE database as te ratio value added / number of employees of te firm. τ i and f i catc te variable and fixed costs. Except transport costs wic are approximated by te distance, trade costs are in fact unobserved. Distance d i is calculated from te place of te firm s ead office to te capital of country. Te location of te firm is extracted from te annual survey of firms (INSEE) and te distances ave been downloaded from te Micelin database. To catc te global image of all oter trade costs at entry of market, importing country fixed effects are including in our estimation. θ, te trade remoteness is approximated by N θ = / / dk, were k are te total exports of ( k )( ) k= country k, and are te world exports of sub sector (COMTRADE). d k is te distance between te capitals of te two countries k and given by te CEPII. Finally, 9 sub-sector fixed effects are introduced to take sectoral specificities into account. Tis estimation aims at testing te significance of te importing country dummies coefficients in te two steps (value and select equation). In te event tat tese two sets of coefficients vary greatly from zero, and vary amongst temselves, a eterogeneity of costs on entry to European markets can be concluded, once geograpical factors ave been accounted for. Te econometric results (Table ) sow te expected effects of firm productivity, importing country size and distance. Tus, te greater te firm's productivity, te greater its exporting probability and te iger te value exported. Equally, te larger te importing country, te greater te probability tat Frenc firms export tere and te iger te value of teir sales. Distance as a significant impact bot on te firm's decision to export to a given market and on its exported volume. θ as eiter a non significant impact in te volume equation or a significant negative impact in te probit equation. Furtermore, te results sow tat importing country fixed effects, independent of size and distance, differ widely witin te European market. Tis seems to indicate tat specificities linked to eac European country continue to exist, despite te implementation of te Single Market. Te coefficients for tese country fixed effects follow te market ierarcy observed in Figure. Tus, once country size and distance from France is taken into account, Frenc exporters appear to experience te most difficulty in accessing te New Member States Market and especially Slovak Republic and Slovenia. Table : Econometric results for all Frenc exporting firms towards EU27 year 2004 Value eq Select eq. ln(firm productivity) *** 0.224*** ln( ) 0.203*** 0.*** ln(distance) *** -0.28*** ln(θ) NS *** Country fixed effects : Reference Belgium Te Neterlands *** *** Germany *** *** Italy 0.45 NS -0.60*** United Kingdom ** *** Ireland -.564*** -.336*** Denmark *** -.092*** Greece NS *** Portugal -0.59*** *** Spain NS *** Sweeden -.096*** -.278*** Finland -.089*** -.327*** Austria -.570*** -.430*** Malta *** -.820*** Estonia -.758*** -.829*** Latvia -.956*** -2.09*** Lituania *** -.866*** Poland -.502*** -.483*** Czec Republic -2.57*** -.766*** Slovak Republic -2.07*** -2.24*** Hungary -.774*** -.72*** Slovenia *** *** Cyprus -.806*** -.78*** Sub sector fixed effects : yes Log likeliood = Prob > ci2 = Number of obs = 6200 Censored obs = Uncensored obs = 2663 *** signi. at % level; ** signi. at 5 % level; NS non signi Teir probability of exporting to one of tese markets is greatly inferior to tat of exporting to oter markets. Can suc differences be explained by Frenc firms' lack of knowledge of tese markets, by specific market requirements, by language barriers...wic result in iger entry costs? Inversely, Belgium is te most accessible market for Frenc exporters. However, te country fixed effect on te exported value is not significantly different in comparison wit Italy, Spain or Greece.

