Water Services Evaluation and Final Report

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1 Water Services Technology Programme Report 6/2002 Evaluation and Final Report

2 Water Services Evaluation Report Hallvard Ødegaard Nicholas Booker Final Report Reetta Kuronen (ed.) National Technology Agency Technology Programme Report 6/2002 Helsinki 2002

3 Tekes your contact for Finnish technology Tekes, the National Technology Agency of Finland, is the main financing organisation for applied and industrial R&D in Finland. Funding is granted from the state budget. Tekes primary objective is to promote the competitiveness of Finnish industry and the service sector by technological means. Activities aim to diversify production structures, increase productivity and exports, and create a foundation for employment and social well-being. Tekes supports applied and industrial R&D in Finland to the extent of some EUR 390 million, annually. The Tekes network in Finland and overseas offers excellent channels for cooperation with Finnish companies, universities and research institutes. Technology programmes part of the innovation chain The technology programmes for developing innovative products and processes are an essential part of the Finnish innovation system. These programmes have proved to be an effective form of cooperation and networking for companies and the research sector. Technology programmes promote development in specific sectors of technology or industry, and the results of the research work are passed on to business systematically. The programmes also serve as excellent frameworks for international R&D cooperation. Currently, a total of about 50 extensive national technology programmes are under way. ISSN ISBN Cover: Oddball Graphics Oy Page layout: DTPage Oy Printers: Paino-Center Oy, 2002

4 Foreword The Water Services Technology Programme ( ) was targeted at development of the Finnish water services sector. The main aims of the programme were to improve the technological competitiveness of water services businesses, increase readiness to introduce new technologies at water and sewage works, bring onto the market new products designed to satisfy water service needs in rural areas, and promote research and development in the field of Finnish water services. The total value of the Water Services Technology Programme was about 11.4 million euros. It comprised 39 different projects, approximately half of which were industrial R&D projects and the remainder applied research projects. Riku Vahala from the Finnish Water and Waste Water Works Association was responsible for operational management. The programme aimed to address the following key issues: provision of high-quality drinking water, maintenance of water and sewerage infrastructure, treatment and disposal of municipal wastewater and sludge, ways to meeting water service needs in rural areas and control of local pollution sources that affect community water services. The results achieved in the Water Services Technology Programme have mainly been reported in Finnish. This report comprises the final report on the Technology Programme and a peer-review evaluation of the research projects and the programme itself. The English version of the final report, edited by Reetta Kuronen, merely summarises the activities under taken in the programme and gives a short description of the goals and results of projects. The evaluation study of The Water Services Technology Programme was carried out for Tekes by Professor Hallvard Ødegaard of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and Dr. Nicholas Booker of Australia s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Both of the evaluators have long experience in R&D in the water and wastewater field and in conducting evaluations in this area. Background information was provided by Programme Manager Riku Vahala and by the researchers involved in the various projects. The external evaluation addressed the following issues: the extent to which the objectives of the programme have been achieved, the technological and industrial (commercial) relevance, the scientific quality/quality of the scientific environment, and the achievements of the programme as a whole. The evaluation was carried out in November 2001 as a peer-review evaluation of the 19 research projects and the findings of the evaluation are presented in this report. Although the evaluation was supported by Tekes, it has not been subjected to peer and policy review by the Agency and does not, therefore, reflect the view of the Agency, so that no official endorsement should be inferred. The long-term impacts and achievements will be assessed in a post-evaluation, which is scheduled to take place in 2004.

