Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1"

Transcription

1 Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1 1 You In-Gyu, 2 Lim Chung Hwan, 3 Shim Jae Goo 1, First Author Dept of Health Care, Hanseo University, *2,Corresponding Author Dept of Health Care, Hanseo University, 3 Dept.of Health Care Hanseo University, Abstract A study of the factors that influence the survival of motorcycle accident patients has been done by retrogressive analysis after classifying them into a survival group and a death group. The patients registered with severe trauma when they visited the emergency room at H Hospital in Kyunggido Province from October 21 through December 211. In the analysis of the severity, both RTS, which is evaluated with vital signs, and ISS, which is evaluated with anatomical injuries, have been measured. Demographic characteristics such as sex and age have been examined in regard to the accident time, injured locations, helmet use, and emergency room arrival time. The hemoglobin value has also been measured as a hematological test criterion. There were 32 patients in total with serious injuries from motorcycle accidents, out of which 18 (56.3%) survived and 14 (43.8%) died. The overall average age was 46.3 (±17.5), while those of the death group and surviving group were 5.9 (±16.1) and 42.6 (±2.29), respectively No difference was found between the surviving group and the death group in regard to accident time. There was no statistical difference in the survival group regarding arrival time at the emergency room The RTS (Revised Trauma Score) is statistically significant with (±.75) in the survival group and (±1.37) in the death group. The ISS (Injury Severity Score) is statistically significant with (±2.66) in the survival group and (±15.75) in the death group (p <.5). There were 12 surviving people (37.5%) and 4 dead people (12.5%) who wore helmets, showing that helmet use enhances the chances of survival substantially (p <.5). The mortality rate of the patients with brain injuries was over twice as much as those without brain injuries. The study of patients with severe trauma shows that RTS and ISS are significant, and it is suggested that institutional arrangement is necessary to minimize losses by reinforcing helmet use education and enforcement to reduce death from brain injuries. 1. Introduction Keywords: RTS, ISS, Motorcycle Motor vehicle accidents are the ninth largest cause of death according to the death toll statistics reported in 21 by the National Statistical Office. This is a great shift compared to 2, when motor vehicle accidents were the fourth largest cause of death. When looking at the death toll by age, it is the second largest cause of death for ages ten to nineteen and twenty to twenty nine, and the third largest for ages thirty to thirty-nine. For it largely happens among young and healthy people, it is a serious problem increases social cost and loss of human resource [1]. Motorcycle accidents are 4.8% of the total motor vehicle accidents, but the number of deaths caused is 434, or 7.9%, which is a relatively high fatality rate compared to accidents from other types of vehicles. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration announced that motorcycle accidents in 27 had a 34-times larger possibility of death compared to other types of accidents [2]. There is only a vague assumption that most drivers and riders involved in motorcycle accidents would be severely injured or killed, and that head injury would be the largest part of the injuries. Automobile accident tolls draw interest from various institutions, and fairly accurate statistics are published each year. However, there is no accurate research on motorcycle accidents regarding number, type, and fatality. Previous research on motorcycle accidents were mostly about risk elements in accidents or classifications of the severity 1 This study was supported by the 212 University Research Support Project of Hanseo University Advances in information Sciences and Service Sciences(AISS) Volume5, Number15, October

2 level of the injured area [3-5]. Research on elements that affect the degrees of injury severity is not well known. The present study examines patients who have been classified with serious injury and were hospitalized in the A&E of H Hospital in Anyang, South Korea, which is designated as a 'Special Center for Serious Illness by Type'. The patients are analyzed based on a registered system of severity level decided by the Central Emergency Medical Center of Ministry of Health and Welfare, with aims of studying elements that affect the survival and damage mechanisms by comparing patient groups that survived and the group that died, and also to compare the severity and the injured areas in patients with serious injury between automobile accidents and those by motorcycle accidents. 2. Research Subjects and Method Research Subjects Seriously injured patients were considered from motorcycle accidents among those who were taken into the A&E and registered from October 21 to December 211 at H Hospital in Kyunggido, which is designated as a 'Special Center for Serious Illness by Type'. The patients were classified into a group that survived and another that died for a retrospective analysis, and electronic bicycle cases were excluded Research Method Demographic factors considered were sex, age, time of accident, injured part of the body, helmet use, arrival time at the A&E, and hemoglobin level in a blood exam upon their arrival to the A&E. The accident occurrence time was grouped by season and class. For class, those who arrived during the hospital office hours were grouped as regular, and the others were grouped as emergencies. Brain damage, which is considered the most important in motorcycle accidents, was used for analysis of the injured regions. The Time and cause of death were collected from the motorcycle accident fatalities. RTS (Revised Trauma Score) and ISS (Injury Severity Score) were measured to analyze the level of severity. RTS is a method that evaluates the severity with physical symptoms and is calculated based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), and Respiration Rate (RR). RTS is used in deciding the severity level by physical symptoms, appropriate treatment, and prognosis. AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) indicates the severity level in each of six body regions for ISS, which evaluates the severity level by anatomical damage, and it selects AIS scores from three higher body regions among six body regions listed in order of severity level, and is evaluated with the square sum of AIS scores from the three regions. Currently, centers that run 'Special Centers for Serious Illness by Type feeds by AIS 25 Update 28 version, distributed by the Central Emergency Medical Center, classify an ISS score above 15 and RTS score below 7 as serious patients. 3. Result Classification by sex and age A total of 32 seriously injured patients from motorcycle accidents were considered, out of which 18 (56.3%) survived and 14 (43.8%) died. The average age of the total was 46.3 (±17.5), and the average was 5.9 (±16.1) in the death group and 42.6 (±2.29) in the surviving group. Analysis of the smaller age group shows that there were 11 (34.4%) young adults from age to 39 out of the total motorcycle accidents, 13 (4.6%) from 4 to 59, and 8 over age 6, showing a larger distribution in the middle age, among which many fatalities were distributed. Only one female survived a motorcycle accident, whereas 14 males died and 17 survived (Table 1) Analysis by injured region and helmet wear 159