5 5 Tese results seem to suggest tat differing market structure caracteristics exist amongst EU members in 2004, in addition to geograpic proximity and te size of tese commercial partners. B. Does te export experience decrease te impact of trade barriers? According to Kneller and Pisu [3], export market experience is likely to contain tree main dimensions, te lengt of time te firm as been exporting, te number of market it serves and te intensity wit wic it serves tose markets. Due to lengt constraints, we focus ere only on te export intensity measured by te sare of exports in te total turnover of te firm. As Kneller and Pisu [3], we suggest to distinguis tree categories for te export intensity : less tan 5%; 5-50%; more tan 50%. In te second set of estimations, in order to assess te differentiated impact of te trade costs according to export experience, we cross te trade costs variables (i.e distance and country fixed effects) wit tese tree categories of export intensity. In Table 2, we report results for distance. 2 It appears tat as experience rises te impact of distance falls. Hence, distance as no impact on te export decision for te more export oriented firms. Wile distance still as a significant impact on te value of export, tis impact is significantly lower tan for less experienced firms. Concerning te country fixed effects in te selection process, results sow tat remaining trade costs matter less for te most export oriented firms tan for te oter firms watever te destination market. Table 2: Impact of distance on te export of firms according to teir export experience year 2004 ln(distance of te firm) Value eq Select eq. low export intensity < 5% *** -0.33*** medium export intensity6-50% *** *** ig export intensity > 50% *** NS V. CONCLUSION Te aim of tis article was to provide an analysis of Frenc exports to European markets using data for individual Frenc firms (from customs and EAE sources). It sougt to ascertain to wat extent te European market is fragmented for Frenc exporters. Our analysis sows tat access conditions to te various European markets are not identical for Frenc companies. Distance and size of te importing country explain partly tese differences : oter trade costs remain. Tese results sould support te idea tat te EU market is still fragmented for Frenc firms. But tese trade frictions don t matter to all firms in te same way. Te iger te firm experience, te lower te impact of trade costs. REFERENCES. Henry de Fraan B, Vancauteren M (2006) Harmonisation of food regulations and trade in te single market: Evidence from disaggregated data. ERAE 33: Cevassus-Lozza E, Latouce K, Makovic D, Unguru M, (2007) How muc do tariff and non-tariff measures explain te border effect at entry to te EU market? AAEA Proc, Annual meeting of te American Agricultural Economics Association, Portland, Oregon. 3. Head K, Mayer T (2000) Non-europe: Te magnitude and causes of market fragmentation in te EU. Review of World Economics 36: Anderson JE, van Wincoop E (2004) Trade costs, Journal of Economic Litererature, 43(3): Mac Callum J (995) National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns. Te American Economic Review 85(3): Mayer T, Zignago S (2005) Market Access in Global and Regional Trade. CEPII Working Paper No , January 7. Bernard A, Jensen B, Redding S, Scott P (2007) Firms in international trade. Journal of Economic Perspectives 2: Eaton J, Kortum S, Kramartz F (2004) Dissecting trade: Firms, industries, and export destinations. American Economic Review. Papers and Proceedings, 94: Melitz M J (2003) Te impact of trade on intra-industry reallocations and aggregate industry productivity. Econometrica 7: Caney T (2008) Distorted gravity : Te intensive and extensive margin of international trade. American Economic Review fortcoming: 9.. Roberts MJ, Tybout JR (997) Te decision to export in colombia: An empirical model of entry wit sunk costs. American Economic Review 87: Bernard A, Eaton J, Jensen JB, Kortum S (2003) Plants and productivity in international trade. American Economic Review, 93: Kneller and Pisu (2007) Export barriers : Wat are tey and wo do tey matter to? Researc paper series, 2007/2, Leverulme Centre, Te University of Nottingam. 4. Greenaway D, Kneller R (2007) Exporting, productivity and agglomeration. European Economic Review In Press, Corrected Proof. 5. Cevassus-Lozza E, Galliano D (2003) Export Spillovers, Firm Organization and Export Beaviour : Evidence from te Frenc Food Industry. Regional Studies 37 : Address of te corresponding autor: Autor: Emmanuelle Cevassus-Lozza Institute: INRA - LERECO Street: Rue de la Géraudière BP 7627 City: 4436 Nantes Cedex 3 Country: France 2. All te oter results are available upon request.

Can a Lump-Sum Transfer Make Everyone Enjoy the Gains. from Free Trade?

Can a Lump-Sum Transfer Make Everyone Enjoy the Gains. from Free Trade? Can a Lump-Sum Transfer Make Everyone Enjoy te Gains from Free Trade? Yasukazu Icino Department of Economics, Konan University June 30, 2010 Abstract I examine lump-sum transfer rules to redistribute te

More information

ERMInE Database. Presentation by Nils Flatabø SINTEF Energy Research. ERMInE Workshop 2 - Northern Europe Oslo, 1. November 2006

ERMInE Database. Presentation by Nils Flatabø SINTEF Energy Research. ERMInE Workshop 2 - Northern Europe Oslo, 1. November 2006 ERMInE Database Presentation by Nils Flatabø SINTEF Energy Research ERMInE Workshop 2 - Northern Europe Oslo, 1. November 26 Overview Content of the Ermine Database Electronic Questionnaire RTD&D Data

More information

SURVEY ON THE TRAINING OF GENERAL CARE NURSES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. The current minimum training requirements for general care nurses

SURVEY ON THE TRAINING OF GENERAL CARE NURSES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. The current minimum training requirements for general care nurses SURVEY ON THE TRAINING OF GENERAL CARE NURSES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION This survey serves as a background document for the discussion of the Commission's legislative proposal to modernize the minimum requirements

More information

Implementing the cooperation mechanisms of the RES directive current status and open questions

Implementing the cooperation mechanisms of the RES directive current status and open questions Implementing the cooperation mechanisms of the RES directive current status and open questions Corinna Klessmann, Ecofys Germany RE-SHAPING Workshop, Vilnius, 16.05.2011 Supported by Intelligent Energy

More information

DOCTORAL (Ph.D) THESIS

DOCTORAL (Ph.D) THESIS DOCTORAL (Ph.D) THESIS UNIVERSITY OF KAPOSVÁR FACULTY OF ECONOMIC SCIENCE Department of Finance and Economics Head of Doctors School: DR. GÁBOR UDOVECZ Doctor of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Supervisor:

More information

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC SUPPORT IN THE COMMERCIALISATION OF INNOVATIONS

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC SUPPORT IN THE COMMERCIALISATION OF INNOVATIONS Flash Eurobarometer THE ROLE OF PUBLIC SUPPORT IN THE COMMERCIALISATION OF INNOVATIONS REPORT Fieldwork: January February 2014 Publication: May 2014 This survey has been requested by the European Commission,

More information

Taxation of tobacco products in the European Union. Frank Van Driessche DG Taxation and Customs Union May 2006

Taxation of tobacco products in the European Union. Frank Van Driessche DG Taxation and Customs Union May 2006 1 Taxation of tobacco products in the European Union Frank Van Driessche DG Taxation and Customs Union May 2006 2 Legislation on taxation Directive 92/79/EEC (Approximation of taxes on cigarettes) Directive

More information

What is Advanced Corporate Finance? What is finance? What is Corporate Finance? Deciding how to optimally manage a firm s assets and liabilities.

