1 1 Traffic Safety Facts 2006 Data DOT HS August 2009 Race and Ethnicity FARS variables Race and Hispanic origin are obtained only from the death certificate; therefore, it is only available for fatally injured people. As the United States minority population increases, it is essential to evaluate motor vehicle traffic fatalities by race and ethnicity. This evaluation of the data will help to develop countermeasures that will reach those most at risk of death and injury in motor vehicle traffic crashes. NHTSA s Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) obtains race and ethnicity from official death certificates. Due to the delay in obtaining death certificates from the States this fact sheet uses only 2006 data. From 2002 to 2006, total motor vehicle traffic fatalities decreased by less than 1 percent. Demographically, Hispanics experienced one of the most significant increases in fatalities at 10 percent. However, data has shown that over the last five years, the United States population grew by 4 percent, the Hispanic population by 14 percent. In 1977, guidelines were issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) on Race and Ethnicity Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting. In 1997, the standards were further modified into the groups listed: 1. Hispanic; 2. White, Non-Hispanic; 3. African- or Black, Non-Hispanic; 4. Indian or Alaska Native; 5. Asian; and 6. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. These categories are the minimum standards for maintaining, collecting, and presenting data on race and ethnicity for all Federal reporting purposes. For a further description on the race and ethnicity categories please see the appendix.
2 2 Figure 1 Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities, by Race and Ethnicity, In 2006, Indians experienced the highest fatality rate per 100,000 population ,000 10,000 1, ,928 26,982 4, ,145 27,604 4, ,169 26,206 4, ,513 26,182 4, ,405 24,816 4, Hispanic Afican Asian White Indian Native Hawaiin or Other Pacific Islander Of the 42,708 people killed in motor vehicle crashes in 2006, 58 percent were White as compared to 13 percent who were Hispanic and 11 percent who were African-. The overwhelming majority of the 27,348 drivers killed in 2006 were White (17,220), followed by African-s and Hispanics (2,704 and 2,681, respectively). Table 1 Fatalities, Population, and Fatality Rates, by Race and Ethnicity, 2006 Race and Ethnicity Fatalities Population Fatality Rate per 100,000 Population Hispanic 5,405 44,054, White 24, ,588, African- 4,511 36,646, Indian 704 2,258, Asian ,712, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , *42, ,754, Population U.S. Bureau of the Census *Includes 6,707 All Other Races and Unknowns Note: Since race and ethnicity were known for only 88 percent of the fatalities, fatality rates in each race and ethnicity category are underestimated.
3 3 Table 2 Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities by Person Type, Vehicle Type, and Race and Ethnicity, 2006 Person Type and Vehicle Type Occupants by Vehicle Type Nonoccupants Hispanic White Race and Ethnicity African- Indian or Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Passenger Cars 2, , , , All Light Trucks 1, , , , Pickups , , SUVs , , Vans , , Buses Large Trucks Other/Unknown , , , , Motorcyclists , , Pedestrians , , Pedalcyclists Other/Unknown , , , , , *42, * includes 6,707 other and unknown races. Passenger Vehicles In 2006, 30,686 occupants of passenger vehicles (passenger cars, pickups, vans, and SUVs) were killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Whites accounted for 59 percent of the passenger vehicle occupants killed while Hispanics and African- s accounted for 13 percent and 10 percent, respectively. Fifty-five percent of passenger vehicle occupants killed in 2006 were unrestrained at the time of the crash (based upon known restraint use). Indians showed the highest percentage of unrestrained passenger vehicle occupants killed (75%) followed by African-s (62%). Based upon known restraint use, 78 percent of Indian light truck occupants killed were unrestrained in motor vehicle traffic crashes as compared to 68 percent of African-s and 63 percent of Whites. Research has shown that lap/shoulder belts, when used, reduce the risk of fatal injury to front-seat occupants (age 5 and older) of passenger cars by 45 percent and the risk of moderate-to-critical injury by 50 percent. For light-truck occupants, seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 60 percent and the risk of moderate-to-critical injury by 65 percent. Indians showed the highest percentage of unrestrained passenger vehicle occupants killed (75%).