3 Brain damage, which is known to be the main death cause of motorcycle accident patients, was analyzed. Measuring patients only with brain damage and those that include it as the same group opposed to those without brain damage showed that brain damage patients were 2 (62.5%) in total. Patients with brain damage had twice higher rate of death compared to patients without brain damage. Analysis on helmet wear showed that 12 (37.5%) survived and 4 (12.5%) died from motorcycle accident with helmet, giving fairly high survival rate while more persons died from accidents without helmet, which is statistically significant(p <.5). This indicates that helmet wear affects the survival of motorcycle accident serious injury patients (Table 1). Sex Table 1.. Characteristics of patients severely injured by motorcycle accidents Death Survivors p-value* Male Female Age (years) older Distribution of the incident (quarter) 1 (Jan-Mar) 2 (Apr-June) 3 (July-Sep) 4 (Oct-Dec) Accident time Regular Emergency Injured region Brain damage Brain damage none Helmet wear Helmet use No helmet * Fisher exact test 14 (43.8) () 3 (9.4)_ 7 (21.9) 2 (6.3) 9 (28.1) 5 (15.6) 1 (31.3) 1 (31.2) Classification of time distribution and arrival time at A&E 17 (53.1) 1 (3.1) 8 (25.) 6 (18.8) 3 (9.4) 3 (9.4) 2 (6.3) 1 (31.3) 9 (28.1) 9 (28.1) 1 (31.3) 8 (25.) 12 (37.5) 6 (18.8) The accident time distribution of seriously injured patients by motorcycle accidents showed that the fourth period had 14 individuals (43.8%), which is the most frequent, and the fatalities were distributed evenly. Accident times from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., the normal office hours of the hospital, were classified as regular, and the rest were classified as emergencies. No difference was found between the surviving group and the death group by accident time (Table 1). The arrival time at the A&E was (±118.42) minutes in the surviving group, and (±49.81) minutes in the death group, showing no statistical difference (Table 2). Table 2. Severity analysis of seriously injured patients in motorcycle accidents Death(N=14) Survivors(N=18) Mean SD p-value RTS ISS GCS SBP RR Hemoglobin ER arrival time (±1.37) (±15.75) (±5.54) (42.4) (±19.28) 11. (±3.46) 47.7 (±49.81) (±.75) (±2.66) (±2.51) (±26.4) (±2.66) (±1.47) (±118.42) RTS: Revised Trauma Score ISS: Injury Severity Score

4 GCS: Glasgow Coma Scale SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure RR: Respiration Rate Severity Analysis and Hematological Analysis In the severity analysis of seriously injured patients in motorcycle accidents, the RTS evaluation of physical symptoms was (±.75) in the surviving group, and (±1.37) in the death group, which is statistically significant (p <.5). This indicates that the vitality of seriously injured patients is related to death. The ISS evaluation of hematological damage was (±2.66) in the surviving group and (±15.75) in the death group, which is statistically significant (p <.5). The hematological level based on the hemoglobin level was (±1.47)g/dL in the surviving group and 11. (±3.46)g/dL in the death group, being lower in the death group but without statistically significance (Table 2) Analysis of Death Cause and Death Time Brain stem paralysis was observed in 7 out of 14 fatalities (5%), which is the largest cause of death in seriously injured patients in motorcycle accidents. 3 died from hypervolemic shock (21.4%), 3 died from multiple organ dysfunction (21.4%), and 1 died from multiple hemopneumothorax (7.2%). Classification by instant death (death in 6 minutes), early death (from an hour to 4 hours), and later death (death after 4 hours) showed that there was no instant death, but there were two early deaths by hypervolemic shock, one by multiple organ dysfunction, and one by multiple hemopneumothorax. There were seven later deaths by brain stem paralysis from brain damage, one by hypervolemic shock, and two by multiple organ dysfunction (Table 3). Table 3. Analysis of cause of death and death time Death in 6 minutes Within 1-4 hours of death Brain stem paralysis Hypervolemic shock 2 (14.3%) Multiple organ dysfunction 1 (7.1%) Multiple hemopneumothorax 1 (7.1%) Death after 4 hours 7 (5%) 1 (7.1%) 2 (14.3%) 4. Discussion Motor vehicle accidents cause great losses to nations and individuals. Accidents with the younger generation in particular incur great expense and time for treatment and rehabilitation, and their halt in activity increases losses. Motorcycle accidents are known to have higher severity compared to other motor vehicle accidents [6]. Various studies on motorcycle accidents have been published previously according to many elements such as motorcycle transportation rate, cultural background, driving habits, road conditions, and helmet wear, for different countries and areas. The studies on countries by their economic conditions and motorcycle transportation rates did not classify all patients related to motorcycle accidents. This means the research did not classify by major and minor injuries, but was included in the same range. Therefore, this research targeted only the patients who were registered as seriously injured patients. Serious injury is different from other illnesses, and failure to provide appropriate treatment in a short period time could lead to a permanent loss by death or after effects. In order to reduce the death rate of seriously injured patients, accident prevention must be a priority, but a medical system that provides fast and appropriate treatment after an accident must also be organized. A severity level test on injured patients is necessary to carry this out successfully. The RTS, ISS, and GCS severity level tests were proven to be statistically significant, and these should be indicators of emergency treatment performance level by injury centers or hospitals. 161