What is Advanced Corporate Finance? What is finance? What is Corporate Finance? Deciding how to optimally manage a firm s assets and liabilities. Wat is? Spring 2008 Note: Slides are on te web Wat is finance? Deciding ow to optimally manage a firm s assets and liabilities. Managing te costs and benefits associated wit te timing of cas in- and outflows

More information

Joint Research Centre (JRC) Economic Analysis of Electronic Identification (EID) of Small Ruminants in Member States

Joint Research Centre (JRC) Economic Analysis of Electronic Identification (EID) of Small Ruminants in Member States 1 Joint Research Centre (JRC) Economic Analysis of Electronic Identification (EID) of Small Ruminants in Member States IPSC - Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen Ispra - Italy http://ipsc.jrc.ec.europa.eu/

More information

Asymmetric Trade Liberalizations and Current Account Dynamics

Asymmetric Trade Liberalizations and Current Account Dynamics Asymmetric Trade Liberalizations and Current Account Dynamics Alessandro Barattieri January 15, 2015 Abstract Te current account deficits of Spain, Portugal and Greece are te result of large deficits in

More information

2.23 Gambling Rehabilitation Services. Introduction

2.23 Gambling Rehabilitation Services. Introduction 2.23 Gambling Reabilitation Services Introduction Figure 1 Since 1995 provincial revenues from gambling activities ave increased over 56% from $69.2 million in 1995 to $108 million in 2004. Te majority

More information

INNOBAROMETER 2015 - THE INNOVATION TRENDS AT EU ENTERPRISES

INNOBAROMETER 2015 - THE INNOVATION TRENDS AT EU ENTERPRISES Eurobarometer INNOBAROMETER 2015 - THE INNOVATION TRENDS AT EU ENTERPRISES REPORT Fieldwork: February 2015 Publication: September 2015 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

TRADING AWAY WIDE BRANDS FOR CHEAP BRANDS. Swati Dhingra London School of Economics and CEP. Online Appendix

TRADING AWAY WIDE BRANDS FOR CHEAP BRANDS. Swati Dhingra London School of Economics and CEP. Online Appendix TRADING AWAY WIDE BRANDS FOR CHEAP BRANDS Swati Dingra London Scool of Economics and CEP Online Appendix APPENDIX A. THEORETICAL & EMPIRICAL RESULTS A.1. CES and Logit Preferences: Invariance of Innovation

More information

ENTERING THE EU BORDERS & VISAS THE SCHENGEN AREA OF FREE MOVEMENT. EU Schengen States. Non-Schengen EU States. Non-EU Schengen States.

ENTERING THE EU BORDERS & VISAS THE SCHENGEN AREA OF FREE MOVEMENT. EU Schengen States. Non-Schengen EU States. Non-EU Schengen States. ENTERING THE EU BORDERS & VISAS THE SCHENGEN AREA OF FREE MOVEMENT An area without internal borders where EU citizens and non-eu nationals may move freely EU Schengen States Non-Schengen EU States IS Azores

More information

The Dynamics of Movie Purchase and Rental Decisions: Customer Relationship Implications to Movie Studios

The Dynamics of Movie Purchase and Rental Decisions: Customer Relationship Implications to Movie Studios Te Dynamics of Movie Purcase and Rental Decisions: Customer Relationsip Implications to Movie Studios Eddie Ree Associate Professor Business Administration Stoneill College 320 Wasington St Easton, MA

More information

Number of resident patent applications to the European Patent Office per 1 million population

Number of resident patent applications to the European Patent Office per 1 million population CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE STATISTICAL OFFICE IN KATOWICE Sustainable Development Indicators. National module More information: for substantive matters concerning: national indicators and those on the

More information

Dublin, March 2013. EPSO Network of Experts in the field of Personnel Selection 14th March 2013

Dublin, March 2013. EPSO Network of Experts in the field of Personnel Selection 14th March 2013 Dublin, March 2013 EPSO Network of Experts in the field of Personnel Selection 14th March 2013 On-going and upcoming competitions AD2012 by Citizenship AD2012 Citizenship %EU Population validated application

More information

SAMPLE DESIGN FOR THE TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM SURVEY

SAMPLE DESIGN FOR THE TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM SURVEY ASA Section on Survey Researc Metods SAMPLE DESIG FOR TE TERRORISM RISK ISURACE PROGRAM SURVEY G. ussain Coudry, Westat; Mats yfjäll, Statisticon; and Marianne Winglee, Westat G. ussain Coudry, Westat,

More information

2.28 EDGE Program. Introduction

2.28 EDGE Program. Introduction Introduction Te Economic Diversification and Growt Enterprises Act became effective on 1 January 1995. Te creation of tis Act was to encourage new businesses to start or expand in Newfoundland and Labrador.

