Connecting IPv6 capable Bluetooth Low Energy sensors with the Internet of Things

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1 Connecting IPv6 capable Bluetooth Low Energy sensors with the Internet of Things Johanna Nieminen (Nokia), Future Internet SHOK preconference

2 IoT Taxonomy ZigBee Bluetooth Video RFID Infrared Positioning Biometry Communication Temperature Identification Sensors Sensing RFID GPS Localization and Tracking Internet of Things Actuators Reader Message security Privacy Authentication/ Authorization Security RFID Tag Embedded Mobile Devices Constrained device with radio Mobile Phone Data Management Schema Representation XML/EXI/JSON

3 Research challenges Billions of sensors and actuators will be deployed in the next few years An emerging trend is to connect sensors with the Internet of Things (IoT) Digitalization of the physical world Technology disruption Low Power LAN (IPv6) WiFi (IPv6) Cellular (IPv6) Internet (IPv4 & IPv6)

4 Technology: IoT- Three views The IETF/Internet view We should enable constrained nodes to connect to the Internet, and have low-overhead application, transport, security and auto-config protocols for them. Otherwise it is the good old Internet, and apps are what app developers do. IP over everything and everything over IP. Emphasis on web concepts such as URIs, RESTful operations. The M2M/cellular view Cellular networks should serve efficiently the increased M2M deployment, using IP or non-ip (SMS) methods. Focus on access-operator centric deployments. Internet use cases supported as a side effect, though. A generic service layer for constrained nodes is needed covering addressing, security, device management etc. IP is the baseline, but focus on higher layers. The low-power radio view Each low-power radio should include its own protocol stack and application profiles to communicate within a subnet. IP is extra overhead. Internet/cloud use cases are important, But data can be conveyed to Internet by applying gateways. This is a valid approach e.g. for BT-LE with a smartphone as a gateway.

5 Networking and connectivity technologies APPLICATION BT/BT-LE/ZIGBEE/SEP2.0 PROFILES, CoAP/REST APIs SESSION/ TRANSPORT/ REPRESENTATIO N NETWORK CoAP, SoAP/HTTP, XMPP, OMA management protocol, GAP, GATT, TCP/ UDP, XML, EXI, JSON IPv4/IPv6, 6LoWpan technologies (IPv6 header compression, routing, neighbor discovery, address autoconfiguration) PHY/LINK Bluetooth variants, ZigBee, Z-Wave, ANT, NFC, ah, WiFi Low Power (WiFi Direct), Cellular radios, Google proprietary low power radio, UWB

6 Bluetooth Low Energy use-cases Bluetooth Low Energy (BT-LE) is expected to appear in billions of devices and sensors in the next few years BT-LE can be implemented in several types of devices accessories such as wrist units, key fobs, monitoring sensors, wearable sensors and programmable actuators home gateways and mobile devices Today, BT-LE enabled sensors typically communicate locally with a central node applications such as wireless audio and use of a mobile device in a hands-free mode Connecting BT-LE sensors to the Internet will enable new types of use-cases and applications enhance the operation of existing use-cases

7 Technical solutions 6LoWPAN standard describes how to run IPv6 over IEEE family radios in a power efficient way at the moment there is no specification on how to run IP/IPv6 over other constrained links such as BT-LE It is currently possible to connect BT-LE sensors with the Internet using protocol translation in the mobile device acting as a gateway However, solutions are application and operating system specific do not scale and do not enable open web services creation environment for sensor application developers The most flexible approach would be to use IP for end-toend communication between the sensors and a server IPv6 would be the ideal protocol due to the large address space it provides.

8 Our solution We have designed a generic BT-LE <-> Cellular IP router and a CoAP/HTTP proxy on top of it APP Data CoAP IP CoAP/HTTP proxy IP router APP Data CoAP/HTTP IP BT-LE BT-LE L2 L2 BT-LE node Gateway Internet server

9 Our solution Key components of the solution include adapting 6LoWPAN for BT-LE differences in the header compression and fragmentation functionality BT-LE operates in a star topology, thus source and/or destination IPv6 addresses can be elided in many cases based on known context Fragmentation will be performed in the link layer, not in the network layer Additional technical issues include configuration, application protocol efficiency and security, context awareness as well as gateway operation

10 Proposed solution on Sensor

11 Resulting IP over BT-LE Ecosystem

12 Standardization IPv6 over BT-LE IETF draft Working Group Last Call completed, moving the draft to IESG approval queue RFC expected in a few months Other related drafts prepared Starting to promote the concept through IPSO Sensor Internet protocol FRD approved in BT-SIG BARB Goal is to have BT-SIG stamp on the solution, and a fixed channel ID reserved for IP traffic Nokia prototype implementation completed, interoperability implementations with another company already started

13 Prototype implementation: Internet connected heart-rate belt NOKIA N9 6LoWPAN over BTLE CoAP Server Router Wi- Fi / 3G / GPRS End- to- end IPv6 connection Internet CoAP Client HTTP Server

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