5 The National Technology Agency wishes to thank all the parties involved for their valuable contribution to the implementation of the programme and to building a knowledge base in this research area. Tekes also wishes to express its gratitude to the evaluators and the participants in the evaluation process. Helsinki, January 2002 Tekes, the National Technology Agency of Finland

6 Contents Part A Final Report...1 Part B Evaluation Report...75 Tekes Technology Programme Reports...135

7 Water Services Part A Final Report Reetta Kuronen (ed.)

8 Summary Water Services 2001" is a technology programme completed by Tekes in The programme was targeted at the development of the Finnish water services sector. The primary objectives of the programme were improvement of the technological competitiveness of businesses working in the field of water services; increasing preparedness to introduce new technologies at water and sewage works; development and introduction of new products that are designed to satisfy the water service needs in rural areas; promotion of research and development activities in the field of Finnish water services. These objectives support the development of water services sector both in domestic and international markets. It was intended to achieve the objectives through supporting the development of new innovative equipment and new processes and the testing of new technical solutions. Furthermore, the promotion of co-operation between research units, water and sewage treatment works, companies and authorities regulating the sector s development, supplements this goal. Additionally, the intention was to improve opportunities for co-operation between companies aiming at international markets and to increase the interest of various participants of the water services sector to renew their technologies. The Water Services Technology Programme targeted at technical development of water services rendered to communities and rural areas. The issues pertaining to industrial water services were not included in the programme unless they had direct contact with the community water services or technology linked with that. The key issues of the programme were water treatment technology ensuring good quality of drinking water; maintenance and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems; operation and control of treatment plants, water distribution and waste water collection; waste water treatment and sludge disposal; water supply and sanitation in rural areas; pre-treatment technologies for treating local pollution sources of the community sewage networks. The programme consisted of 19 applied technical research projects and 20 industrial R&D projects. This final report presents all these participating projects. A total number of 91 companies, 51 water and sewage works or municipalities, 15 research units or universities and 16 other water-related organisations took part in the programme. The total cost of the programme was 11.4 million euros. Tekes s contribution was approximately 50 per cent of this. Both research and industrial projects have generated new commercial products, new methods, and a considerable body of new important research data that can be used as the basis for new development projects. The programme has offered water and sewage treatment sector a unique opportunity to participate in a sizeable development work, thus allowing the enhancement of their operations as well as improvements to their quality and productivity. Significant new technical innovations have been created. The authorities have been provided with concrete instruments to support their decisions and the consultants have received instructions for high-quality design work. Functional solutions have been discovered to resolve water services related problems faced by households in rural areas. 3

9 Co-operation in research work and networking between the entities of the sector, companies, research units and authorities, has improved. The programme has improved the recognition of Finnish research findings on international level. Through this programme the Finnish water services research and development work has taken a considerable leap forward. For further information, please contact Piia Moilanen Technical Adviser National Technology Agency (Tekes) Kyllikinportti 2, P.O.Box 69 FIN Helsinki, Finland Tel Riku Vahala Programme Manager Finnish Water and Waste Water Works Association Ratavartijankatu 2 A FIN Helsinki, Finland Tel

10 Contents 1 Programme review Key aspects Objectives Key issues Structure of the programme Organisation Financing Results and effects Projects relating to drinking water treatment technology Artificial recharge of groudwater: infiltration techniques, soil processes and water quality (TEMU) Optimisation of nanofiltration for drinking water production Treatment of humic groundwater Limestone alkalisation New iron-containing coagulant for the treatment of drinking water Dissolved air flotation: efficiency of water works, effecting factors, hydraulics and modelling Development of the turbulent flotation Projects relating to maintenance of water and sewage networks Procedures and instructions for controlling sewage odour Guidelines for the visual inspection of sewers and water mains for maintenance and rehabilitation purposes Smart digital system for sewer pipe diagnostics The improvement of drinking water quality by measures applicable in the water distribution system Rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage piping Rehabilitation of service water pipes and sewer laterals Projects relating to maintenance and control systems Management system for sewage treatment plants in municipalities Maintenance system for water works Information system for water supply and sewage networks Integrated network resource management system for water utilities Water flow meter integrated into the modelling programs of the water supply network

