Glossary. 3D Animation Using computer software to create and animate a three-dimensional representation of image data.

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1 Glossary # 2D Control Drawing A line drawing showing various views of a product with details such as material, surface finish, volume, tolerances and critical dimensions. 3D Animation Using computer software to create and animate a three-dimensional representation of image data. 3D Printing A method of creating a physical 3D object from a computer generated file. Printing thin layers of plastic or resin to form a three-dimensional object. 3D Scanning Digitally recording the three-dimensional properties of an object to create a computeraided design file. A ABS Also known as Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, is a thermoplastic polymer commonly used to make rigid, lightweight moulded products. The most important properties of ABS are the strength of the materials and its resistance to wear. Acrylic A thermoplastic materials often used for clear plastic products. Also commonly known as Perspex (trade name owned by ICI). Aesthetic A word used to describe the appearance of an object. Anthropometry (anthropometrics) The dimensions of different body parts to be taken into consideration when designing a new product. Artwork Graphics, images or drawings which are applied to a product to provide decoration or instruction or used on graphic media such as instruction manuals and packaging. Assembly A group of connected component parts. B Bill of Materials (BOM) A list of components in an assembly, usually displayed as a table. Branding The application of features, graphics and logos to a product to identify it as being associated with its manufacturer or a wider range of products and to set it apart from other similar products. C CAD (Computer Aided Design) The use of computer software, including 2D drafting and 3D modelling programmes, to prepare the design of an object for manufacture. CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) The use of computer software to control tools and machinery to create objects from a computer-generated file.

2 Claims Claims form an important part of any patent specification. This numbered list of items defines the extent of the invention for which protection is sought or granted under the patent. Claims are usually to a device or apparatus, or to a process. CNC The automation of machinery and tools using computer software to create a part, as opposed to machining by hand. Component An individual part within an assembly. Concept A proposed idea or solution for a product. Confidentiality Agreement A legal agreement which states confidential information will not be shared with or passed to others. Also known as a Non-Disclosure Agreement. Copyright A form of intellectual property protection. Copyright is automatically granted to the creator of original work, including literature, theatre, film, music and art. Crowd Sourcing Obtaining resources such as funding, services or materials from a large group of people, typically from an online community. Cycle Time The time it takes to mould one part. D Design The process of conception, development and realisation of an idea. Design Brief An early statement of design goals. Die Casting A process for casting metals. Hot liquid metal is forced into a mould cavity. Die Cutting A manufacturing process used to generate large numbers of the same shape from materials such as wood, plastic, metal or fabric. Disclosure Introducing an idea, invention or product into the public domain. Draft Angle Angles used in moulding processes which are perpendicular to the parting line of the tool. These are used to allow the easy removal of a part from the tool after moulding. Dual Shot Moulding A method of injection moulding allowing a part to have different areas moulded in different materials. For example a part could first be moulded with a rigid material like ABS, then certain areas moulded with a flexible material to form features such as integral buttons and grips. Also known as Double Injection Moulding, Dual Shot Moulding and Twin Shot Moulding. E Elastomer A polymer with flexible and elastic properties, capable of recovering their original shape after being stretched or deformed. The term elastomer is derived from elastic polymer. Ejection Points Areas on a part which are used by ejector pins to push the part out of a moulding tool.

3 Ergonomics The scientific study of how humans interact with products and systems. Knowledge gained from ergonomic studies can enable the optimisation of a design for ease of use and performance/productivity. Exploded View A view of a product with all its components separated. Extrusion The process of creating a shape with a continuous cross-sectional profile along its length. In manufacturing, it is a process where a material is forced through a tool, known as a die, to form a length with the desired cross-sectional profile. F Filing The process of submitting a patent, design or trade mark application to the Patent Office. Fillet A rounded corner or edge. Flash Excess plastic present on a part after moulding where the mould tool or tooling elements did not close sufficiently. Foam Model A prototype model shaped from a foam block. These are used to provide physical examples of concept forms and can be quickly made by hand (usually in the early stages of the design process) or CNC machined using CAD data. G Gate The point from which molten plastic is forced into a mould. Can often leave a visible mark where the part is cut from the machine. Grant The term used when the Intellectual Property Office confirms that all the legal requirements have been met by the patent application and a patent is granted. Graphic Design An umbrella term used to describe activities relating to the design, development and implementation of artworks and visual content for printing or web publishing. H I IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) is a file format used to exchange 3D CAD data between different CAD programmes. Industrial Design A term to describe the use of applied art and applied science to improve a product s aesthetics, ergonomics and usability. Infringement Violation of intellectual property rights. Injection Moulding A process of moulding plastic materials where molten plastic is injected into a mould cavity.

4 Intellectual Property (IP) A term to describe the legal rights of a creator of original work. Intellectual Property Office The operating name of The Patent Office. Invention An original idea. Inventive Step One of the requirements of patentability. An invention must involve an inventive step; an inventive step is present when the invention would not be obvious to a person skilled in the art. In patent law the terms inventive step and non-obviousness are used interchangeably. Inventor The creator of an invention or original idea. J JPEG A common method that shrinks a files storage size by discarding non-important picture details. K L License The granting of permission by the holder of intellectual property to another party to allow the other party to make use of the protected technology/invention. Loft A part feature created by transitions between two or more profiles. Logo A symbol or mark used to identify a company or brand. M Machining Use of machine tools such as a lathe and milling machine to shape an object from a block of material. Manufacture The systematic production of an object or product from raw materials. Manufacturer A person, enterprise or entity that manufactures goods. Manufacturing Specification The description of parts, materials, assembly details, colour references and part drawings required for production. Mechanism A system of parts working together to produce a physical action or movement. Minimum Order Quantity (M.O.Q.) Refers to the smallest quantity a manufacturer will produce. Mock-up A model of a design used to demonstrate and evaluate the products intended capabilities, form, aesthetics and ergonomics. Model A representation of the product. This can be virtual, using CAD software to create 3D data, or physical, with the model being made from raw materials by hand or using CAD data for CNC machining or rapid prototyping processes.