4 4 Figure 2 Percentages of Unrestrained Passenger Vehicle Occupants Killed in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes, by Vehicle Type and Race and Ethnicity, Passenger Car Light Truck Passenger Vehicle Hispanic Afican Asian White Indian Native Hawaiin or Other Pacific Islander Note: Restraint use percentages are based on known restraint use. Light Trucks Vans, Pickups, and SUVs. Motorcycles The term motorcycle rider (operator) refers to the driver of the motorcycle and the term motorcyclist refers to either the driver or the passenger of the motorcycle. Throughout the remainder of this fact sheet motorcycle riders (operators) will be referred to as motorcycle riders. Over the last several years motorcyclist fatalities have increased significantly. In 2006, 4,837 motorcyclists were killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes. As shown in Table 2, Whites accounted for 68 percent of motorcyclist fatalities as compared to Hispanics and African-s, who accounted for 7 percent and 8 percent, respectively. Among children, African-s had the highest percentage of unrestrained passenger vehicle occupants killed (52%). Children Children 14 and younger accounted for 1,798 fatalities, 4 percent of the 42,708 total fatalities in Of those children, Whites (760) represented 42 percent of the fatalities as compared to 21 percent (373) of Hispanics, 17 percent (306) of African-s, and 3 percent (55) for Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and Indian children combined. In 2006, 1,254 children were killed as occupants of passenger vehicles (passenger cars and light trucks). Of those children where restraint use was known, 52 percent of African- children were unrestrained at the time of the crash the highest percentage among any race or ethnicity.
5 5 Figure 3 Percentages of Unrestrained Passenger Vehicle Occupant Fatalities Age 14 and Younger, by Age and Race and Ethnicity, Hispanic White African Other ( Indian, Asian, Native Hawaiian) Younger Than Years Old 4-7 Years Old 8-14 Years Old Note: Restraint use percentages are based on known restraint use. Research on the effectiveness of child safety seats has found them to reduce fatal injury by 71 percent for infants (younger than 1 year old) and by 54 percent for toddlers (1 to 4 years old) in passenger cars. For infants and toddlers in light trucks, the corresponding reductions are 58 percent and 59 percent, respectively. Alcohol In 2006, 13,491 people were killed in alcohol-impaired-driving crashes, which accounted for 32 percent of the total motor vehicle traffic fatalities. Drivers or motorcycle riders are considered to be alcohol impaired when their blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) are.08 grams per deciliter (g/dl) or higher. Thus, any fatality occurring in a crash involving a driver or motorcycle rider with a BAC of.08 or higher is considered to be an alcohol-impaired-driving fatality. (For additional information on alcohol-impaired-driving crashes please see Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Fact Sheet DOT HS ). Forty-eight percent of Indians were killed in alcohol-impaireddriving crashes the highest percentage of any race and ethnicity. Table 3 Fatalities and Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes, by Race and Ethnicity, 2006 Race and Ethnicity Fatalities Number BAC=.08+ Percent Hispanic 5,405 1, White 24,816 7, African- 4,511 1, Indian Asian Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *42,708 13, * includes 6,707 fatalities of other or unknown race and ethnicity.
6 6 Indians and Hispanics had the highest percentages of driver fatalities who were alcohol-impaired, at 53 percent and 40 percent, respectively. As shown in Table 3, of Indians killed in traffic crashes 48 percent of the fatalities occurred in alcohol-impaired-driving crashes, the highest percentage for any race and ethnicity. Hispanics followed with 36 percent of their traffic fatalities occurring in alcohol-impaired-driving crashes. In 2006, 27,348 drivers were killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Thirty-one percent of those drivers (8,578) were alcohol-impaired. Indians and Hispanics had the highest percentages