11 5 Projects relating to wastewater treatment and sludge disposal BNR process design based on measured characteristics of influent wastewater and sludge Biological nutrient removal from municipal wastewater (Birra II) Development of a compact chemical-biological wastewater treatment process The next generation s activated sludge treatment plant Polymer handling and enhancing the flocculation efficiency by ultrasonication Recovery and utilisation of wastewater nitrogen The reduction of infective micro-organisms in treated wastewater by sand filtration and UV-irradiation The enhancement and control system for sludge pre-treatment, ensuring a high and stable dry matter content in the mechanical dewatering process Granulation and utilisation of wastewater sludge Membrane bioreactor for the filtration of sludge Projects relating to water services at rural areas Improvement of wastewater treatment in rural areas (HAJASAMPO) Removal of arsenic from drilled well water (ARPO) Removal of radon from groundwater Safe use of radionuclide removal devices Control system for wastewater treatment in rural areas Projects relating to local wastewater pollution sources The effect of landfill leachate on the performance and capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, and evaluation of the needs and methods for leachate pre-treatment (Kaato 2001) Reduction of the wastewater discharge in the electroplating industry (VESIPIN) Separation of heavy metal ions from effluent streams of plating lines using filter media made of recycled fibres (VESIKUITU) Other projects included in the Water Services 2001 technology programme Life cycle assessment and eco-efficiency of water and wastewater works Pro-environmental increase of productivity at water works and wastewater treatment plants Export promotion of the Finnish water industry

12 1 Programme review 1.1 Key aspects The water supply and sanitation system is an aggregate complex involving a number of processes, devices and facilities, the efficient functioning of which constitutes the key factor of the welfare of the society. The water supply and sanitation systems form a chain extending from production of drinking water to disposal and treatment of wastewater. The society pays more and more attention to the environmental aspects. In Finland the quality requirements set for the water services technology are becoming increasingly more stringent, thus creating continuous challenge in this particular sector. Efficient management of the system is a prerequisite for safe and cost-efficient performance. The implementation of information technology plays a key role in developing the systems and equipment for this sector. In general, the quality of drinking water supplied by water supply facilities is up to standard. Nevertheless, some improvements in the technical and aesthetic qualities of household water are still required. Colour and taste imperfection, caused by high iron and manganese concentration, constitute a typical problem for the facilities that use groundwater. By its nature, surface water contains large quantities of organic matter, which has to be efficiently removed in order to reduce among other things chlorination by-products. It is intended to increase the use of groundwater and artificial ground water, whereas the share of surface water of the raw water used is declining. In wastewater treatment primary attention is paid to the removal of organic matter, phosphorus, and nitrogen in view of the fact that these substances have the greatest impact on the conditions of the water body into which wastewater is discharged. Currently, the degrees of removal of organic matter and phosphorus are reasonably high, however the requirements set for treatment are becoming continuously more and more stringent. It is anticipated that nitrogen removal will be more efficient in those regions where nitrogen is the nutrient regulating the eutrophication process of the receiving water body. Stricter requirements increase the significance of reliable functioning of the wastewater treatment process. More widespread use of methods for the removal of biological nutrients requires more advanced understanding of wastewater characteristics. The quality of sludge, constituting the by-product of wastewater treatment, has to be improved and stabilised so that such sludge may be utilised reasonably and safely. Variations in the composition of wastewater are primarily caused by industrial wastewater, the quality of which significantly differs from that of the household wastewater discharged into the sewage system. It is intended to set even more rigorous regulations for industrial wastewater. This increases the need for developing various industrial wastewater pre-treatment methods. In order to improve the quality of drinking water, as well as the efficiency of wastewater treatment, it is necessary to develop and test a variety of processes, equipment and chemicals. In rural areas, populated by over a million Finns, water supply and sewerage are mostly organised separately for each individual estate. The water source on the estate is the estate s own well where the quality of water is too often substandard. Health risks are primarily caused by the excessive concentration of radioactive substances and arsenic. Wastewater in rural areas, from which, in most cases, only solid substances have been removed, constitutes a significant burden on water bodies. By reason of low density of the population it is not feasible to extend the existing centralised water and sewerage systems further; these problems should rather be solved separately for each individual estate. Still, much needs to be done in the development of equipment and methods appropriate to this. Water and sewerage operations are capital-intensive. It is estimated that the purchasing value of 7