5 Unlike other motor vehicle accidents, motorcycle accidents expose most of the body regions to the accident, giving direct shock to the driver's body. The rate of death by head damage is high, and even slight damage can give severe injury to the driver [7]. Baker reported that the accident rate is high among the younger generation below the age of forty [8]. The present study on serious injury from motorcycle accidents showed a higher accident rate in the middle age group than the youth group, but it did not show a statistical difference. Zambon reported that the motorcycle accident rate is relatively high among men and those with low income [4]. The present study did not include an economic analysis or research by income level. The research by Nakahara showed that night driving is a danger factor, but the present study did not show any difference in frequency between night and day. The domestic motorcycle accident toll from 1992 to 29 shows that accidents are most frequent at the ages of 18 to 2 (16.%) and from 2 to 22 (14.2%), showing larger frequency at night, but this research showed a higher rate during the day time [9]. The research by Williams on the relationship between motorcycle accidents and alcohol shows that motorcycle accidents have higher relevance to alcohol compared to other types of motor vehicle accidents, in both the surviving group and in the death group [1]. The present research could not prove the relevance between motorcycle accidents and alcohol, since no data on drinking involved in motorcycle accidents was provided. Safety protection wear is one of the factors that affect the severity of motorcycle accidents. The research by Evans and Gabella also reported that helmet wear can reduce the death rate by 29% [11-12]. The present research also showed that 7 were killed by head injury. Therefore, stronger regulations on helmet wear when riding motorcycles would reduce the severity by head damage, and the death rate. The road traffic laws in South Korea have also required motorcycle drivers to wear safety helmets since 199, and violators are charged with penalties by law. Some studies report that the rate of use of protection wear in other countries that require helmets is about 9% [13]. South Korea should also employ an institutional strategy to increase the rate of helmet wear. The limits of this study are that the research results from one university hospital in a particular area are hard to generalize. Also, data on elements such as speed at accidents, road conditions, drinking influence, accompanying passengers, and economic status was not provided, and only the seriously injured patients were the target of the research. Therefore, research using a national database instead of data from one hospital would be helpful in generalizing the severity analysis, and danger factors that affect the severity. 5. Conclusions Seriously injured patients from motorcycle accidents generally have higher death rates and severity. The analysis on the severity of the surviving group and the death group showed that RTS and ISS were statistically significant, and an institutional strategy to minimize loss, by stronger enforcement of regulations and helmet wear education, is required in order to minimize brain damage by helmet wear. This study provides a basic resource for lowering the death rate of injured patients from motorcycle accidents to 1-2%, which is the rate of developed countries. 6. References [1] Korea National Statistical Office, Annual report on the cause of death ststistics, 21. [2] NHTAS, Fatal two-vehicle motorcycle crashes, 27. [3] Ankarath S, Giannoudis PV, Barlow I, Injury patterns associated with mortality following motorcycle crashes, Injury, vol. 33, no. 6, pp , 22. [4] Zambon F, Hasselberg M, Socioeconomic difference and motorcycle injuries: age at risk and injury severity among young drivers. A Swedish nationwide cohort study, Accid Anal Prev, vol. 38, no. 6, pp , 26. [5] Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and rid-ing while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand, Accid Anal Prev, vol. 37, no. 5, pp ,

6 [6] Lin MR, Kraus JF, A review of risk factors and patterns of motorcycle injuries Accid Anal Prev, vol. 41, no. 4, pp , 29. [7] Ogunlusi JD, Nathaniel C, Motorcycle trauma in a St Lucian hospital, West Indian Med J, vol. 6, no. 5, pp , 211. [8] Baker SP, O'Neill B, The Injury Fact Book. Oxford University Press, New York, [9] Korean National Police Agency, Traffic accidents analysis, 21. [1] Williams AF, Alcohol-impaired driving and its consequence in the United States: the past 25years, J Safety Res, vol. 37, no. 2, pp , 26. [11] Evans L, Frick MC, Helmet effectiveness in preventing motorcycle driver and passenger fatalities:, Accid Anal Prev, vol. 2, no. 6, pp , [12] Gabella B, Reiner KL, Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crash victims in El Paso County, Colorado, , Accid Anal Prev, vol. 27, no. 6, pp , [13] Proscia N, Sullivan T, The effects of motorcycle helmet use between hospitals in states with and without a mandatory helmet law, Conn Med, vol. 66, no. 4, pp ,

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System HEALTH AND COST OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CAUSED BY NOT WEARING A HELMET, FOR MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN WISCONSIN, 2011 Wayne Bigelow Center for Health

