Unit 04 Practice Exam: Carbohydrates

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1 Pierce College Putman/NUTR& 101 Unit 04 Practice Exam: Carbohydrates 1. Which is not a monosaccharide? a. lactose b. glucose c. fructose d. galactose 2. Used for immediate energy in the body: a. carbohydrates b. fats c. glucose d. maltose 3. Most adults can t digest: a. galactose b. lactose c. starch d. maltose 4. Which can you obtain through eating and digesting liver? a. glucose b. fructose c. starch d. sucrose 5. Bacteria can digest in the gut via fermentation; we cannot digest. a. glucose b. sucrose c. soluble fiber d. insoluble fiber 6. Minimum amount of digestible carbohydrate an individual needs in her diet: a. 30 g b. 65 g c. 100 g d. 130 g 7. Which food source contains the most insoluble fiber? a. steak b. whole wheat bread c. white bread d. potatoes Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 1

2 8. Sweeter than glucose; body tends to store as fat rather than use it for energy: a. maltose b. galactose c. starch d. fructose 9. A structural element in leaves, stems, seeds, roots and fruit. a. fiber b. starch c. glycogen d. maltose 10. The average American should eat more sugars and white flour.!! 11. Including fiber in the diet helps people lose weight and maintain a healthy weight. a. Yes, that s right! b. No, that s wrong! 12. This sugar combines with glucose to make lactose and is, itself, turned into glucose by the liver: a. galactose b. amylase c. fructose d. maltose 13. Found in sugar cane, sugar beets and most fruits: a. lactose b. glycogen c. sucrose d. galactose 14. The best source of dietary glucose: a. pure glucose b. sucrose c. complex carbohydrates d. fiber 15. A good source of soluble and insoluble fiber: a. legumes b. whole-grain barley and wheat c. apples, bananas and pears d. all the above! Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 2

3 16. Part of milk sugar: a. glucose b. galactose c. fructose d. a and b 17. A disaccharide product of starch digestion: a. maltose b. sucrose c. lactose d. amylase 18. What percent of your total daily calories should come from carbohydrates? a. 10 to 35% b. 45 to 65% c. less than 10% d. about 65 to 75% 19. Glucose is stored as in the liver and muscles. a. lactose b. starch c. amylase d. glycogen 20. Sugar has no nutritive value, except for calories. 21. Glucose joined by indigestible bonds: a. starch b. maltose c. fiber d. galactose 22. A very good source of soluble fiber. a. dairy products b. apples & oatmeal c. white bread d. white rice 23. About how many grams of fiber should be included in the diet of an adult? a. 10 g b. 20 g c. 30 g d. 45 g Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 3

4 24. About what percent of your carbohydrate choices should be whole grains? a. 60% b. 50% c. 10% d. 25% 25. Not easily fermented by bacteria. a. soluble fiber b. insoluble fiber c. glucose d. lactose 26. Energy source for the brain and nervous system. a. fat b. glucose c. soluble fiber d. lactose 27. Women should consume more fiber than men. c. Only if they re pregnant d. Only if they re anemic or underweight 28. Which is not a result of eating fiber-rich foods? a. lowers blood cholesterol b. products from bacterial fermentation of soluble fibers inhibit the production of cholesterol by the liver. c. slows release of glucose into blood, so is good for diabetics d. increases rates of nutrient absorption, so is good for losing weight 29. Which has 5 to 9 g of fiber? a. a salad made of ½ cup chopped tomatoes and 1 cup chopped romaine lettuce b. ½ cup of lentil beans c. 1 slice of white bread d. 1 slice of whole-wheat bread 30. Sugars and white flour, although not fat themselves, increase blood triglyceride (fat) levels. c. Only in diabetics d. Only in PKU patients 31. Colon bacteria ferment insoluble fiber, producing butyric acid; butyric acid is absorbed by cells lining the colon, causing them to decrease rates of cell division. Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 4

5 32. Elderly people who eat proper amounts of fiber are more likely to maintain colon health. 33. Which food has the least amount of fiber? a. 1 slice white bread b. 1 slice whole-grain rye bread c. ½ cup cooked white rice d. ½ cup pea soup 34. If you re trying to cut down on your bad fat consumption, it s okay to eat products containing lots of sugar and/or white flour.!! 35. Soluble fiber decreases colon cancer risk by producing fermentation products that cause cells lining the colon to divide faster, thus slough off faster, before becoming cancerous. 36. Which has about 1.5 g of fiber? a. 1 slice of whole-grain, rye bread b. ½ cup of navy beans c. ½ cup of chopped broccoli, carrots or squash d. 1 slice of white bread 37. Which food has about 2.5 grams of fiber? a. 1 slice of whole-wheat bread b. ½ cup cooked oatmeal c. ½ cup cooked white rice d. a and b! 38. A person who eats a diet that includes a lot of whole foods rich in fiber is likely to eat too much fiber. 39. Which group should monitor closely the amount of fiber they eat so they don t get too much? a. elderly b. vegan children c. undernourished d. all the above! 40. Whole grain consists of all of the following except which? Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 5