of driver fatalities who were alcoholimpaired, at 53 percent and 40 percent, respectively. As shown in Table 4, light-truck drivers killed had the highest percentage of alcohol impairment (37%). Among these drivers, Indians (52%) were shown to have the highest percentage of drivers killed with BACs of.08+. But Indian passenger car drivers had the highest overall percentage of alcohol impairment, at 58 percent. Table 4 Drivers and Alcohol-Impaired Drivers Killed, by Age, Sex, Day of the Week, Time of Day, Crash Type, and Race and Ethnicity, 2006 Drivers Killed Hispanic White African- Indian Asian Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander BAC=.08+ BAC=.08+ BAC=.08+ BAC=.08+ BAC=.08+ BAC=.08+ BAC=.08+ # % # % # % # % # % # % # % * 1,070 40% 2,681 5,185 30% 17, % 2, % % % 37 8,578 31% 27,348 Drivers by Age Group % % 2, % % % % % 3, % % 1, % % % % 2 1,407 44% 3, % 724 1,195 43% 2, % % % % 10 2,211 43% 5, % 440 1,155 42% 2, % % % % 9 1,866 41% 4, % % 2, % % % % 5 1,312 31% 4, % % 2, % % % % % 2, % % 1, % % % % 1, % % 1, % % 8 1 8% % 2,044 Drivers by Gender Male % 2,213 4,267 33% 12, % 2, % % % 29 7,150 34% 20,732 Female % % 4, % % % % 8 1,425 22% 6,610 Drivers by Day of Week Weekend % 1,148 2,340 41% 5, % 1, % % % 14 3,991 42% 9,441 Weekday % 1,533 2,846 25% 11, % 1, % % % 23 4,587 26% 17,907 Drivers by Time of Day Nighttime % 1,550 3,976 50% 7, % 1, % % % 23 6,620 50% 13,229 Daytime % 1,099 1,109 12% 9, % 1, % % % 13 1,811 13% 13,870 Drivers by Crash Type Single % 1,335 4,007 45% 8, % 1, % % % 17 6,428 45% 14,150 Multiple % 1,346 1,179 14% 8, % 1, % % % 20 2,150 16% 13,198 Passenger Car Drivers by Vehicle Type % 1,338 2,122 28% 7, % 1, % % % 11 3,871 31% 12,626 Light Truck % 934 2,077 35% 5, % % % % 12 3,300 37% 8,986 Motorcycle 68 21% % 3, % % % % 12 1,210 27% 4,517 *BAC=.08+ total includes 17 other and 308 unknown. Overall total includes 97 other and 1,923 unknown.
7 7 In single-vehicle crashes occurring at nighttime (6 p.m. to 5:59 a.m.), 76 percent of Indian drivers killed were alcohol impaired as compared to Hispanic and White drivers (66% and 62%, respectively). In addition, 53 percent of African- drivers killed during this time period were alcohol impaired. In fatal crashes, over two-thirds of the drivers killed and who had a previous DWI conviction were also alcohol-impaired (BAC.08+). Hispanics led this category with 70 percent of drivers killed with a previous DWI conviction and alcohol impairment, followed by Whites (67%) and African-s (64%). All States and the District of Columbia now have 21-year-old minimumdrinking-age laws. In 2006, 32 percent of all 15- to 20-year-old drivers killed had BACs of.01 or higher. Fifty-three percent of Indian, 39 percent of Hispanic, 31 percent of White, and 26 percent of African- 15-to-20- year-old drivers killed had some level of alcohol. Pedestrians and Pedalcyclists Table 5 shows that in 2006 nearly 40 percent of Hispanic pedestrians and pedalcyclists killed were age 25 to 44, followed by African-s (31%) and Whites (27%). Table 5 Pedestrian and Pedalcyclist Fatalities, by Age and by Race and Ethnicity, 2006 Age Hispanic White Race and Ethnicity African- Indian Asian # % # % # % # % # % # % <5 35 4% 23 1% 32 4% 1 1% 2 1% 112 2% % 43 2% 43 5% 2 2% % % 98 4% 41 5% 3 2% 1 1% 220 4% % 160 6% 34 4% 13 10% 2 1% 329 6% % 135 5% 42 5% 11 9% 6 4% 321 6% % % % 20 16% 9 7% % % % % 30 24% 14 10% % % % % 25 20% 20 15% 1,097 20% % % % 13 10% 26 19% % % 205 8% 34 4% 5 4% 23 17% 427 8% > % % 33 4% 4 3% 34 25% % Unknown 14 1% 7 0% 2 0% % % 2, % % % % 5, % includes 1,039 other and unknown; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander was not shown due to insufficient data. In single-vehicle crashes occurring at nighttime (6 p.m. to 5:59 a.m.), 76 percent of Indian drivers killed were alcohol impaired as compared to Hispanic and White drivers (66% and 62%, respectively). Almost 20 percent of Indian pedestrians and pedalcyclists were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes as compared to 16 percent for both Hispanics and African-s, respectively. Whites and Asians followed with 13 percent and 9 percent of pedestrians and pedalcyclists killed in alcoholimpaired-driving crashes.