More information

ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF KHON KAEN, THAILAND. Professor

ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF KHON KAEN, THAILAND. Professor 147 ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF KHON KAEN, THAILAND Pawinee IAMTRAKUL Doctoral Student Deapartment of Civil Engineering Saga University 1 Honjo-machi, Saga-shi,

More information

MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM

MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM 2010 MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY PATROL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CENTER 1510 East Elm Jefferson City, Missouri 65101 (573) 751-9000 CONTENTS PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION...1

More information

Motor Vehicle Deaths Updated: August 2014

Motor Vehicle Deaths Updated: August 2014 Motor Vehicle Deaths Updated: Motor vehicle death rates rise rapidly during the teen years and remain very high into early adulthood. The rate for teens, however, has followed a downward trend for most

More information

A DESCRIPTION OF MOTORCYCLE CRASH INJURIES AND HELMET USE IN A SAMPLE OF MARYLAND TRAUMA PATIENTS

A DESCRIPTION OF MOTORCYCLE CRASH INJURIES AND HELMET USE IN A SAMPLE OF MARYLAND TRAUMA PATIENTS A DESCRIPTION OF MOTORCYCLE CRASH INJURIES AND HELMET USE IN A SAMPLE OF MARYLAND TRAUMA PATIENTS Timothy J. Kerns, MS, Cynthia A. Burch, MPH, Patricia C. Dischinger, PhD University of Maryland National

More information

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR ORIGINAL ARTICLE JUMMEC 2008:11(1) ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR Moe H Department of Social

More information

Motorcycle Safety & Laws. Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington

Motorcycle Safety & Laws. Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington Motorcycle Safety & Laws Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington 1 1. Safety What percentage of Riders involved in fatal Motorcycle crashes are over 40 years old? A. 25% B. 10% C. 33% D. 47% 2 2.

More information

Causes of Fatalities and Injuries from Motorcycle Accidents in Bangkok by Autopsy Investigation

Causes of Fatalities and Injuries from Motorcycle Accidents in Bangkok by Autopsy Investigation 8 th National Grad Research Conference 1 Causes of Fatalities and Injuries from Motorcycle Accidents in Bangkok by Autopsy Investigation Nattapong Wittayarungruengsri MSc, Thamrong Chirachariyavej MD,

More information

BACKGROUND. National. Cell Phone Use and Text Messaging

BACKGROUND. National. Cell Phone Use and Text Messaging BACKGROUND National Developing public policies and legislation is an important component of injury and violence prevention. Implementing and enforcing regulations and laws can help reduce injuries, reduce

More information

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The

More information

Year Fatalities Injuries

Year Fatalities Injuries MOTORCYCLES, 2013 MAY 2014 ISSUE 14-C02 HIGHLIGHTS In 2013, the 113 Indiana fatal collisions involving motorcycles resulted in 118 fatalities. The 118 fatalities involved 81 motorcycle operators, 23 moped

More information

Miles to go: F ocusing on Risks for Teen Driver Crashes

Miles to go: F ocusing on Risks for Teen Driver Crashes A 2 0 1 3 N a t i o n a l T e e n D r i v e r S a f e t y R e p o r t T h i r d i n a S e r i e s Miles to go F o c u s i n g o n R i s k s f o r T e e n D r i v e r C r a s h e s Motor vehicle crashes

More information

Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology

Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology A Chapman Data Analyst, Data Linkage Branch, Public Health Intelligence, Public Health Division, Department of Health,

More information

MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS

MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS HSRC MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS 113 8 MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION Motorbike and bicycle riders constitute only a small portion of road accident victims. In the RAF system only 1%

More information

CHAPTER 1 Land Transport

CHAPTER 1 Land Transport Section 1 Road Transport - PART I - Summary of the Present Situation 1 Road Traffic Accident Trends 1-1 Long-term trends fell to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953 Number of road traffic

More information

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Injury Prevention Plan of Alabama 3 BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES THE PROBLEM: An estimated 140,000 children are treated each year in emergency departments for head injuries sustained

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

Traffic Safety Facts. Children. 2003 Data. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children from 2 to 14 years old.

Traffic Safety Facts. Children. 2003 Data. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children from 2 to 14 years old. Traffic Safety Facts 2003 Data DOT HS 809 762 Children Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children from 2 to 14 years old. In 2003, there were more than 60 million children under

More information

Department of Legislative Services Maryland General Assembly 2006 Session FISCAL AND POLICY NOTE

Department of Legislative Services Maryland General Assembly 2006 Session FISCAL AND POLICY NOTE Department of Legislative Services Maryland General Assembly 2006 Session SB 163 FISCAL AND POLICY NOTE Senate Bill 163 Judicial Proceedings (Senator Hafer, et al.) Vehicle Laws - Protective Headgear Requirement

More information

Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture

Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Cindy Burch University of Maryland, Baltimore National Study Center for Trauma and EMS Maryland Center for Traffic Safety Analysis Challenges Motorcycle safety is not

More information

The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953.

The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953. 1 Long-term trends The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953. Number of road traffic accidents, fatalities, and injuries Notes: 1. Source:

More information

Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O.

Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O. Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O. Disclosure I have nothing to disclose No political or financial attachments I do take care of injured patients Motorcycle Safety Injury

More information

Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges

Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Objectives 1. General Statistics on Motorcycles

More information

Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends

Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends The The mission of the (TIRF) is to reduce traffic related deaths and injuries TIRF is a national, independent, charitable road safety institute.

More information

The impact of graduated driver licensing restrictions on young driver crashes in New Zealand

The impact of graduated driver licensing restrictions on young driver crashes in New Zealand The impact of graduated driver licensing restrictions on young driver crashes in New Zealand Begg, D.J.; Alsop, J. Langley, J.D. Injury Prevention Research Unit Department of Preventive and Social Medicine

More information

Originals and Papers

Originals and Papers Originals and Papers A comprehensive study of motorcycle fatalities in South Delhi C. Behera*, (Lt. Col.) Ravi Rautji **, Sanjeev Lalwani*** & T. D. Dogra **** Abstract Ninety four of motorcycle fatalities

More information

ASSESSMENT OF THE MAGNITUDE OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN THE KILIMANJARO REGION, TANZANIA. Theme: Research and evidence based practice. By S.

ASSESSMENT OF THE MAGNITUDE OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN THE KILIMANJARO REGION, TANZANIA. Theme: Research and evidence based practice. By S. ASSESSMENT OF THE MAGNITUDE OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN THE KILIMANJARO REGION, TANZANIA Theme: Research and evidence based practice By S. Saria Definitions Introduction / Context Objectives Methods Results

More information

Key Words: motorcycle helmet; functional outcomes; speech deficit; locomotion deficit; feeding deficit; National Trauma Data Bank; trauma.

Key Words: motorcycle helmet; functional outcomes; speech deficit; locomotion deficit; feeding deficit; National Trauma Data Bank; trauma. Journal of Surgical Research 158, 1 5 (2010) doi:10.1016/j.jss.2009.06.034 ASSOCIATION FOR ACADEMIC SURGERY Motorcycle Helmets Save Lives, But Not Limbs: A National Trauma Data Bank Analysis of Functional

More information

INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE

INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE Head injuries among motorcyclists are a growing concern Rapid growth in the use of motorized twowheeled vehicles in many countries has been accompanied by increases in

More information

SENATE STAFF ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT. This bill substantially amends the following section of the Florida Statutes: 316.211.

SENATE STAFF ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT. This bill substantially amends the following section of the Florida Statutes: 316.211. SENATE STAFF ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT (This document is based only on the provisions contained in the legislation as of the latest date listed below.) BILL: SB 126 SPONSOR: SUBJECT: Senator

More information

ALCOHOL, 2013 HIGHLIGHTS

ALCOHOL, 2013 HIGHLIGHTS ALCOHOL, 2013 JUNE 2014 ISSUE 14-C08 HIGHLIGHTS During 2013, there were 114 fatal alcohol-impaired collisions in the state (16 percent of all fatal collisions). Alcohol-impaired fatal collisions decreased

More information

Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety

Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Illinois Highway Safety Program Areas Occupant Protection

More information

STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA,

STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA, Vilnius 215 STATISTICS OF FATAL AND INJURY ROAD ACCIDENTS IN LITHUANIA, 211 214 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 9 GENERAL INFORMATION... 1 1. VEHICLE FLEET... 11 1.1. Number of vehicles, 1995 214...

More information

Traffic accidents in Hanoi: data collection and analysis

Traffic accidents in Hanoi: data collection and analysis Traffic accidents in Hanoi: data collection and analysis Nguyen Hoang Hai Vietnam, Hanoi Department of Transport, haitups@yahoo.com.au 1. Introduction Hanoi, the capital and administrative center of Vietnam,

More information

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI)

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) A husband and wife, in their late forties, attend a support meeting of professionals in the TBI field. He is a survivor of a traumatic brain injury. The man rides in a special

More information

The Effectiveness of a New Law to Reduce Alcohol-impaired Driving in Japan

The Effectiveness of a New Law to Reduce Alcohol-impaired Driving in Japan Original Article The Effectiveness of a New Law to Reduce Alcohol-impaired Driving in Japan JMAJ 49(11 12): 365 369, 2006 Takashi Nagata,* 1 3 David Hemenway,* 4 Melissa J Perry* 5 Abstract Objectives

More information

East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan

East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan Foreword Road crashes are not inevitable - the deaths and injuries which occur each year need not happen. However, in order to reduce these incidents a major effort

More information

Motor Vehicle Collisions in Eastern Ontario. Supplement to the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Injury Report

Motor Vehicle Collisions in Eastern Ontario. Supplement to the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Injury Report Motor Vehicle Collisions in Eastern Ontario Supplement to the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Injury Report September 8, 2009 For more information: Eastern Ontario Health Unit www.eohu.ca Bureau de santé de

More information

Relative risk of fatal crash by blood alcohol level. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 BAC (mg/100ml)

Relative risk of fatal crash by blood alcohol level. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 BAC (mg/100ml) Alcohol/drugs CRASH FACTSHEET November 2013 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2012 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In 2012 driver alcohol/drugs were a contributing factor 1 in 82 fatal

More information

ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN

ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN UMTRI-2014-35 NOVEMBER 2014 ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. UMTRI-2014-35 2. Government Accession

More information

June 2006 Dear Traffic Safety Partners: The Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Safety is pleased to provide you with a copy of the 2003 Wisconsin Alcohol Traffic Facts book.