5 Moulding A plastic part made using processes such as injection moulding, rotational moulding or blow moulding. Mould Tool Used to produce plastic parts, usually made from hardened steel or aluminium. N Non-Disclosure Agreement An agreement between two or more parties whereby each party acknowledges that they will not discuss or share any details from discussions and documents covered by the agreement with an outside party. Also known as a Confidentiality Agreement. Novelty A new/unique idea, not already found in the public domain. O Overmoulding The process of moulding a material, often an elastomer, over an existing part or assembly. This process is commonly seen on products which have areas with soft grip features and require waterproofing. P PC, Polycarbonate A group of thermoplastic polymers that are very scratch resistant. They are easily worked, moulded and thermoformed. Patent A form of intellectual property protection granted to an inventor after a successful application and examination process. A patent is primarily concerned with the method of function of a product or system, rather than aesthetics or appearances. A patent is granted for a limited period of time and grants the assignee exclusive rights to the use of the technology covered by the patent, in a particular geographic territory. Patents are granted in exchange for complete and detailed public disclosure of the invention. PE, Polyethylene Polyethylene or polythene is the most common type of plastic. Primary uses are in plastic bags, films and containers such as bottles. Polymer The true name for the materials we usually call plastics. PP, Polypropylene A thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging and labelling, textiles, stationery, polymer bank notes etc. Prior Art A public disclosure of an invention or design that has occurred before the filing date of an application for intellectual property protection. Product Design The process of generation, development, evaluation and implementation of ideas leading to the manufacture of new products. Prototype An early version of a new product that is used to test a variety of aspects. Prototypes can be used to test and evaluate the product s form and aesthetics, ergonomics, function, physical properties and method of assembly.

6 PVC, Polyvinyl Chloride A widely produced plastic used in construction as a more effective material than copper, iron or wood in pipe and profile applications. Can also be used, with plasticizers for clothing, upholstery and many applications instead of rubber. Q R Rapid Prototyping (RP) An umbrella term covering automated processes used to create 3D parts from CAD generated data. The most common rapid prototyping processes include 3D printing, Stereolithography (SLA) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). Rendering A 2D image showing a design for a product. Renderings can be made using a variety of methods by hand using traditional drawing media, or digitally using programmes such as Photoshop. Photorealistic rendering can be achieved using 3D models generated in CAD software. Renderings can be used at several stages of the design process, for example, to present concepts to clients and colleagues and for use on packaging and promotional material. Rotational Moulding A method of plastic moulding where plastic inside a hollow cavity is heated and then rotated though 360 in all axes to form the part. S Section View A drawing view created by cutting through a part to show it in cross section. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) A rapid prototyping process where a 3D object is built up in layers. A laser is used to heat a powdered material, which can be either plastic or metal, and fuses it to the preceding layer. Sketching A method of drawing used to quickly visualise product concepts. Solidworks A 3D CAD modelling program used by Hillside Product Design. Specification A list of features and properties that a new product either must have or would be desirable to have, written after a project has been fully researched and discussed with the client. This provides the benchmark on which to constantly evaluate the progress of the project and the outcome of the final product. Stereolithography (SLA) This is a rapid prototyping process where a 3D object is created by using a vat of resin which can be cured and hardened by a laser, one layer at a time. The laser traces the cross-section of the part to cure one layer, before a platform lowers by one layer thickness. The laser then traces the next layer and begins to build up the 3D shape. Styling The term used to describe the process of giving distinctive form, colours, texture and features for aesthetic purposes. T Thermoplastic Substances, especially synthetic resins) that become plastic on heating and harden on cooling, and are able to repeat these processes.

7 Tolerance A tolerance is a limit placed on a dimension or physical property of a part which defines the degree of variation which is acceptable. Tool/Tooling This describes any item, for example, moulding cavities and extrusion dies, used in the manufacture of a component or product. Toolmaker The manufacturer of a tool or tooling. Trademark This is a mark indicating the origin of goods or services. It is a recognisable sign, name or logo identifying products or services as being from one source rather than another. U UKIPO United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office. Undercut An indentation or protrusion in a moulding which prevents it s ejection from the tool. This can be a problem in simple two part moulding tools, but can be overcome by using extra components in the tool to form the undercut feature, which then withdraw before the tool opens and the part is ejected. Unit Cost The cost a manufacturer charges per unit to manufacture your product. V Vacuum Casting This is a process used to create prototype parts by pouring a liquid resin into a cavity and using a vacuum to draw the resin into the mould to eliminate air bubbles in complex parts. Vacuum Forming A method of manufacture where a sheet of plastic is heated to the point of softening. At this point the sheet is brought down onto a mould and stretched over it with the aid of a vacuum so that it assumes the shape of the mould. It is then left to cool for several minutes before the plastic can be removed. Vertex A sharp point on a surface where two edges meet. W Word Mark A type of trade mark that is comprised of text. X Y Z V2. 21/08/14 Ends

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