6 a. endosperm b. bran c. germ d. husk 41. About 75% of all adults can t digest lactose. 42. Which is not a possible effect of eating too much fiber? a. Constipation/intestinal blockage b. Dehydration c. Increased nutrient absorption from foods d. Absorption of fewer calories 43. The only way you are likely to consume too much fiber in your diet is by supplementing your diet with extra fiber such as oat or wheat bran. 44. Which part(s) of a seed are indigestible by humans? a. endosperm + husk b. husk + bran c. bran + husk + endosperm d. endosperm + husk + bran 45. What is added back to refined flour to make it enriched? a. folate, ribose sugar, iodine, niacin, thiamin b. thiamin, riboflavin, iron, folate, niacin c. magnesium, calcium, B 6, B 12 and iron d. zinc, calcium, iron, folate and B People who eat too much fiber may suffer from iron, calcium and zinc deficiencies. 47. Unbleached refined flour is more nutritious than bleached refined flour. a. That s not true! b. Absolutely true! 48. Adults who can t digest milk no longer produce the enzyme a. protease b. lipase c. lactase d. milkase Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 6

7 49. Many people who cannot drink milk, because of lactose intolerance, can eat cheeses, especially hard cheeses. 50. Chitin is a form of fiber from crab and shrimp shells that inhibits the absorption of fat from the food you eat. a. Yes, that s right! b. No, that s wrong! 51. Contains most of the good oils found in the grain. a. bran b. husk c. endosperm d. germ 52. Formula is available for lactose-intolerant infants; however, it is better to treat breast milk with lactase so that baby can drink breast milk! 53. The whole grain consists of the a. bran + husk + endosperm b. germ + bran + endosperm c. endosperm + germ + husk d. germ + bran + husk 54. Highest in fiber a. bran b. endosperm c. germ d. endosperm + germ 55. Ground into refined flour and is later enriched. a. endosperm only b. germ + endosperm only c. germ + bran only d. germ + endosperm + bran 56. Which is removed from the whole grain for animal fodder? a. bran b. husk c. endosperm d. germ 57. Whole-grain flour (such as whole wheat) is made from the Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 7

8 a. endosperm only b. bran + endosperm only c. bran + germ only d. bran + germ + endosperm 58. Whole-wheat flour is richer in nutrients than enriched wheat flour. 59. Which flour is highest in fiber? a. enriched white b. whole wheat c. dark rye d. cornmeal 60. Contains mostly starch. a. chaff b. endosperm c. bran d. germ 61. Which has the highest nutrition? a. whole-wheat flour b. flour made from 100% wheat c. unbleached wheat flour d. they re all the same! 62. Which is not a symptom of lactose intolerance? a. diarrhea b. abdominal pain c. constipation d. gas 63. Lactose intolerance can lead to calcium deficiency, if dairy is avoided. a. Yes, that s true! b. No, that s false! 64. Yogurt made from live cultures contains little lactose, so generally can be eaten by lactoseintolerant people. 65. Which is not true? If excess glucose is included in the diet, a. liver stores some as glycogen. b. pancreas secretes insulin, causing fat cells and muscle cells to absorb glucose. c. fat cells turn glucose into fat. Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 8

9 d. muscle cells turn glucose into fat. 66. In lactose intolerance, the presence of pain and gas is due to a. the inability to digest milk sugar b. bacteria in the gut that can digest milk sugar c. bacteria in the gut that produce a compound that stimulate your gut cells to ferment the milk sugar into gas d. food allergies 67. Lactose-free dairy products come from a. genetically-modified cows b. goats c. milk that has been treated with enzymes to predigest milk sugar d. milk that has been treated with special bacteria 68. How can athletes load muscles with glucose? a. eat large carbohydrate meal about 2 days before the event b. eat complex carb snack about 2 hours before event c. eat large carbohydrate meal of complex carbs about 15 minutes before the event d. eat a huge submarine sandwich about 2 minutes before the event 69. Foods high in fructose are generally high on the glycemic index. 70. High glycemic index foods increase blood glucose, stimulating insulin release, which stimulates the liver to release that increase the risk of. a. fructose, obesity b. cholesterol, heart disease c. sat fats, heart disease d. glucose, diabetes 71. Which is not true about diabetes? a. sixth most common cause of death in U.S. b. prevalence is becoming epidemic c. type I diabetes is an autoimmune, genetic disease d. type II diabetes can be caused or prevented by life style choices e. is not a major public health concern 72. If an individual who is physically fit eats a sandwich of bread, cheese and salami, what happens to the fat in the sandwich? a. immediately burned for energy b. immediately stored as fat c. metabolized into muscle tissue d. turned into glucose Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 9