More information

DOT HS 809 360 October 2001

DOT HS 809 360 October 2001 U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration DOT HS 809 360 October 2001 Technical Report This document is available to the public from the National Technical Information

More information

Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012)

Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012) Motorcyclists CRASH FACTSHEET November 2013 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2012 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In 2012, 50 motorcyclists 1 died and a further 1,138 were injured

More information

Drunk Driving Accident Statistics

Drunk Driving Accident Statistics Drunk Driving Accident Statistics Drunk Driving Legal Resources Drunk Driving Laws by State Video - Rights of Injured Drivers Defective Car Products & Parts Steps to Take After a Car Crash Auto Accident

More information

Increased Risk of Death or Disability in Unhelmeted Wisconsin Motorcyclists

Increased Risk of Death or Disability in Unhelmeted Wisconsin Motorcyclists Increased Risk of Death or Disability in Unhelmeted Wisconsin Motorcyclists Carley Sauter, BA; Shankuan Zhu, MD, PhD; Shane Allen, BS, MPH; Stephen Hargarten, MD, MPH; Peter M. Layde, MD, MSc ABSTRACT

More information

Strategic targets board as a management tool for Spanish road safety

Strategic targets board as a management tool for Spanish road safety Road safety data: collection and analysis for target setting and monitoring performances and progress Strategic targets board as a management tool for Spanish road safety Pilar Zori Bertolin Spain Spanish

More information

Traffic Safety Facts. Laws. Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws. Inside This Issue. Key Facts. April 2004

Traffic Safety Facts. Laws. Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws. Inside This Issue. Key Facts. April 2004 Traffic Safety Facts Laws April 2004 Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. The passage of helmet use

More information

CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA

CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA FACT SHEET CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA August 2014 The following data represents police reported incidents of fatal, and minor casualties. Police data does not show the location

More information

Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcyclists were more than 26 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash.

Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcyclists were more than 26 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash. TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 035 June 2014 Motorcycles In 2012, 4,957 motorcyclists were killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes an increase of 7 percent from the 4,630 motorcyclists killed

More information

Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Revisited

Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Revisited TECHNICAL REPORT Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Revisited Motorcycle flips Stops ONE FOOT short of rider Rider comes to rest Unconscious Third bounce Left side Second bounce Motorcycle upside down Misses

More information

Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S.

Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S. Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S. Jeya Padmanaban, M.S. JP Research Inc., USA. 7 West El Camino Real, Suite 2 Mountain View, CA, 944 jeya@jpresearch.com Vitaly Eyges, PhD., JP Research,

More information

Road fatalities in 2012. Road fatality: any person killed immediately or dying within 30 days as a result of a road crash.

Road fatalities in 2012. Road fatality: any person killed immediately or dying within 30 days as a result of a road crash. Korea, KoRoad Inhabitants Vehicles/1 000 inhabitants Road fatalities in 2012 Fatalities /100 000 inhabitants in 2012 48.9 million 438 5 392 10.8 1. Road safety data collection Definitions: Road fatality:

More information

YOUNG PEOPLE INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA

YOUNG PEOPLE INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA FACT SHEET YOUNG PEOPLE INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA July 2013 Despite steady falls in South Australia s road toll over the past decade, young drivers continue to be overrepresented in road

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

SENATE STAFF ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT

SENATE STAFF ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT SENATE STAFF ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT (This document is based only on the provisions contained in the legislation as of the latest date listed below.) BILL: CS/SB 958 SPONSOR: SUBJECT: Banking

More information

Children and road safety: a guide for parents

Children and road safety: a guide for parents Child Safety Week Report Children and road safety: a guide for parents What are the facts? The number of children aged up to 19 years who are killed or seriously injured each year on Britain's roads has

More information

Traffic Collision Statistics Report

Traffic Collision Statistics Report Traffic Collision Statistics Report 2012 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Executive Summary 2012 Traffic Collision Statistics Report Executive Summary Motor vehicle collisions resulting in a fatality, injury or property

More information

The Alarming Facts of Road Accidents in India

The Alarming Facts of Road Accidents in India The Alarming Facts of Road Accidents in India! BMW Z3 Honda Accord On behalf of Indian Orthopaedic Association Prepared by Dr S Rajasekaran, President-Indian Orthopaedic Association (sr@gangahospital.com)

More information

Tennessee Motorcycle Helmet Law THOMAS O LYNNGER, M D

Tennessee Motorcycle Helmet Law THOMAS O LYNNGER, M D Tennessee Motorcycle Helmet Law THOMAS O LYNNGER, M D VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY M EDICAL CENTER Outline Legislation in Tennessee Helmet laws in the news Statistics Arguments against helmet laws Repealing universal

More information

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel 6. Road Safety Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel Road safety continues to be a core priority both nationally and locally reflecting the very high human and other costs

More information

Report Compiled by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles

Report Compiled by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles Report Compiled by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles 2009 Florida Quick Facts: Definitions: Bicycle A vehicle propelled solely by human power or a motorized bicycle propelled

More information

Injuries caused by motorcycle accidents a 5-year survey of patients treated in Kuopio University Hospital

Injuries caused by motorcycle accidents a 5-year survey of patients treated in Kuopio University Hospital Injuries caused by motorcycle accidents a 5-year survey of patients treated in Kuopio University Hospital Imke Höfling, Paula Keinänen, Heikki Kröger Department of Orthopaedics, Kuopio University Hospital

