Motor Vehicle Deaths Updated: August 2014

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1 Motor Vehicle Deaths Updated:

2 Motor vehicle death rates rise rapidly during the teen years and remain very high into early adulthood. The rate for teens, however, has followed a downward trend for most of the past decade, and in 2011 was the lowest it has been in the past 30 years, at 13 deaths per 100,000 teens. Importance More than one third of all teen deaths in the U.S. are the result of motor vehicle crashes. In 2011, about 3,000 youth ages 15 to 19 were killed, and approximately 290,000 were treated in emergency departments for injuries suffered in motor vehicle crashes. 1 In 2012, the majority (54 percent) of teen deaths among occupants of passenger vehicles were drivers. Teenage drivers have crash rates per mile driven that are almost three times that of drivers older than 20, with the highest rates for drivers ages 16 and One study found that the risk of death for motor vehicle passengers, ages eight to 17, riding with a driver between the ages of 16 and 19 was more than 50 percent higher than for those riding with a driver over the age of A number of factors related to lack of driving experience and maturity contribute to younger drivers having higher crash rates, including following other vehicles too closely, driving too fast, and violating traffic signs and signals. 4 Other risk factors include the presence of other teenage passengers, and alcohol use. 5 In 2012, 12 percent of young drivers involved in a fatal crash had previously had their license suspended or revoked, while 15 percent had a currently invalid license. 6 The same factors that lead to more motor vehicle crashes among younger drivers contribute to their higher death rates. 7 The use of alcohol is especially dangerous. Nearly one quarter (22 percent) of young drivers involved in fatal crashes in 2012 had been drinking. 8 Teenagers are also less likely to wear seat belts than any other age group. 9 The day of the week, as well as the time of day, are strongly associated with motor vehicle deaths among young drivers. In 2012, 53 percent of motor vehicle deaths among young drivers occurred Friday through Sunday, while 57 percent occurred between 6 pm and 6 am. 10 2

3 Trends The motor vehicle death rate for teens ages 15 to 19 declined substantially between 1980 and 1992, from 42 deaths per 100,000 to 28. The Fatality rate remained steady for the next decade, before steep declines resumed from 2002 to 2011, from 27 to 13 per 100,000. (Figure 1) According to analysis conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, similar significant declines in fatalities occurred in the early 1980s and early 1990s both periods of economic recession. It is likely that the recession of played a role in restricting teen driving, and reducing fatalities. Previous periods of decline were followed by a rebound in rates; however, they did not rise back to levels seen before the decline. 11 Figure Motor Vehicle Traffic Deaths per 100,000 Teens Ages 15 to 19, Selected Years, All Males Females Rate (per 100,000) Sources: Data for 1980: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2014). America's children: Key national indicators of well being, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table PHY.8B. Data for : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [Online].(2014). National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at Much of the decline in teen motor vehicle deaths in the past 30 years has been among males, especially in the period between 1990 and 1995, when deaths among males declined while deaths among females remained nearly flat. However, there was a slight increase in motor vehicle deaths among male teens between 1999 and 2002 that was not matched among female teens. (Figure 1) 3

4 Differences by Age Motor vehicle death rates rise dramatically during the teen years, and stay high into early adulthood. Among males, rates in 2011 were four deaths per 100,000 at age 14, and 14 at age 17, rising steeply at age18, to 25 deaths per 100,000. There is another peak at age 21, with 30 deaths per 100,000, likely related to the legal drinking age. Age specific rates stay high throughout the early twenties, gradually decreasing to 24 deaths per 100,000 population at age 25. Females show a similar increase by age, gradually rising from two deaths per 100,000 at age 14, to 10 at age 17. However, there is no abrupt increase among females at ages 18 and 21. Deaths among young females peak at 11 deaths per 100,000 at age 18, and gradually taper off through the mid twenties. (Figure 2) Figure 2 50 Motor Vehicle Traffic Deaths per 100,000 Youth, Ages 14 to 25, by Single Year of Age and Gender, 2011 Males Females 40 Rate (per 100,000) Age Source: Derived by Child Trends from WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System). Available at:http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/ 4

5 Differences by Gender Males are nearly twice as likely as females to die in motor vehicle traffic accidents. In 2011, the motor vehicle death rate was 17 per 100,000 for males ages 15 to 19, compared with nine per 100,000 for females. (Figure 1) Similar gender differences exist across all racial and ethnic groups. (Figure 3) Differences by Race and Hispanic Origin 12 American Indian/Alaskan Native youth have the highest motor vehicle death rates of any major racial or ethnic group: 24 per 100,000 for males, and 17 per 100,000 for females, in White youth have the next highest death rate: 19 and 11 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively. In 2011, male Hispanic youth were more likely than male black youth to die in a motor vehicle crash (15 and 12 per 100,000, respectively), while among females the reverse was true (seven per 100,000 among blacks, and five per 100,000 among Hispanics). Asian/Pacific Islander youth have the lowest rates, at five deaths per 100,000 among males, and four per 100,000 among females, in (Figure 3) Figure 3 Motor Vehicle Traffic Deaths per 100,000 Teens, Ages 15-19, by Gender, Race, and Hispanic Origin, Males Females 40 Rate (per 100,000) Total Non Hispanic white Black Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander American Indican/Alaska Native Source: Child Trends analysis of data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Available from: 5