13 treatment plants and networks in Finland constitutes ca 10 billion euros. The focus of the operations is shifting towards renovating and improving the efficiency of the existing structures, since the majority of the necessary infrastructure of the water and sewerage sector has already been built. The need for the renovation of the networks is growing dramatically, both in Finland and at the international level, thus the perspectives for exporting the existing know-how in this field, along with the related technology, appear good. In recent years the export of Finnish water services technology has not increased at the same pace as the export of other environmental technologies. One of the obstacles preventing the growth of international operations is the considerable volume of projects, which involves the co-operation of various participants, and versatile skills. Coping with the international competition requires even more efficient and better-functioning long-term co-operation, i.e. creation of a network involving technology firms, water supply and sewerage facilities, research institutions and administrative agencies. Water supply and sewerage operations in Finland are becoming increasingly more business-based, offering opportunities for new businesses, intensification and improvement of the operations, as well as the development of export activities. 1.2 Objectives The primary objectives of the Water Services 2001 technology programme were: improvement of the technological competitiveness of businesses working in the field of water services; increasing preparedness to introduce new technologies at water and sewage works; development and introduction of new products that are designed to satisfy the water service needs in rural areas; promotion of research and development activities in the field of Finnish water services. These objectives support the development of the Finnish water services sector both in domestic and international markets. It was intended to achieve the objectives through supporting the development of new innovative equipment and new processes and the testing of new technical solutions. Furthermore, the promotion of co-operation between research units, water and sewage treatment works, companies and authorities regulating the sector s development, supplements this goal. Additionally, the intention was to improve opportunities for co-operation between companies aiming at international markets and to increase the interest of various participants of the water services sector to renew their technologies. 1.3 Key issues The Water Services Technology Programme targeted at technical development of water services rendered to communities and rural areas. The issues pertaining to industrial water services were not included in the programme unless they had direct contact with the community water services or technology linked with that. The key issues of the programme were water treatment technology ensuring good quality of drinking water; maintenance and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems; operation and control of treatment plants, water distribution and waste water collection wastewater treatment and sludge disposal; water supply and sanitation in rural areas; pre-treatment technologies for treating local pollution sources of the community sewage networks. 1.4 Structure of the programme Organisation The steering group, the programme manager, and the responsible representative from Tekes jointly supervised the execution of the programme. The seven member steering group included representatives from the businesses of the sector, as well as those of the public administration. The task of 8

14 the steering group was to mould the general development of the programme into a comprehensible entity. The steering group issued statements on public research projects suggested for the programme, and gave recommendations to Tekes on launching new research projects and also background studies. Decisions on financing the industrial R&D projects were prepared confidentially by Tekes. The final decisions regarding the projects included in the programme were made by Tekes. The members of the steering group were Risto Laukkanen, chairman (Jaakko Pöyry Group Ltd.), Esko Haume (Tampere Water Works), Jorma Kaloinen (Ministry of the Environment), Markku Maunula (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry), Reijo Sirpoma (YIT Corporation), Martti Varis (Oy Grundfos Environment Finland Ab) and the representative from Tekes. The Tekes s representative responsible for the technology programme was Heikki Uusi-Honko until autumn 1998, Robin Gustafsson after him and Piia Moilanen from summer 2001 until the end of the programme. The programme manager, working in the Finnish Water and Waste Water Works Association, was Jukka Meriluoto until September 1998 and Riku Vahala after him until the end of the programme Financing The total cost of the programme was 11.4 million euros. The share of Tekes in this constituted 5.6 million euros i.e. 49 per cent. Distribution of financing between applied technical research projects and industrial R&D projects is shown in Table 1. Distribution of the total funding of the programme projects between Tekes and other investors is shown in Figure 1. Table 1. Programme cost. Research projects Industrial R&D projects Total Funding provided by Tekes (million EUR) Loan provided by Tekes (million EUR) Total costs (million EUR) Percentage of the Tekes s support of the total cost Research units 10 % Ministries 9 % Communities 3 % Water and Wastewater Works 7 % Companies 21 % Tekes 50 % Figure 1. Distribution of funding of the programme between the investors. 9

