6LoWPAN IPv6 for Wireless Sensor Network

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1 LACNOG 2011 Buenos Aires, Argentina, los días 4 al 7 de Octubre 6LoWPAN IPv6 for Wireless Sensor Network Gustavo Mercado UTN-FRMendoza Mendoza - Argentina Carlos Taffernaberry Universidad de Mendoza Mendoza - Argentina This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial- Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA

2 Internet of Things A global network infrastructure, linking physical and virtual objects through the exploitation of data capture and communications capabilities. This infrastructure includes existing and evolving Internet and network developments. It will offer specific object-identification, sensor and connection capability as the basis for the development of independent federated services and applications. These will be characterised by a high degree of autonomous data capture, event transfer, network connectivity and interoperability. Source CASAGRAS 2

3 3 Internet of Things

4 Internet of Things Source: Internet of Things Strategic Research Roadmap 4

5 Internet of Things

6 Source IPSO Internet of Things

7 Internet of Things en la Universidad Tecnológica Nacional Mendoza Argentina Inserción de generación fotovoltaica en el sistema de distribución de energía eléctrica, dentro del ámbito urbano de Mendoza Lugar de trabajo: UTN-FRM. Dptos de Ing. Electromecánica, Electrónica, Grupos CLIOPE y GridTics Dir: Alejandro Pablo Arena Integrantes: Mario Martínez, Cristian Pérez, Gustavo Mercado, Eduardo Font, Santiago Heredia, Pablo Giménez Diseño de técnicas de aprendizaje de máquinas aplicado a la caracterización ambiental de la cuenca andina Lugar de trabajo: IANIGLA Conicet Mendoza - GridTICS UTN FRM Doctorando: Ing. Ana Diedrichs Director de Beca: Dr. Facundo Bromberg -FRM UTN Co-Director: Dr. Ana Marina Srur -IANIGLA CONICET Optimización de sistemas de riego mediante redes de sensores inalámbricos, Lugar de trabajo: INTA Mendoza gridtics UTN FRM Directores: Dr. Jorge Pérez Peña INTA, Ing. Pablo Farreras UTN FRM Integrantes: Wireless Network Sensor Group UTN FRM

8 SIPIA Net Wireless Sensor Network for Agronomical Research SIPIA Net Propietary STACK (gridtics) SIPIA6 Net 6loWPAN STACK

9 Challenge to LoWPAN's Hard to implement in embedded devices: -Security: IP includes support for IP Security. -WebServices: Internet services today rely on webservices, mainly using the transmission control protocol (TCP). -Management: Management with SNMP or web services. -Frame size: Current Internet protocols require links with sufficient frame length. -Power and duty-cycle: Battery-powered wireless devices need to keep low duty cycles. -Multicast: Wireless embedded radio technologies, do not typically support multicast. -Reliability: Standard Internet protocols are not optimized for low-power wireless and lossy networks.

10 What is 6LoWPAN? IPv6 over Low-Power wireless Personal Area Networks Defined by IETF standards RFC 4919, 4944 draft-ietf-6lowpan-hc and -nd draft-ietf-roll-rpl draft-ietf-6lowpan-uc (use cases) draft-6lowpan-tcphc Don't reinvent the wheel IPv6

11 Benefits of 6LoWPAN Technology IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks Low-power RF + IPv6 = The Internet of Things The benefits of 6LoWPAN include: Open, long-lived, reliable standards Easy learning-curve Transparent Internet integration Network maintainability Global scalability End-to-end data flows use of existing Internet infrastructure 6LoWPAN makes this possible Minimal use of code and memory Multiple topology options Multiple independent implementations 10+ Increasing number of deployments

12 Architecture

13 Architecture LoWPANs are stub networks Simple LoWPAN Single Edge Router Extended LoWPAN Multiple Edge Routers with common backbone link Ad-hoc LoWPAN No route outside the LoWPAN Internet Integration issues Maximum transmission unit Application protocols IPv4 interconnectivity Firewalls and NATs Security IPv6-LoWPAN Edge Router Stack

14 The 6LoWPAN Format 6LoWPAN is an adaptation header format Enables the use of IPv6 over low-power wireless links IPv6 header compression UDP header compression Format initially defined in RFC4944 Updated by draft-ietf-6lowpan-hc (work in progress)

15 The 6LoWPAN Format 6LoWPAN makes use of IPv6 address compression RFC4944 Features: Basic LoWPAN header format HC1 (IPv6 header) and HC2 (UDP header) compression formats Fragmentation & reassembly Mesh header feature (depreciation planned) draft-ietf-6lowpan-hc Features: New HC (IPv6 header) and NHC (Next-header) compression Support for global address compression (with contexts) Support for IPv6 option header compression Support for compact multicast address compression

16 6LoWPAN Headers Orthogonal header format for efficiency Stateless header compression

17 Prefix Dissemination In normal IPv6 networks RAs are sent to a link based on the information (prefix etc.) configured for that router interface In ND for 6LoWPAN RAs are also used to automatically disseminate router information across multiple hops

18 6LoWPAN Routing Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks (ROLL) Here we consider IP routing (at layer 3) Routing in a LoWPAN Single-interface routing Flat address space (exact-match) Stub network (no transit routing)

19 Chips Solutions Single-Chip (App + 6LowPAN + Transceiver) Minimizing cost and size is critical. Complexity of the embedded application is low. All soft on the same micro increases complexity and development time. Examples TI CC2530, TI CC1110, ATMEGA 128RF and the Jennic JN5139. Two-Chip (App + 6LowPAN <UART> Transceiver) Great application complexity and performance requirements. Leaves the developer freedom in the choice of application microcontroller. 6LoWPAN and application need to be integrated in the same microcontroller and may require extensive engineering and testing. Examples of radio transceivers are TI CC2520, Atmel AT86RF231. Network Processor (App <UART> 6LowPAN + Transceiver) Projects in which a design or application software already exists. Programming is often realized as an extended socket-like protocol. Not be possible for devices with extreme cost limitations. Example of network processor is TI CC1180.

20 Protocols Stacks Contiki and uipv6 Low-Power IPv6/RPL Network TCP and UDP proto Network simulator (Cooja) Tiny OS BLIP, the Berkeley Low-power IP stack IPv6 Ready TCP and UDP proto Nano Stack (Sensinode) Nano Stack, Nano Router, Nano Service Nano Sensor UDP proto only Jennic 6LoWPAN (Jennic) JN5139 Wireless Microcontroller Jenie API, SNAP, JenNet UDP proto only

21 References Internet of Things International Dimensions CASAGRAS2 EU F7 Project Patrick Guillemin, Peter Friess, Internet of Things: Strategic Research Roadmap, SRA 2009 N. Kushalnagar, G. Montenegro, C. Schumacher IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs):Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals, RFC 4919, August 2007, IETF G. Montenegro,N. Kushalnagar,J. Hui, D. Culler Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE Networks, RFC 4944, September 2007, IETF Shelby & Bormann, The Wireless Embedded Internet ISBN: , (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd David E. Culler & Jonathan Hui 6LoWPAN Tutorial: IP on IEEE Low-Power Wireless Networks, Arch Rock Corporation Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams in 6LoWPAN Networks, draft-ietf-6lowpan-hc-13. Neighbor Discovery Optimization for Low-power and Lossy Networks, draft-ietf-6lowpan-nd-15 Design and Application Spaces for 6LoWPANs, draft-ietf-6lowpan-usecases-09. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial- Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA

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