10 73. If there is inadequate glucose in the blood, which is what happens after a low-carb meal, what happens first? a. muscle tissue metabolized to form glucose b. glycerol (from fatty acids) turned into glucose c. fatty acids clipped into two-carbon units that are turned into glucose d. liver metabolizes glycogen, releases glucose 74. Which is not a symptom of ketoacidosis? a. breath smells like acetone; respiration rate increases b. bone loss c. markedly increased absorption of thiamin and iron d. increased risk of kidney stones 75. Foods that have a very high glycemic index are always very sweet.!! 76. A food that contains lots of glucose is by definition high on the glycemic index., because the glycemic index compares glucose content of foods., because the glycemic indix compares both the glucose content of foods and the ability of the glucose to be released during digestion. 77. If there is no available glucose in the body, which happens in people who follow low-carb diets, what happens? a. proteins broken down into glucose, depressing immune system b. glycerol from fatty acids turned into glucose c. excess fatty acids turn into ketone bodies, possibly causing ketoacidosis d. all the above 78. Which of the following foods has the highest glycemic index? a. cornflakes b. baked potato c. jellybeans d. peanuts 79. Fiber is made of pure glucose. Where would it be on the glycemic index? a. very high b. high c. low d. very low 80. Foods higher on the glycemic index are always less nutritious than foods lower on the glycemic index. Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 10

11 81. A diet high in complex carbs lowers the risk of heart disease because it lowers the amount of sat fats produced by the liver and secreted into the blood. 82. The average American consumes about twice the recommended amount of sugar each day. 83. Type II diabetes is preventable and reversible, if caught early. 84. Which is not true about sugar? a. causes or contributes to ADHD b. can lead to obesity c. can increase risk of diabetes d. can cause heart disease 85. About how long does it take for bacteria in the mouth to feed on sugar and secrete the acid that begins to eat tooth enamel? a. 10 minutes b. 20 minutes c. 30 minutes d. 60 minutes 86. Which is not a major risk factor for type II diabetes? a. overweight; lack of exercise b. African American, Native American or Hispanic c. age 35 d. parents have diabetes 87. Most of the sugar Americans consume is in a. diet drinks b. carbonated beverages c. canned fruits d. ice cream 88. Sugar and refined carbohydrates cause heart disease, both directly and indirectly, if eaten in high amounts. 89. Honey and molasses are significantly more nutritious than white table sugar. Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 11

12 90. Which foods are most likely to cause dental caries? a. cheese, milk and other dairy products b. breads and crackers c. apples and pears d. artificial sweeteners 91. Which artificial sweetener must be avoided by PKU patients? a. mannitol b. aspartame c. stevia d. saccharine 92. Which is not true about artificial sweeteners? a. do not contribute to obesity b. are safe to use by diabetics c. do not contribute to dental caries or heart disease d. some do cause cancer in humans, so should be avoided; sugar is best! 93. Artificial sweetener that can be used in baking. a. aspartame b. sucralose c. saccharine d. mannitol 94. Babies who are given orange juice in a bottle as a pacifier are likely to develop a. dental caries b. malformed teeth c. diabetes d. a and b 95. Which artificial sweetener, although good for humans, causes liver and kidney damage in dogs, even if ingested in small amounts? a. sucralose b. sorbitol c. xylitol d. aspartame 96. Sorbitol, found in sugar-free gum, inhibits dental caries. 97. All artificial sweeteners approved by the FDA have been shown to be very safe for human use, even more safe than sugar, considering the health effects of eating too much sugar. Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 12

13 Unit 04 Practice Exam KEY 1a, 2c, 3b, 4a, 5c, 6d, 7b, 8d, 9a, 10b, 11a, 12a, 13c, 14c, 15d, 16d, 17a, 18b, 19d, 20a, 21c, 22b, 23c, 24b, 25a, 26b, 27b, 28d, 29b, 30a, 31b, 32a, 33c, 34b, 35a, 36c, 37d, 38b, 39d, 40d, 41a, 42c, 43a, 44b, 45b, 46a, 47a, 48c, 49a, 50a, 51d, 52a, 53b, 54a, 55a, 56b, 57d, 58a, 59c, 60b, 61a, 62c, 63a, 64a, 65d, 66b, 67c, 68b, 69b, 70c, 71e, 72b, 73d, 74c, 75b, 76b, 77d, 78b, 79d, 80b, 81a, 82b, 83a, 84a, 85c, 86c, 87b, 88a, 89b, 90b, 91b, 92d, 93b, 94d, 95c, 96a, 97a. Putman/Pierce College N Practice Exam/ /Page 13

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