15 1.5 Results and effects The programme consisted of 19 applied technical research projects and 20 industrial R&D projects. Distribution of the projects by areas of activity is shown in Table 2. A total number of 91 companies, 51 water and sewage works or municipalities, 15 research units or universities and 16 other water-related organisations took part in the programme. Both research and industrial projects have generated new commercial products, new methods and a considerable body of new important research data that can be used as the basis for new development projects. The programme has offered water and sewage treatment sector a unique opportunity to participate in a sizeable development work, thus allowing the enhancement of their operations as well as improvements to their quality and productivity. Significant new technical innovations have been created. The authorities have been provided with concrete instruments to support their decisions and the consultants have received instructions for high-quality design work. Functional solutions have been discovered to resolve water services related problems faced by households in rural areas. Co-operation in research work and networking between the entities of the sector, companies, research units and authorities, has improved. The programme has improved the recognition of Finnish research findings on international level. Through this programme the Finnish water services research and development work has taken a considerable leap forward. The majority of the industrial R&D projects were targeted at product development. Both research and industrial R&D projects produced a number of new commercial products and methods, as well a considerable amount of significant new research findings that can be used as the foundation for new development projects. Within the programme at least 31 academic degrees have already been completed or are currently underway; these include nine PhD, two licensiate s, fourteen MSc, and six BSc theses. Four patent applications have been submitted. All the projects that participated in the Water Services Technology Programme are presented in the following chapters. Table 2. Project distribution between the areas of activity. Area of activity Projects Drinking water treatment technology 7 Maintenance of water and sewage networks 6 Maintenance and control systems 5 Waste water treatment and sludge disposal 10 Local wastewater pollution sources 3 Water services for rural areas 5 Other 3 Total number of projects 39 10

16 2 Projects relating to drinking water treatment technology 2.1 Artificial recharge of groudwater: infiltration techniques, soil processes and water quality (TEMU) Applied technical research project Objectives Attempts are being made in Finland to increase the share of groundwater of the total water use. The intention of artificial recharge is to produce groundwater that is similar to natural groundwater. This is done by using as few chemicals and in as small amounts as possible, and by infiltrating surface water taken from water bodies into soil, either by means of basin infiltration, or by sprinkling infiltration. The main objective of the TEMU research was to develop such infiltration techniques and recharge processes that would be optimal from the point of view of the quantity, the quality and the environmental impacts of artificial groundwater. Implementation The process of artificial recharge was studied at several water works. The research was primarily focused on the causal relationships, which influence the purification process of surface water being used as raw water, and changing the quality of water to that of groundwater. In particular the impact of the following factors on the purification of infiltrated surface water were explored: 1. the quality of the raw water and the need for pre-treatment 2. infiltration technology 3. the purification process of raw water from the stage of surface water to percolating water and groundwater. Particular attention was paid to the relevance of physiochemical and microbiological processes in the recharge area. The water retention time, soil structure and quality, aquifer proportions, and hydraulic properties, with regard to the purification process in different soil layers, were taken into consideration. Soil and water samples were taken from surface and percolating water layers using lysimeters, and from groundwater using observation tubes. Sampling took place according to a common plan at all the water works. Results Pre-treatment tests revealed that even small quantities of solid substances, such as clay, caused clogging of the soil. Rapid filtration of water significantly reduced clogging. One of the important research objectives, within the project, in view of the quality of artificial groundwater, was to determine the changes in the quantity and quality of organic matter. The studies demonstrate that, to a considerable extent, the reduction of organic matter takes place only in the groundwater zone. In every artificial recharge facility the organic matter particles with the largest molecule sizes, and thus the heaviest, were removed more efficiently than the smaller particles when water was flowing through the ridge. The method of infiltration did not noticeably influence the removal of organic matter. However, longer infiltration time increased the removal rate of organic matter. The behaviour of bacteria and viruses during artificial recharge was investigated by modelling. The results demonstrate that filtration and adsorption efficiently remove bacteriophages in the ridge. The concentration and activity of microorganisms in infiltrated lake water decreased particularly well at the initial stage of the infiltration process. Nevertheless the growth of micro-organ- 11