More information

House Bill 128, Amendments to

House Bill 128, Amendments to Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice Utah Justice Research Brief October 2004 Child Endangerment and Driving Under the Influence Mike Haddon, Julie Christenson & Jace Garfield House Bill 128,

More information

Impaired Motorcycle Riding: Law Enforcement Officers Focus Group Results. Joey W. Syner and Maria E. Vegega

Impaired Motorcycle Riding: Law Enforcement Officers Focus Group Results. Joey W. Syner and Maria E. Vegega Impaired Motorcycle Riding: Law Enforcement Officers Focus Group Results Joey W. Syner and Maria E. Vegega U. S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Washington,

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

BIA INDIAN HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM FY2016 IMPAIRED DRIVING ADJUDICATION COURT APPLICATION

BIA INDIAN HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM FY2016 IMPAIRED DRIVING ADJUDICATION COURT APPLICATION SECTION A: General Information. This section must be completed for all applicants. Name of Tribe: Address : City: State: Zip: Telephone Number: Fax Number: Name of Person Completing Application: Title:

More information

Program Descriptions:

Program Descriptions: Program Descriptions: Alcohol Education Alcohol education programs include underage drinking prevention and diverse community outreach. Underage drinking is America s number one youth drug problem, killing

More information

Bicycle Traffic Accidents in Japan

Bicycle Traffic Accidents in Japan 4 th IRTAD CONFERENCE 16-17 September, 2009, Seoul, Korea Bicycle Traffic Accidents in Japan - Influence of passengers and cyclists' manner on the accidents occurrence - Shinichi Yoshida Japan, Institute

More information

Car occupants intoxication and non-use of safety belts

Car occupants intoxication and non-use of safety belts TØI report 499/2000 Authors: Fridulv Sagberg, Terje Assum Oslo 2000, 63 pages Norwegian language Summary: In-depth road accident investigations Aggregated results from 96 fatal accidents in Mälardalen,

More information

Killed 2013 upper estimate Killed 2013 lower estimate Killed 2013 central estimate 700

Killed 2013 upper estimate Killed 2013 lower estimate Killed 2013 central estimate 700 Statistical Release 12 February 2015 Estimates for reported road traffic accidents involving illegal alcohol levels: 2013 (second provisional) Self-reported drink and drug driving for 2013/14 Main findings

More information

DOT HS 812 018 April 2014

DOT HS 812 018 April 2014 TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 018 April 2014 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2012, 726 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 49,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist

More information

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS. Overview. 2012 Data

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS. Overview. 2012 Data TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 016 Overview Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of transportation in the United States, providing an unprecedented degree of mobility. Yet for all its advantages,

More information

Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs

Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs Presented by: Dahianna Lopez, RN, MSN, MPH San Francisco Injury Center Co-Authored by: Dharma Sunjaya, BS Shirley

More information

The effects of Michigan s weakened motorcycle helmet use law on insurance losses

The effects of Michigan s weakened motorcycle helmet use law on insurance losses Bulletin Vol. 30, No. 9 : April 2013 The effects of Michigan s weakened motorcycle helmet use law on insurance losses In April of 2012 the state of Michigan changed its motorcycle helmet law. The change

More information

Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital

Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following the repeal of Pennsylvania s mandatory motorcycle helmet law Word count abstract: 80 Word count

More information

DOT HS 811 743 April 2013

DOT HS 811 743 April 2013 TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2011 Data DOT HS 811 743 April 2013 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2011, 677 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist

More information

Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014)

Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014) Fact Sheet Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014) Summary & Background The World Health Organization estimates that over 1.2 million people die from road

More information

Safe Transportation System. Tangible Result Driver Leanna Depue, Highway Safety Director

Safe Transportation System. Tangible Result Driver Leanna Depue, Highway Safety Director Tangible Result Driver Leanna Depue, Highway Safety Director MoDOT works closely with other safety advocates to make our roads and work zones safer. The department supports educational programs that encourage

More information

5 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT COSTS IN THAILAND

5 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT COSTS IN THAILAND 5 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT COST IN THAILAND 5-1 5 TRAFFIC ACCIDENT COSTS IN THAILAND 5.1 Introduction Investigation into the range of costs incurred by road crashes in the five pilot provinces, as discussed in

More information

Road Safety Authority Provisional Review of Road Crashes 2013

Road Safety Authority Provisional Review of Road Crashes 2013 A review of 2013 fatal collision statistics December 31 st 2013 The following report summarises the main trends that have emerged in 2013. This has been prepared by the Road Safety Authority following

More information

DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO ROAD CRASHES IN THAILAND

DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO ROAD CRASHES IN THAILAND DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO ROAD CRASHES IN THAILAND Paramet LUATHEP Research Associate Asian Institute of Technology PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 THAILAND Fax: +66-2-524-5509 E-mail:

More information

The spectrum of motorcycle research in Maryland

The spectrum of motorcycle research in Maryland The spectrum of motorcycle research in Maryland Cynthia Burch MPH, Timothy Kerns MS National Study Center for Trauma & EMS, University of Maryland School of Medicine Abstract Motorcycle riders experience

More information

Traffic Safety Facts 2008 Data

Traffic Safety Facts 2008 Data Traffic Safety Facts 2008 Data Bicyclists and Other Cyclists DOT HS 811 156 Bicyclists and other cyclists include riders of two-wheel nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles, and unicycles powered solely by pedals.