6 State and Local Estimates The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at the CDC provides rates of motor vehicle deaths by state for at International Estimates Road traffic injury death rates and absolute numbers are available by region for children ages four and under, ages five to 14, and ages 15 to 29, from the World Health Organization, at: (See Tables A2 and A3) National Goals Through its Healthy People 2020 initiative, the federal government has set a number of national goals that relate to reducing the number of motor vehicle traffic fatalities. While none of the goals focuses specifically on teenage drivers, more general goals for the entire population include: reducing the number of deaths and non fatal injuries due to motor vehicle crashes, increasing the number of states with graduated licensing, and increasing seat belt use. Additionally, there is a goal to reduce the number of high school students who report riding with a driver who has been drinking. More information is available at: What Works to Make Progress on This Indicator According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, comprehensive graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs are associated with reductions of 38 and 40 percent, respectively, in fatalities and injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes among 16 year old drivers. These programs place a variety of restrictions on young drivers that are removed as they gain experience. The stages involved in most of these programs include: a learner s period of supervised driving; a license limiting unsupervised nighttime driving and having other teens in the car; and, finally, a license with full privileges. 13 6

7 All states and the District of Columbia have enacted some form of GDL, though restrictions under these systems vary widely, and, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, all states can take steps to improve their systems. 14 For more information about GDL systems, see Related Indicators Seat Belt Use: belt use Drunk Driving: driving Distracted Driving: driving Unintentional Injuries: injuries Infant, Child, and Teen Mortality: child andteen mortality Life Expectancy: expectancy Definition These data include all motor vehicle traffic deaths as determined by physicians, medical examiners, and coroners and reported on death certificates. Deaths prior to 1999 are classified using ICD 9 codes, and include codes: E810 E819, E958.5, and E Deaths from 1999 on are classified using ICD 10 codes, and include codes: V30 V39 (.4.9), V40 V49 (.4.9), V50 V59 (.4.9), V60 V69 (.4.9), V70 V79 (.4.9), V81.1 V82.1,V83 V86 (.0.3), V20 V28 (.3.9),V29 (.4.9),V12 V14 (.3.9),V19 (.4.6), V02 V04 (.1,.9),V09.2,V80 (.3.5),V87(.0.8), and V89.2. For more information on ICD 10 classification, see A listing of ICD 10 codes is available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/health_statistics/nchs/publications/icd10/allvalid2009(detailed_titles_h eadings).pdf 7

8 Data Sources Data for : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [Online]. (2014). National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at Data for 1980 and by Hispanic origin for : Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2014). America's children: Key national indicators of well being, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table PHY.8B. Raw Data Source Mortality Data, National Vital Statistics System 8

9 Appendix 1 - Motor Vehicle Traffic Deaths per 100,000 Teens, Ages 15 to 19: Selected Years, Total Males Non Hispanic White Black Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian/ Alaska Native Females Non Hispanic White Black Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander * 6.9* * 3.3* 4.0 American Indian/ Alaska Native " " = data not available. *Estimate based on 20 or fewer cases. Note: People of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Rates for 2000 have been revised according to Census 2000 population counts. Sources: Data for 1980 and by Hispanic origin for : Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2014). America's children: Key national indicators of well being, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table PHY.8B. Data for : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [Online]. (2014). National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at 9

10 Appendix 2 - Motor Vehicle Traffic Deaths per 100,000 Youth, Ages 14 to 25, by Age and Gender: 2011 Total Males Females Number of Deaths Death Rate (per 100,000) Number of Deaths Death Rate (per 100,000) Number of Deaths Death Rate (per 100,000) Age Source: Child Trends analysis of data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Available from:

11 Endnotes 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [Online]. (2012). National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at 2 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (2014). Fatality facts 2012: Teenagers. Highway Safety Research and Communications.. Retrieved 8/6/2014 from 3 Winston, F.K., Kallan, M.J, Senserrick, T.M., Elloit, M.R. (2008). Risk factors for death among older children and teenaged motor vehicle passengers. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 162(3), Available at assn.org 4 Williams, A. F., & Ferguson, S. A. (2002). Rationale for graduated licensing and the risks it should address. Injury Prevention, 8 (supplement 2), ii9 ii McCartt, A. T., Shabanova, V. I., & Leaf, W. A. (2003). Driving experience, crashes, and traffic citations of teenage beginning drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35(3), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2014) Traffic safety facts: 2012 data, young drivers (DOT HS ). U.S. Department of Transportation, National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Available at nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pubs/ pdf 7 Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention (2011). Teen drivers: Fact sheet, Injury prevention & control: Motor vehicle safety. Retrieved 3/28/12 from 8 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2014) Op. cit. 9 Fell, J.C., Baker, T.K., McKnight, A.S., Brainard, K.,, Langston, E., Rider, R., Levy, D., Grube, J. (2005). Increasing teen safety belt use: A program and literature review. Available at 10 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (2014). Op. cit. 11 Longthorne, A., Subramanian, R., and Chen, C L. (2010). An analysis of the significant decline in motor vehicle traffic crashes in Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 12 Hispanics may be any race. Estimates for whites in this report do not include Hispanics. 13 Graduated driver licensing. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 11

12 14 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (2012). States could sharply reduce teen crash deaths by strengthening graduated driver licensing laws. News Release, May 31, Retrieved from 12

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