17 isms in several artificial groundwater samples was quite intense, demonstrating that these waters are not fully stable from the microbiological aspect. Knowledge about the flow conditions of groundwater was specified by pipe flow measurements. Results were used for adjusting the input parameters of the groundwater model, which in turn specified the final results of retention time and dilution calculations made for groundwater models. The flow conditions of the soil and the groundwater retention time significantly influence the quality of the artificial groundwater. Therefore different groundwater facilities may have altogether different territorial requirements for achieving the same water quantities and water quality changes. The research also resulted in the development of methods relating to artificial recharge and water quality, in particular to sampling techniques, allowing the taking of water samples from deep zones inside ridges. Application of the results Field research results, from all the water treatment plants, will be used for the specification of their groundwater models. The results of the research upgrade the planning and implementation of water delivery to water works. Upgrading the delivery of water to water works improves the general knowhow within the sector, and improves the potential for businesses operating in the field, both at the domestic and the international level. Not only do water works, using basin infiltration and sprinkling infiltration benefit, but also businesses manufacturing related equipment also benefit directly from the results of this research. The accumulated knowhow may be utilised in domestic projects dealing with the formation of artificial groundwater. Moreover, the scientific community in general benefits from these research results. Researchers National Public Health Institute: Ilkka Miettinen, project co-ordinator Markku Lehtola Central Finland Regional Environment Centre: Kari Lehtinen, project co-ordinator Kari Illmer Kaj Granberg Finnish Environment Institute: Tuomo Hatva, project co-ordinator Tuulikki Suokko Participants Finnish Forest Research Institute National Public Health Institute Finnish Environment Institute Central Finland Regional Environment Centre Southwest Finland Regional Environment Centre Water works of Hämeenlinna, Jyväskylä, Mikkeli, Turku, Tuusula area and Rauma Finnish Groundwater Technics Ltd. Plancenter Ltd. Schedule Financing Financier EUR Share % Tekes Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Others Total Finnish Forest Research Institute: Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, leading project co-ordinator 12