More information

BEING IN SHAPE TO RIDE

BEING IN SHAPE TO RIDE Riding a motorcycle is a demanding and complex task. Skilled riders pay attention to the riding environment and to operating the motorcycle, identifying potential hazards, making good judgments and executing

More information

Road fatalities in 2012

Road fatalities in 2012 Cambodia Source: IRTAD, National Road Safety Committee Inhabitants Vehicles/1 000 inhabitants Road fatalities in 2012 Fatalities /100 000 inhabitants in 2012 14.7 million 148 1 966 13.4 Cambodia joined

More information

VITAL CHOICES: DRINKING, DRIVING & SEAT BELTS

VITAL CHOICES: DRINKING, DRIVING & SEAT BELTS VITAL CHOICES: DRINKING, DRIVING & SEAT BELTS This easy-to-use Leader s Guide is provided to assist in conducting a successful presentation. Featured are: INTRODUCTION: A brief description of the program

More information

POLICY SEAT BELTS IMPACT{ National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention

POLICY SEAT BELTS IMPACT{ National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention IMPACT{ POLICY SEAT BELTS National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention What s the Issue? Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the first

More information

The Motorcycle-Alcohol Crash Problem in Florida: Identification of Characteristics and Countermeasures

The Motorcycle-Alcohol Crash Problem in Florida: Identification of Characteristics and Countermeasures The Motorcycle-Alcohol Crash Problem in Florida: Identification of Characteristics and Countermeasures By: Patricia A. Turner Senior Research Associate Center for Urban Transportation Research College

More information

Transportation Related Injury Data on the Web: What s Out There and How to Use It

Transportation Related Injury Data on the Web: What s Out There and How to Use It Transportation Related Injury Data on the Web: What s Out There and How to Use It Cindy Mervis ~ Maine Transportation Safety Coalition Meeting ~ Sept 11, 2014 OUTLINE Online data resources General population

More information

The use of crash helmets among commercial motorcycle riders in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria

The use of crash helmets among commercial motorcycle riders in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2354-323X) Vol. 3(2) pp. 062-068, February, 2015 Available online http://www.meritresearchjournals.org/mms/index.htm Copyright 2015 Merit

More information

Facts About Skiing/Snowboarding Safety

Facts About Skiing/Snowboarding Safety NSAA FACT SHEET CONTACT: Troy Hawks NSAA Communications thawks@nsaa.org (720) 963-4215 (office) (303) 681-7311 (cell) Updated 10.1.2012 Facts About Skiing/Snowboarding Safety Skiing and snowboarding enjoy

More information

Highway Loss Data Institute Bulletin

Highway Loss Data Institute Bulletin Highway Loss Data Institute Bulletin Helmet Use Laws and Medical Payment Injury Risk for Motorcyclists with Collision Claims VOL. 26, NO. 13 DECEMBER 29 INTRODUCTION According to the National Highway Traffic

More information

Measuring Injury Severity

Measuring Injury Severity 1 Measuring Injury Severity A brief introduction Thomas Songer, PhD University of Pittsburgh tjs@pitt.edu Injury severity is an integral component in injury research and injury control. This lecture introduces

More information

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS. Bicyclists and Other Cyclists. 2009 Data

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS. Bicyclists and Other Cyclists. 2009 Data TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2009 Data Bicyclists and Other Cyclists For the purpose of this Traffic Safety Fact Sheet, bicyclists and other cyclists include riders of two-wheel nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles,

More information

SUMMARY PRELIMINARY CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-15 ISSN 2204-7875

SUMMARY PRELIMINARY CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-15 ISSN 2204-7875 204 SUMMARY PRELIMINARY FATAL AND CRITICAL INJURIES ON WESTERN AUSTRALIAN ROADS ORS 585-03-5 ISSN 2204-7875 2 Foreword There have been encouraging signs that Western Australians may be heeding life-saving

More information

Serious Injury Deaths and Hospitalizations, 2007 Erie County, PA, and U.S.

Serious Injury Deaths and Hospitalizations, 2007 Erie County, PA, and U.S. Serious Injury Deaths and Hospitalizations, 2007 Erie County, PA, and U.S. In Erie County, unintentional injury was the fifth leading cause of death for the three year period 2004 through 2006 (Table 1),

More information

Traffic safety among motorcyclists

Traffic safety among motorcyclists Summary: TØI report 1075/2010 Author(s): Torkel Bjørnskau, Tor-Olav Nævestad and Juned Akhtar Oslo 2010, 104 pages Norwegian language Traffic safety among motorcyclists A study of subgroups with particularly

More information

Proposal 1. I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212. October 13, 2004

Proposal 1. I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212. October 13, 2004 Proposal 1 Cover letter I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212 October 13, 2004 Mr. David Decider Director, Policy Branch Department of Highways 759 Main Rd. E. Suite

More information

Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee. Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Michael Fagin

Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee. Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Michael Fagin Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee Motorcycle Helmet Laws Michael Fagin The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a nonprofit research and communications organization

More information

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1 Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Of all types of injury, traumatic brain injuries () are among the most likely to cause death or permanent

More information