Red Lists and Money. Why EU nature conservation financing has to change.

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1 Red Lists and Money. Why EU nature conservation financing has to change. Konstantin Kreiser Referent für Internationale Biodiversitätspolitik NABU-Bundesverband

2 1990 (c) NABU/U.Doll (c) NABU/U.Doll (c) NABU/U.Doll

3 2015 (c) NABU/U.Doll (c) NABU/U.Doll Skylark (Feldlerche): - 34%

4 1990 (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor

5 2015 (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor (c) NABU/C. Hektor Lapwing (Kiebitz): - 75%

6 1990 (c) NABU/C. Hektor

7 2015 (c) NABU/C. Hektor Grey Partridge (Rebhuhn): - 94%

8 Extinction risks in the EU (Red: % of Threatened species in taxonomic Red Lists) BirdLife (2015): Half way there? The EU Red Lists Species threatened with extinction in the EU Mammals Birds: 17% Birds Reptiles Amphibians: 22% fish Freshwater Fish: 49% Butterflies Dragonflies Bees: 10% Bees Unknown: 58% Freshwater molluscs Aquatic plants 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

9 The State of Nature in the EU 2015 European Commission (2015): The State of Nature in the EU, p.11/19

10 The main reasons for biodiversity loss (EU State of Nature Report 2015 based on Member State information) European Commission (2015): The State of Nature in the EU, p.32

11 12 years trends Sudfeldt C. et al, 2014.: Vögel in Deutschland 2013 Germany: birds protected by the EU Birds Directive do better 100 % 80 27% increasing 40% (c) FILIPE VIVEIROS stable 20 0 all species decreasing trigger species (c) NABU/F.Derer = Birds Directive Annex I + threatened migratory species But many Natura 2000 sites not properly managed /protected. Lack of funding. Lack of people. Lack of acceptance.

12 The more personnel involved, the more conservation success Relation between success of conservation measures and personnel resources in German protected areas (Lapwing) Hötker H., Leuschner C. (2014): Naturschutz in der Agrarlandschaft am Scheideweg

13 Natura 2000 Financing Annual costs EU: approx. 6 billion EUR (> sites) Germany: approx. 630 million EUR (>5.000 sites) EU: Coverage of Natura 2000 costs (-2013) EU-cofinancing: % (EC 2011) other national/regional/private sources: < 20% (???) Funding gap: (much?) more than 50% 13

14 The integration approach EU Habitats Directive (Art.8) and EU Biodiversity Strategy: co-financing of measures through EU budget Political agreement: no dedicated fund but horizontal objective Rural Development (2 nd Pillar; ELER / EAFRD ) Regional Development ( EFRE / EFRD ) Marine & Fisheries ( EMFF ) and LIFE Attempts of EC to improve situation for nature from 2014: stronger commitments, horizontal strategic instruments very weak/no legally binding provisions 14

15 The reality for biodiversity funding in 2015 No increase of EU co-financing expected, rather decrease. Estimated contribution of EU funds to Natura 2000 costs in Germany (and trend): 0.0 % ESF (Social Fund) 0.2 % LIFE? 0.6 % EMFF (Marine & Fisheries) 1-2 % ERDF (Regional Development)? << 50% ELER (Rural Development)? 15

16 Why is integration approach failing? reduction of Rural Development Fund overall no obligatory biodiversity spending pressure of EC to focus + political priorities of governments governments discouraged (administrative costs/efforts) (e.g. Bavaria, Hessen, Hamburg) more broad and shallow - less targeted dark green support schemes (reasons: controllability issues of EC) 1 st Pillar Greening did not lift the baseline! even dark green measures might fail: financially not attractive enough lack of advisory services. 16

17 Conclusions 1) Unprecedented and dangerous crisis of biodiversity. 2) EU Nature Directives successes blocked by lack of funding. This undermines acceptance of land users. 3) Current integration approach has failed and will fail again TIME TO RETHINK Model I) A new standalone EU fund for nature and environment? Model II) a co-management of existing funds, obligatory ring-fencing and equal rights for environment sector? 17

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