18 Publications in English Helmisaari, H.-S., Derome, J., Kitunen, V., Lindroos, A.-J., Lumme, I., Monni, S., Nöjd, P., Paavolainen, L., Pesonen, E., Salemaa, M. & Smolander, A Sprinkling infiltration in Finland: Effects on forest soil, percolation water and vegetation. In: Peters, J.H. et al. Artificial Recharge of Groundwater. Balkema, Rotterdam. p Lindroos, A.-J., Paavolainen, L., Smolander, A., Derome, J. & Helmisaari, H.-S Disturbance of nitrogen cycling in forest soil as a result of sprinkling irrigation. Environmental Pollution 102(S1): Paavolainen, L., Fox, M. & Smolander, A Nitrification and denitrification in forest soil subjected to sprinkling infiltration. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32/2000: Paavolainen, L., Smolander, A., Lindroos, A-J., Derome, J. & Helmisaari, H-S Nitrogen transformations in forest soil subjected to sprinkling infiltration. Journal of Environmental Quality 29/2000: Lindroos, A-J., Derome, J., Paavolainen, L. and Helmisaari, H-S The effect of lake water infiltration on the acidity and base cation status of forest soil. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 131: Miettinen I.T., Lehtola M.J., Vartiainen T., Lindroos A-J., Hatva T. and Martikainen P.J Changes in quantity and quality of organic matter during artificial recharge of groundwater. 4th International Conference on Water Supply and Water Quality, Krakow 11-13th September, Poland. Paavolainen, L., Reijonen, R., Smolander, A., Fritze, H., Hantula, J., Niemelä, P. & Helmisaari, H.-S Microbial population structure and activity in a forest soil down to a depth of 15 m. In: EUROSOIL 2000, University of Reading, 4-6 September, British Society of Soil Science. Miettinen, I.T., Lehtola M., Vartiainen, T., Hatva, T., and Martikainen, P.J. Microbial nutrients and growth in artificially recharged ground water. IWA World Water Congress. Berlin, Germany 15-19th October, Optimisation of nanofiltration for drinking water production Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Environmental Engineering Applied technical research project Objectives The purpose of the research was to investigate the possibilities for the optimisation of nanofiltration, being used as the refining unit of the surface water treatment process. In the course of the research, the impact of various procedures on the economic and technical applicability of the process were compared, and attempts were made to find guidelines for the optimal use of nanofiltration in real-life applications. Implementation The research was carried out between 1999 and 2000 in Espoo, at the Dämman water supply plant, where two pilot nanofiltration devices were used. In the first stage, conventional precipitation-based water treatment processes, rapid filtration, and microfiltration were evaluated as potential pretreatment methods preceding nanofiltration. Of the processes compared, the conventional precipitation-flotation-sand-filtration treatment was selected as the pre-treatment method to be used in further testing. The second stage of the research concentrated on the optimal implementation of nanofiltration. Different operating pressures, yieldsand ph values of the feed water were tested, the various nanofiltration membranes and their cleaning procedures were compared. The research was aimed at finding parameters, which would ensure the competitiveness of the process both from the aspect of the quality of the water produced, and the cost. In addition, costs and usage experience related to nanofiltration were studied at three operating water works. 13

19 The third stage of the research was carried out in 2001, using laboratory-scale nanofltration equipment, focused on the issues relating to the fouling of nanofiltration membranes. By using actual and model waters the research aimed at finding those substances in the feed water, which are the most harmful to the functioning of nanofiltration. Results Comparison of the pre-treatment processes revealed that the most effective procedure for nanofiltration appeared to be microfiltration, but the conventional chemical treatment proved to be almost as efficient. Additional information may be available on the requirements of the pre-treatment processes when the tests carried out in 2001 are completed and their results analysed. The functioning of the process may be influenced when the ph level of the feed water is modified. When selecting the operating parameters a compromise between operating and investment costs is done. At low operating pressures and yields both energy consumption and membrane fouling are low. Membranes need to be cleaned less frequently, and consequently they wear out at a slower rate. However, investment costs will rise due to low unit productivity. At high operating pressure and yield, the same productivity is achieved by smaller membrane area and lower investment costs, but at an increase in operating costs. Optimisation of the operation parameters must always be carried out on a case-by-case basis. In addition to optimisation of pre-treatment processes and operational parameters, the operating costs may also be influenced by the correct choice of cleaning chemicals and procedure. With a properly selected chemical, the productivity of the membrane may be restored by minimal cleaning without any damage. Concerning the quality of the water produced, it was noted that nanofiltration membranes, which remove organic substances efficiently, and are permeable to mineral salts, are best suited for soft, chemically treated surface water. Noticeable differences were observed in the productivity of individual membranes, their fouling rate, and the quality of the water they produced. Consequently the optimal selection of the membrane is a critical factor influencing the efficiency of the membrane process. Application of the results Based on the results achieved, it may be noted that nanofiltration is a particularly promising method for improving the efficiency of the conventional surface water facilities in terms of the quality of the water produced. Furthermore, it may be reasonably presumed that by optimising the process on a case-by-case basis it could be made financially and technically feasible. The tendency for the increasing use of membrane filtration methods in water treatment processes is worldwide. It is therefore foreseeable that facilities where nanofiltration is used, will be set up to wider extend in Finland and the neighbouring countries in the coming years. The data received through the research are encouraging and valuable in view of designing and operating these future process applications. The results of the research help in combining chemical pre-treatment and nanofiltration processes in a cost efficient way.this, in turn, improves the economical attractiveness of the process from the water works point of view. Moreover, the results are applicable fof process designers and suppliers, as well as for water works. The chemical suppliers could use the results for the further development of coagulation chemicals, modification of the pre-treatment process, and for the development of cleaning chemicals. The understanding of the problems in combining the chemical pre-treatment and nanofiltration processes and of the optimisation of the nanofiltration processes creates good prerequisites for the export of know-how and for international scientific collaboration in this field. Researchers Riina Liikanen, HUT, head researcher Jukka Yli-Kuivila, Plancenter Ltd, head researcher 14