More information

1. Case description. Best practice description

1. Case description. Best practice description 1. Case description Best practice description Tis case sows ow a large multinational went troug a bottom up organisational cange to become a knowledge-based company. A small community on knowledge Management

More information

CO2 BASED MOTOR VEHICLE TAXES IN THE EU IN 2015

CO2 BASED MOTOR VEHICLE TAXES IN THE EU IN 2015 CO2 BASED MOTOR VEHICLE TAXES IN THE EU IN 2015 COUNTRY AT (AUSTRIA) BE (BELGIUM) BG (BULGARIA) CO2/FUEL CONSUMPTION TAXES A fuel consumption tax (Normverbrauchsabgabe or NoVA) is levied upon the first

More information

OVERVIEW OF PURCHASE AND TAX INCENTIVES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN THE EU

OVERVIEW OF PURCHASE AND TAX INCENTIVES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN THE EU 01.04.2014 OVERVIEW OF PURCHASE AND TAX INCENTIVES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN THE EU This table provides an overview of the incentives that are granted in the Member States of the European Union for the

More information

Report on the Possibility for Insurance Companies to Use Hedge Funds 1

Report on the Possibility for Insurance Companies to Use Hedge Funds 1 CEIOPS-DOC-06/05 Rev.1 Report on the Possibility for Insurance Companies to Use Hedge Funds 1 December 2005 1. Introduction The purpose of this survey is to gather information at Community level on the

More information

EUROPEAN AREA OF SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS

EUROPEAN AREA OF SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS EUROPEAN AREA OF SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS REPORT Fieldwork: April - May 2014 Publication: June 2014 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Education and Culture

More information

Finnish foreign trade 2015 Figures and diagrams FINNISH CUSTOMS Statistics 1

Finnish foreign trade 2015 Figures and diagrams FINNISH CUSTOMS Statistics 1 Finnish foreign trade 215 Figures and diagrams 29.2.216 FINNISH CUSTOMS Statistics 1 IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TRADE BALANCE 199-215 7 billion e 6 5 4 3 2 1-1 9 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

More information

Global Sourcing of Complex Production Processes

Global Sourcing of Complex Production Processes Global Sourcing of Complex Production Processes December 2013 Cristian Scwarz Jens Suedekum Abstract We develop a teory of a firm in an incomplete contracts environment wic decides on te complexity, te

More information

INNOVATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: ITS PERCEPTION IN AND IMPACT ON BUSINESS

INNOVATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: ITS PERCEPTION IN AND IMPACT ON BUSINESS Flash Eurobarometer INNOVATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: ITS PERCEPTION IN AND IMPACT ON BUSINESS REPORT Fieldwork: February-March 22 Publication: June 22 This survey has been requested by the European Commission,

More information

The coverage rate of social benefits. Research note 9/2013

The coverage rate of social benefits. Research note 9/2013 Research note 9/2013 SOCIAL SITUATION OBSERVATORY INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND LIVING CONDITIONS APPLICA (BE), EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR THE EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY AND RESEARCH (AT), ISER UNIVERSITY

More information

An inquiry into the multiplier process in IS-LM model

An inquiry into the multiplier process in IS-LM model An inquiry into te multiplier process in IS-LM model Autor: Li ziran Address: Li ziran, Room 409, Building 38#, Peing University, Beijing 00.87,PRC. Pone: (86) 00-62763074 Internet Address: jefferson@water.pu.edu.cn

More information

Update of trade weights data underlying the EERs and HCIs: extending the group of 20 trading partners to include Croatia from 1 July 2013

Update of trade weights data underlying the EERs and HCIs: extending the group of 20 trading partners to include Croatia from 1 July 2013 1 Update of trade weights data underlying the EERs and HCIs: extending the group of 20 trading partners to include Croatia from 1 July 2013 The trade weights underlying the calculation of the effective

More information

The EOQ Inventory Formula

The EOQ Inventory Formula Te EOQ Inventory Formula James M. Cargal Matematics Department Troy University Montgomery Campus A basic problem for businesses and manufacturers is, wen ordering supplies, to determine wat quantity of

More information

Referendum-led Immigration Policy in the Welfare State

Referendum-led Immigration Policy in the Welfare State Referendum-led Immigration Policy in te Welfare State YUJI TAMURA Department of Economics, University of Warwick, UK First version: 12 December 2003 Updated: 16 Marc 2004 Abstract Preferences of eterogeneous

More information

Facts: Population Baldwin & Wyplosz 2006

Facts: Population Baldwin & Wyplosz 2006 Facts: Population Facts: Population 6 big nations: > 35 million (Germany, the UK, France, Italy, Spain and Poland). Netherlands: 16 million people. 8 small nations (size of a big city): 8 to 11 million:

More information

Comparison of annuity markets (OECD National Annuity Markets: Features and Implications, Rusconi 2008) Mercer

Comparison of annuity markets (OECD National Annuity Markets: Features and Implications, Rusconi 2008) Mercer May 2009 Retirement Income/Annuities Around the World What US Policy Makers Might Learn Barbara Marder, Baltimore Global Defined Contribution Consulting Leader www.mercer.com 1 Comparison of annuity markets

More information

EUROPE 2020 TARGET: EARLY LEAVERS FROM EDUCATION AND TRAINING

EUROPE 2020 TARGET: EARLY LEAVERS FROM EDUCATION AND TRAINING EUROPE 2020 TARGET: EARLY LEAVERS FROM EDUCATION AND TRAINING By 2020, the share of early leavers from education and training (aged 18-24) should be less than 10% Early school leaving 1 is an obstacle

More information

BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN THE EU

BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN THE EU Flash Eurobarometer BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN THE EU REPORT Fieldwork: March-April 22 Publication: November 22 This survey has been requested by Directorate-General for Justice

