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1 INTERNET OF THINGS 1

2 OUTLINE Introduction to IoT Technologies Ubiquitous Network Network Management Technologies RFID WSN Embedded Nanotechnology IPv6 UPnP SNMP Challenging Problems Conclusions and Future Work Q&A Reference 2

3 INTRODUCTION TO IOT Fig. 1 Roadmap 3

4 INTRODUCTION TO IOT Tagging Things: RFID 2D Codes QR Codes Sensing Things: Sensor networks WSN Shrink Things: Nano-tech Nano-materials Disappearing Processor Thinking Things: Smart materials Context awareness 4

5 TECHNOLOGIES 5

6 TECHNOLOGIES - RFID Fig2. EPC RFID tag Fig3. Animal identification Fig4. An RFID tag used for electronic toll collection. RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery assisted passive. Easy to deploy 6

7 TECHNOLOGIES RFID The RFID Application of the IOT Fig5. Application architecture of the EPC 7

8 TECHNOLOGIES WSN Low cost Fig6. Use scenario in smart home Very long battery life Easy to deploy Large number of nodes (up to 64770) Can be used globally Secure Ideal for WPAN and mesh networks Support for multiple network Fig7. ZigBee module topologies 8

9 TECHNOLOGIES WSN WSN Application architecture Fig8. Typical IOT application architecture 9

10 TECHNOLOGIES WSN WSN Application architecture Perception Layer: Layer In the perception layer, the system aims to acquire, collect and process the data from the physical world. Transmission Layer: Layer In the transmission layer, the system aims to transfer data in a large area or long distance. Application Layer: Layer Data processing and services providing are two major purposes of the application layer. 10

11 TECHNOLOGIES - EMBEDDED? More intelligence More capable 11

12 TECHNOLOGIES - NANOTECHNOLOGY Fig 10. The interconnected office Fig 9. Intrabody nanonetworks for healthcare applications 12

13 UBIQUITOUS NETWORK Fig11. Ad Hoc Fig12. Miniaturization and price decline 13

14 NETWORK MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IPv6 Universal Plug and Play SNMP 14

15 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES IPv6 / 6LoWPAN IPv6 over IEEE Popularization Applicability More address space IPv : 0db8 : 85a3 : 08d3 : 1319 : 8a2e : 0370 : 7344 IP protocol is widely recognized. Fig13. The reference model of 6LowPAN Protocol Stack 15

16 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES Universal Plug and Play An UPnP device uses broadcast message when it joins a network. Therefore, UPnP has a HTTP like protocol mechanism but it is based on UDP, not TCP. Simple Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP) 16

17 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES Universal Plug and Play Fig14. Discovery architecture 17

18 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES Universal Plug and Play Fig 15. UPnP Work Flow 18

19 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES Universal Plug and Play Fig16. Device Available A notification type (e.g., device type), sent in an NT (Notification Type) header field. A composite identifier for the advertisement, sent in a USN (Unique Service Name) header field. 19

20 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES Universal Plug and Play Table 2. Root device discovery messages Table 3. Embedded device discovery messages Table 4. Service discovery message 20

21 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES Universal Plug and Play Fig17. Device Unavailable Fig18. Device Update 21

22 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES SNMP Configuration Management Fault Management Evaluation of the behavior of the managed objects and effectiveness of the communications. Security Management Detection, isolation and correction of abnormal situations of the network resources. Performance Management Set of facility for the control, the identification, and the communication of information with regard to the managed objects. Protection of the managed objects, provision of redundancy and usage of it. Accounting Management Accounting of the use of the network resources. 22

23 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES SNMP SNMP Packet SNMP Trap SNMP Get-Request, Get-Next-Request, Set-Request 23

24 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES SNMP Fig19. MIB Tree

25 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES SNMP Community Name Management station and management agents should be the same. PDU SNMP contains 5 types PDU command GET REQUEST GET NEXT REQUEST GET RESPONSE SET REQUEST TRAP 25

26 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES SNMP Request ID Error Status noerror = 0 toobig = 1 = PDU has too many bytes nosuchname = 2 = there is no object with this name badvalue = 3 = integer identifying the PDU type is bad readonly = 4 = incorrect implementation of SNMP generr = 5 = unspecified errors of other types Error Index Specify each requests, associated to response. Pointer to the first error variable in VarBindList field. VarBindList List of Variable ID and Variable Value. 26

27 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES SNMP Enterprise Agent Address Trap number that defined in the MIB Time Stamp Trap number that defined in SNMP RFC 1157 Specific Trap Number IP Address Generic Trap Number Object Identifier The amount of time since the SNMP entity sending this message last initialized or reinitialized. VarBindList List of Variable ID and Variable Value. 27

28 CHALLENGING PROBLEM IoT Formalization Problem Substitutable & troubles recoverable IoT Standardized Problem Communication protocol and the application layer all need standardization. IoT Data Problem Private, fault-tolerant, coding Energy Issues Energy harvesting 28

29 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK World sensor networks Daily life (traffic monitoring, shopping, etc.) Tracking and shipping of goods Home automation Health Ubiquitous computing 29

30 Q&A 30

31 REFERENCE Handong Zhang, Lin Zhu, Internet of Things: Key technology, Architecture and Challenging Problems ITU, ITU Internet Reports 2005: The Internet of Things Qian Zhu, Ruicong Wang, Qi Chen, Yan Liu and Weijun Qiny, IOT Gateway: BridgingWireless Sensor Networks into Internet of Things Hisakazu HADA, Jin MITSUGI, EPC based Internet of Things Architecture Xin Ma, Wei Luo, The analysis of 6LowPAN technology UPnP Device Architecture 1.1 Zhou Xian, Li Xiaobing, Study of Management Information Base Basing on Simple Network Management Protocol 31

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