20 Heikki Kiuru, HUT, project co-ordinator Risto Laukkanen, project co-ordinator Co-operators Lappeenranta University of Technology Tampere University of Technology National Public Health Institute Finnish Water and Waste Water Works Association Water works of Espoo, Helsinki, Kuopio, Kymenlaakso, Lahti, Pietarsaari, Raisio-Naantali, Savonlinna, Tampere, Turku, Tuusula area and Uusikaupunki Companies: Kemira Chemicals Oy Soil and Water Ltd Dow Suomi Oy HOH Separtec Oy YIT Corporation Schedule Financing Financier EUR Share % Tekes Others Total Publications in English Laukkanen R Nanofiltration in drinking water treatment. 4th Finnish Conference of Environmental Sciences. Presentation. May 21-22, 1999, Tampere, Finland. Liikanen, R Optimisation of Nanofiltration Process as a Finishing Step in Surface Water Treatment. Presentation. The 2nd Meeting Network Young Membranes, PhD-EuroConference on membrane technology , Aachen, Germany. Liikanen R., Laukkanen R., Removal of Natural Dissolved Uranium by Nanofiltration, IWA World Water Congress Berlin 2001 Proceedings. Liikanen R., Yli-Kuivila J., Laukkanen R Efficiency of various chemical cleanings for nanofiltration membrane fouled by conventionally treated surface water, Journal of Membrane Science, 195, Yli-Kuivila, J., Liikanen, R., Laukkanen, R Comparison of Chemical Pretreatment Methods for Nanofiltration of Cold, Soft and Humic Waters, In: Membrane Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment, P. Hillis (Ed.) Conference Lancaster, UK. Yli-Kuivila, J., Liikanen, R., Laukkanen, R The Optimisation of DAF and Sand filtration as a Pre-Treatment for Nanofiltration, The 4th International Conference Flotation in Water and Waste Water Treatment, Conference proceedings, Helsinki, Finland. Yli-Kuivila, J., Miettinen, I.T., Laukkanen, R Potential of Ferric and Polyaluminium Coagulants for Nanofiltration Pretreatment, In: Hahn H.H., Hoffmann E. & Ødegaard H. (Eds.): Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment VI Proceedings of the 9th Gothenburg Symposium Istanbul, Turkey, Springer, p Two upper theses will be published later. 2.3 Treatment of humic groundwater University of Oulu, Laboratory of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Applied technical research project Objectives The presence of organic matter in raw water tends to create problems with iron removal at those water treatment plants, which use groundwater. Therefore, at small and medium size water works, the limits set for drinking water are often exceeded. The aim of this project was to find solutions to problems faced by water works that use humic groundwater. At first the main emphasis was placed on such methods as ozonation and related bromate formation, as well as on the so-called precision bacteria. Nevertheless, the research project 15

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