More information

Strategic trading in a dynamic noisy market. Dimitri Vayanos

Strategic trading in a dynamic noisy market. Dimitri Vayanos LSE Researc Online Article (refereed) Strategic trading in a dynamic noisy market Dimitri Vayanos LSE as developed LSE Researc Online so tat users may access researc output of te Scool. Copyrigt and Moral

More information

Voluntary health insurance and health care reforms

Voluntary health insurance and health care reforms Voluntary health insurance and health care reforms Sarah Thomson Senior Research Fellow, European Observatory Deputy Director, LSE Health IMF conference, Paris, 21 st June 2011 Health financing policy

More information

Finnish foreign trade 2014 Figures and diagrams. 27.2.2015 FINNISH CUSTOMS Statistics 1

Finnish foreign trade 2014 Figures and diagrams. 27.2.2015 FINNISH CUSTOMS Statistics 1 Finnish foreign trade 214 Figures and diagrams 27.2.215 FINNISH CUSTOMS Statistics 1 IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND TRADE BALANCE 199-214 7 billion e 6 5 4 3 2 1-1 9 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

More information

Geometric Stratification of Accounting Data

Geometric Stratification of Accounting Data Stratification of Accounting Data Patricia Gunning * Jane Mary Horgan ** William Yancey *** Abstract: We suggest a new procedure for defining te boundaries of te strata in igly skewed populations, usual

More information

Finance Office. Place of supply of rules

Finance Office. Place of supply of rules Finance Office Place of supply of rules Contents 1. Introduction 2. Sales - Supply of services 2.1 Business or Consumer 2.2 Place of belonging 2.3 General rules 2.4 Exceptions applying to the general rules

More information

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS HOUSEHOLD DEBT AND FINANCIAL ASSETS: EVIDENCE FROM GREAT BRITAIN, GERMANY AND THE UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS HOUSEHOLD DEBT AND FINANCIAL ASSETS: EVIDENCE FROM GREAT BRITAIN, GERMANY AND THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS HOUSEHOLD DEBT AND FINANCIAL ASSETS: EVIDENCE FROM GREAT BRITAIN, GERMANY AND THE UNITED STATES Sara Brown, University of Leicester, UK Karl Taylor, University of Leicester, UK

More information

Optimized Data Indexing Algorithms for OLAP Systems

Optimized Data Indexing Algorithms for OLAP Systems Database Systems Journal vol. I, no. 2/200 7 Optimized Data Indexing Algoritms for OLAP Systems Lucian BORNAZ Faculty of Cybernetics, Statistics and Economic Informatics Academy of Economic Studies, Bucarest

More information

Our patent and trade mark attorneys are here to help you protect and profit from your ideas, making sure they re working every bit as hard as you do.

Our patent and trade mark attorneys are here to help you protect and profit from your ideas, making sure they re working every bit as hard as you do. Our patent and trade mark attorneys are here to help you protect and profit from your ideas, making sure they re working every bit as hard as you do. Our people work with everyone from multi-nationals

More information

User language preferences online. Analytical report

User language preferences online. Analytical report Flash Eurobarometer 313 The Gallup Organization Flash Eurobarometer European Commission User language preferences online Analytical report Fieldwork: January 2011 Publication: May 2011 This survey was

More information

Distances in random graphs with infinite mean degrees

Distances in random graphs with infinite mean degrees Distances in random graps wit infinite mean degrees Henri van den Esker, Remco van der Hofstad, Gerard Hoogiemstra and Dmitri Znamenski April 26, 2005 Abstract We study random graps wit an i.i.d. degree

More information

Comparison between two approaches to overload control in a Real Server: local or hybrid solutions?

Comparison between two approaches to overload control in a Real Server: local or hybrid solutions? Comparison between two approaces to overload control in a Real Server: local or ybrid solutions? S. Montagna and M. Pignolo Researc and Development Italtel S.p.A. Settimo Milanese, ITALY Abstract Tis wor

More information

THE ROLE OF U.S. TRADING IN PRICING INTERNATIONALLY CROSS-LISTED STOCKS

THE ROLE OF U.S. TRADING IN PRICING INTERNATIONALLY CROSS-LISTED STOCKS THE ROLE OF U.S. TRADING IN PRICING INTERNATIONALLY CROSS-LISTED STOCKS by Joacim Grammig a, Micael Melvin b, and Cristian Sclag c Abstract: Tis paper addresses two issues: 1) were does price discovery

More information

Free Shipping and Repeat Buying on the Internet: Theory and Evidence

Free Shipping and Repeat Buying on the Internet: Theory and Evidence Free Sipping and Repeat Buying on te Internet: eory and Evidence Yingui Yang, Skander Essegaier and David R. Bell 1 June 13, 2005 1 Graduate Scool of Management, University of California at Davis (yiyang@ucdavis.edu)

More information

Instantaneous Rate of Change:

Instantaneous Rate of Change: Instantaneous Rate of Cange: Last section we discovered tat te average rate of cange in F(x) can also be interpreted as te slope of a scant line. Te average rate of cange involves te cange in F(x) over

More information

INTRODUCTION... 2. I. Participation in the 2014 European elections... 3

INTRODUCTION... 2. I. Participation in the 2014 European elections... 3 ?? Directorate-General for Communication PUBLIC OPINION MONITORING UNIT 2014 EUROPEAN ELECTIONS DESK RESEARCH Brussels, April 2015 Profile of voters and abstainees in the European elections 2014 INTRODUCTION...