8 8 Table 6 Pedestrians and Pedalcyclists Killed in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes, by Race and Ethnicity and by Pedestrians and Pedalcyclists BACs, 2006 Hispanic Origin and Race BAC =.08+ BAC =.01+ Number Percent Number Percent Hispanic % % 960 White % % 2,522 African % % 782 Indian or Alaska Native 80 63% 83 65% 127 Asian 19 14% 24 17% 137 1,873 34% 2,137 38% 5,567 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander was not shown due to insufficient data. Sixty-five percent of Indian pedestrians and pedalcyclists killed had some level of alcohol. As shown in Table 6, 65 percent of Indian pedestrians and pedalcyclists killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes had some level of alcohol. Among Hispanics 48 percent of the pedestrian and pedalcyclist were discovered to have had alcohol followed by African-s at 40 percent and Whites at 36 percent. Appendix Data Source In a given crash year, the Fatality Analysis Reporting System releases two versions of annual files. The first file, known as the Annual Report File (ARF), is released following the crash year. The ARF is replaced about a year later with a Final file, which contains additional cases or updates to cases that had become available after the ARF was released. Although most updates are minor, Race and Hispanic Origin data are notorious for containing numerous updates. Therefore, for any fact sheet with Race and Hispanic Origin data, the most current Final file will be used. The availability of this information differs from State to State resulting in large numbers of unknowns (see Table 7.) This needs to be taken into consideration when comparing race data at the State level. Ethnicity and Race Categories These standards were established by OMB to provide a minimum standard for maintaining, collecting, and presenting data on race and ethnicity for all Federal reporting purposes. The categories in this classification are social-political constructs and should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature. The standards have been developed to provide a common language for uniformity and comparability in the collection and use of data on race and ethnicity by Federal agencies. Hispanic. A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term, Spanish origin, can be used in addition to Hispanic or Latino. White Non-Hispanic. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. Black or African- Non-Hispanic. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as Haitian or Negro can be used in addition to Black or African-.
9 9 Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific islands. Other. Includes other Indian (South and Central America, any others, except or Asian Indians), multiple races, all other races, other Asian or Pacific Islander, and combined other Asian or Pacific Islander. For more information: Information on traffic fatalities is available from the National Center for Statistics and Analysis, NVS-424, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC NCSA can be contacted at Fax messages should be sent to General information on highway traffic safety can be accessed by Internet users at site/nhtsa/ncsa. To report a safety-related problem or to inquire about motor vehicle safety information, contact the Vehicle Safety Hotline at Other fact sheets available from the National Center for Statistics and Analysis are Overview, African, Bicyclists and Other Cyclists (formerly titled Pedalcyclists), Children, Hispanic, Large Trucks, Motorcycles, Occupant Protection, Older Population, Pedestrians, Race and Ethnicity, Rural/ Urban Comparisons, School Transportation-Related Crashes, Speeding, State Alcohol Estimates, State Traffic Data, and Young Drivers. Detailed data on motor vehicle traffic crashes is published annually in Traffic Safety Facts: A Compilation of Motor Vehicle Crash Data From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. The fact sheets and annual Traffic Safety Facts report can be accessed online at www-nrd. nhtsa.dot.gov/cats. For a more in-depth look at this issue, reference the Technical Report Race and Ethnicity in Fatal Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes , DOT HS It can be found online at www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pubs/ PDF. Access all of NCSA s publications at www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/cats.
10 10 Table 7 Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities by, State, and Race and Ethnicity, and State Hispanic White African- Indian or Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander All Others Unknown Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Num Pct Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont New Jersey New York , , Pennsylvania , , *Puerto Rico Delaware Dist of Columbia Kentucky Maryland North Carolina , , Virginia West Virginia Alabama , Florida , , Georgia , South Carolina , Tennessee , , Illinois , Indiana Michigan , Minnesota Ohio , , Wisconsin Louisiana Mississippi New Mexico Oklahoma Texas , , Arkansas Iowa Kansas Missouri , Nebraska Colorado Nevada North Dakota South Dakota Utah Wyoming Arizona , California 1, , , Hawaii Alaska Idaho Montana Oregon Washington U.S. 5, , , , , , Note: Some States either underreport or do not report race and ethnicity data; thus, State-level comparisons are not recommended.
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