More information

Social dumping and free movement: Overview of current issues from an economic point of view

Social dumping and free movement: Overview of current issues from an economic point of view Social dumping and free movement: Overview of current issues from an economic point of view Prof. dr. Jozef Pacolet & Frederic De Wispelaere Design Charles & Ray Eames - Hang it all Vitra Statistics on

More information

Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät der Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen

Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät der Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen Wirtscaftswissenscaftlice Fakultät der Eberard-Karls-Universität Tübingen Sorting it Out: Tecnical Barriers to Trade and Industry Productivity Gabriel J. Felbermayr Benjamin Jung Tübinger Diskussionsbeitrag

More information

72/2015-21 April 2015

72/2015-21 April 2015 72/2015-21 April 2015 Provision of deficit and debt data for 2014 - first notification Euro area and EU28 government deficit at 2.4% and 2.9% of GDP respectively Government debt at 91.9% and 86.8% In 2014,

More information

Research on the Anti-perspective Correction Algorithm of QR Barcode

Research on the Anti-perspective Correction Algorithm of QR Barcode Researc on te Anti-perspective Correction Algoritm of QR Barcode Jianua Li, Yi-Wen Wang, YiJun Wang,Yi Cen, Guoceng Wang Key Laboratory of Electronic Tin Films and Integrated Devices University of Electronic

More information

The summary table below shows how the composition of the trading partner groups changes on 1 January 2015 as a result of the enlargement.

The summary table below shows how the composition of the trading partner groups changes on 1 January 2015 as a result of the enlargement. 1 Update of trade weights underlying effective exchange rates and harmonised competitiveness indicators as Lithuania joins the euro area on 1 January 2015 The trade weights underlying the calculation of

More information

Unemployment insurance/severance payments and informality in developing countries

Unemployment insurance/severance payments and informality in developing countries Unemployment insurance/severance payments and informality in developing countries David Bardey y and Fernando Jaramillo z First version: September 2011. Tis version: November 2011. Abstract We analyze

More information

The modelling of business rules for dashboard reporting using mutual information

The modelling of business rules for dashboard reporting using mutual information 8 t World IMACS / MODSIM Congress, Cairns, Australia 3-7 July 2009 ttp://mssanz.org.au/modsim09 Te modelling of business rules for dasboard reporting using mutual information Gregory Calbert Command, Control,

More information

Family Law. Analytical Report

Family Law. Analytical Report Flash Eurobarometer European Commission Family Law Analytical Report Fieldwork: June 2006 Report: October 2006 Flash Eurobarometer 188 The Gallup Organization This survey was requested by Directorate-General

More information

EUROPE 2020 TARGETS: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

EUROPE 2020 TARGETS: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EUROPE 2020 TARGETS: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Research, development and innovation are key policy components of the EU strategy for economic growth: Europe 2020. By fostering market take-up of new, innovative

More information

INVESTING IN INTANGIBLES: ECONOMIC ASSETS AND INNOVATION DRIVERS FOR GROWTH

INVESTING IN INTANGIBLES: ECONOMIC ASSETS AND INNOVATION DRIVERS FOR GROWTH Flash Eurobarometer INVESTING IN INTANGIBLES: ECONOMIC ASSETS AND INNOVATION DRIVERS FOR GROWTH REPORT Fieldwork: January February 213 Publication: May 213 This survey has been requested by the European

More information

EUROPEANS SATISFACTION WITH RAIL SERVICES

EUROPEANS SATISFACTION WITH RAIL SERVICES Flash Eurobarometer 382a EUROPEANS SATISFACTION WITH RAIL SERVICES SUMMARY Fieldwork: September 2013 Publication: December 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

EUROPEAN CITIZENS DIGITAL HEALTH LITERACY

EUROPEAN CITIZENS DIGITAL HEALTH LITERACY Flash Eurobarometer EUROPEAN CITIZENS DIGITAL HEALTH LITERACY REPORT Fieldwork: September 2014 Publication: November 2014 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in Schools

Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in Schools H u n g a r y : k e y f i n d i n g s Almost all Hungarian schools now use computers for teaching and have internet access. 77% use the internet via a broadband connection. With this figure Hungary ranks

More information

Study on comparison tools and third-party verification schemes

Study on comparison tools and third-party verification schemes Justice and Consumers Study on comparison tools and third-party verification schemes ECCG 25/03/2015 Julien Brugerolle JUST E6 Introduction Study objectives Explore consumer behavioural patterns in the

More information

Public Debt and Contingent Liabilities: A Cross-Country Comparison

Public Debt and Contingent Liabilities: A Cross-Country Comparison Public Debt and Contingent Liabilities: A Cross-Country Comparison Melchior Vella and Gevit Duca * 1. Contingent Liabilities 1.1 What are contingent liabilities? Contingent liabilities are obligations

More information

NATIONAL BANK OF POLAND. No. 40

NATIONAL BANK OF POLAND. No. 40 NATIONAL BANK OF POLAND WORKING PAPER No. 40 Expected and actual impact of EMU on growth, public finances and structural reforms in the euro area Konrad Szeląg Warsaw, January 2007 Design: Oliwka s.c.

More information

Private Sector Debt Dívida do Sector Privado. dossiers. Economic Outlook Conjuntura Económica. Conjuntura Económica.

Private Sector Debt Dívida do Sector Privado. dossiers. Economic Outlook Conjuntura Económica. Conjuntura Económica. dossiers Economic Outlook Private Sector Debt Dívida do Sector Privado Last Update Última Actualização:12/08/2015 Portugal Economy Probe (PE Probe) Prepared by PE Probe Preparado por PE Probe Copyright

More information

Special Eurobarometer 442. Summary. Attitudes of Europeans towards Animal Welfare

Special Eurobarometer 442. Summary. Attitudes of Europeans towards Animal Welfare Fieldwork Publication March 2016 Survey requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety and co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication This document

More information

European judicial training 2014. Justice

European judicial training 2014. Justice European judicial training 2014 Justice Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union. Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone

More information

Working Capital 2013 UK plc s unproductive 69 billion

Working Capital 2013 UK plc s unproductive 69 billion 2013 Executive summary 2. Te level of excess working capital increased 3. UK sectors acieve a mixed performance 4. Size matters in te supply cain 6. Not all companies are overflowing wit cas 8. Excess

More information

Verifying Numerical Convergence Rates

Verifying Numerical Convergence Rates 1 Order of accuracy Verifying Numerical Convergence Rates We consider a numerical approximation of an exact value u. Te approximation depends on a small parameter, suc as te grid size or time step, and

More information

Family Law. Fieldwork: June 2006 Report: October 2006

Family Law. Fieldwork: June 2006 Report: October 2006 The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 188 Consular Protection and Family Law Flash Eurobarometer European Commission Family Law Summary Fieldwork: June 06 Report: October 06 Flash Eurobarometer 188 The

More information

RETAILERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION

RETAILERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION Eurobarometer RETAILERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION REPORT Fieldwork: September - October 2012 Publication: June 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission,

More information

European Research Council

European Research Council ERC Starting Grant Outcome: Indicative statistics Reproduction is authorised provided the source ERC is acknowledged ERCEA/JH. ERC Starting Grant: call Submitted and selected proposals by domain Submitted

More information

EUROPEAN YOUTH: PARTICIPATION IN DEMOCRATIC LIFE

EUROPEAN YOUTH: PARTICIPATION IN DEMOCRATIC LIFE Flash Eurobarometer EUROPEAN YOUTH: PARTICIPATION IN DEMOCRATIC LIFE REPORT Fieldwork: April 2013 Publication: May 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for

More information

Monitoring the social impact of the crisis: public perceptions in the European Union (wave 6) REPORT

Monitoring the social impact of the crisis: public perceptions in the European Union (wave 6) REPORT Eurobarometer Monitoring the social impact of the crisis: public perceptions in the European Union (wave 6) REPORT Fieldwork: December 2011 Publication: April 2012 This survey has been requested by Directorate-General

More information

Broadband markets Digital Agenda Scoreboard 1 2014

Broadband markets Digital Agenda Scoreboard 1 2014 Broadband markets Digital Agenda Scoreboard 2014 1 Broadband coverage: Basic broadband is available to everyone in the EU, while fixed technologies cover 97% leaving 6 million homes unconnected. Next Generation

More information

What do the recent regional GDP statistics tell us about Cohesion?

What do the recent regional GDP statistics tell us about Cohesion? Analysis from the CPMR Secretariat July 2015 What do the recent regional GDP statistics tell us about Cohesion? Headline messages - Recent regional GDP statistics reveal that regional disparities are on

More information

Area-Specific Recreation Use Estimation Using the National Visitor Use Monitoring Program Data

Area-Specific Recreation Use Estimation Using the National Visitor Use Monitoring Program Data United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Nortwest Researc Station Researc Note PNW-RN-557 July 2007 Area-Specific Recreation Use Estimation Using te National Visitor Use Monitoring

More information

College Planning Using Cash Value Life Insurance

College Planning Using Cash Value Life Insurance College Planning Using Cas Value Life Insurance CAUTION: Te advisor is urged to be extremely cautious of anoter college funding veicle wic provides a guaranteed return of premium immediately if funded

More information

A strong credit score can help you score a lower rate on a mortgage

A strong credit score can help you score a lower rate on a mortgage NET GAIN Scoring points for your financial future AS SEEN IN USA TODAY S MONEY SECTION, JULY 3, 2007 A strong credit score can elp you score a lower rate on a mortgage By Sandra Block Sales of existing

More information

EUROPEAN SEMESTER THEMATIC FICHE ACCESS TO FINANCE

EUROPEAN SEMESTER THEMATIC FICHE ACCESS TO FINANCE EUROPEAN SEMESTER THEMATIC FICHE ACCESS TO FINANCE Access to finance is key to business development. Investment and innovation are not possible without adequate financing. A difficulty in getting finance

More information

OECD/WHO proposed framework for a regular monitoring of trends in the international migration of health personnel

OECD/WHO proposed framework for a regular monitoring of trends in the international migration of health personnel OECD/WHO proposed framework for a regular monitoring of trends in the international migration of health personnel Jean-Christophe Dumont OCDE, Paris Pascal Zurn WHO, Geneva OECD-WHO Technical Workshop:

More information

M(0) = 1 M(1) = 2 M(h) = M(h 1) + M(h 2) + 1 (h > 1)

M(0) = 1 M(1) = 2 M(h) = M(h 1) + M(h 2) + 1 (h > 1) Insertion and Deletion in VL Trees Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of te Requirements for Dr. Eric Kaltofen s 66621: nalysis of lgoritms by Robert McCloskey December 14, 1984 1 ackground ccording to Knut

More information

Analyzing the Effects of Insuring Health Risks:

Analyzing the Effects of Insuring Health Risks: Analyzing te Effects of Insuring Healt Risks: On te Trade-off between Sort Run Insurance Benefits vs. Long Run Incentive Costs Harold L. Cole University of Pennsylvania and NBER Soojin Kim University of

More information

GDP per capita, consumption per capita and comparative price levels in Europe

GDP per capita, consumption per capita and comparative price levels in Europe Economy and finance Author: Lars SVENNEBYE Statistics in focus 2008 GDP per capita, consumption per capita and comparative price levels in Europe Final results for 2005 and preliminary results for 2006

More information

HOW COMPANIES INFLUENCE OUR SOCIETY: CITIZENS VIEW

HOW COMPANIES INFLUENCE OUR SOCIETY: CITIZENS VIEW Flash Eurobarometer HOW COMPANIES INFLUENCE OUR SOCIETY: CITIZENS VIEW REPORT Fieldwork: October-November 2012 Publication: April 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES

RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES Special Eurobarometer 373 RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES REPORT Fieldwork: September 211 Publication: March 212 This survey has been requested by Directorate-General Internal Market and Services and co-ordinated

More information

RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES

RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES Special Eurobarometer 373 RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES REPORT Fieldwork: September 211 Publication: April 212 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General Internal Market

More information

Macroeconomic conditions influence consumers attitudes,

Macroeconomic conditions influence consumers attitudes, Yu Ma, Kusum L. Ailawadi, Dines K. Gauri, & Druv Grewal An Empirical Investigation of te Impact of Gasoline Prices on Grocery Sopping Beavior Te autors empirically examine te effect of gas prices on grocery

More information

Improved dynamic programs for some batcing problems involving te maximum lateness criterion A P M Wagelmans Econometric Institute Erasmus University Rotterdam PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam Te Neterlands

More information

Total. Manufacturing. High tech. Medium-high tech. Low and medium-low tech. Total. Market services Know ledge intensive

Total. Manufacturing. High tech. Medium-high tech. Low and medium-low tech. Total. Market services Know ledge intensive Statistics in focus SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY High tech industries and knowledge based services The importance of R&D and Human Resources in Science and Technology Figure 1: Proportion of Human Resources

More information

European Research Council

European Research Council ERC Advanced Grants 2011 Outcome: Indicative Statistics Reproduction is authorised provided that the source ERC is acknowledged NB: In these graphs grantee refers to a candidate selected for ERC funding

More information

Special Eurobarometer 423 CYBER SECURITY REPORT

Special Eurobarometer 423 CYBER SECURITY REPORT Special Eurobarometer 423 CYBER SECURITY REPORT Fieldwork: October 2014 Publication: February 2015 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Home Affairs and co-ordinated

More information

Minimum Wage Protection Current German and European Debates

Minimum Wage Protection Current German and European Debates Årskonferanse i Fafo Østforum Fire år etter EU-utvidelsen: Status og framtidsperspektiver Oslo, 3 June 2008 Minimum Wage Protection Current German and European Debates Thorsten Schulten Wirtschafts- und

More information

SHAPE: A NEW BUSINESS ANALYTICS WEB PLATFORM FOR GETTING INSIGHTS ON ELECTRICAL LOAD PATTERNS

SHAPE: A NEW BUSINESS ANALYTICS WEB PLATFORM FOR GETTING INSIGHTS ON ELECTRICAL LOAD PATTERNS CIRED Worksop - Rome, 11-12 June 2014 SAPE: A NEW BUSINESS ANALYTICS WEB PLATFORM FOR GETTING INSIGTS ON ELECTRICAL LOAD PATTERNS Diego Labate Paolo Giubbini Gianfranco Cicco Mario Ettorre Enel Distribuzione-Italy

More information

ACT Math Facts & Formulas

ACT Math Facts & Formulas Numbers, Sequences, Factors Integers:..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,... Rationals: fractions, tat is, anyting expressable as a ratio of integers Reals: integers plus rationals plus special numbers suc as

More information

Performance Evaluation of Selected Category of Public Sector Mutual Fund Schemes in India

Performance Evaluation of Selected Category of Public Sector Mutual Fund Schemes in India Performance Evaluation of Selected Category of Public Sector Mutual Scemes in India Dr. R. Karrupasamy Director, Department of Management Studies Neru College of Tecnology, Coimbatore, Sout India. Mrs.

More information

ATTITUDES OF EUROPEANS TOWARDS BUILDING THE SINGLE MARKET FOR GREEN PRODUCTS

ATTITUDES OF EUROPEANS TOWARDS BUILDING THE SINGLE MARKET FOR GREEN PRODUCTS Flash Eurobarometer 367 ATTITUDES OF EUROPEANS TOWARDS BUILDING THE SINGLE MARKET FOR GREEN PRODUCTS SUMMARY Fieldwork: December 2012 Publication: July 2013 This survey has been requested by the European

More information