1 Patient-Nurse Psychosocial and Communication Skills in Military Hospitals in Saudi Arabia Dr. Ameera Mohammed Aldossary Director of Nursing: Saudisation, Practice, Education, and Research King Fahad Specialist Hospital Saudi Arabia
2 The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Middle East, at 2.25 million km 2. Saudi Arabia s population is 28 million, including 8.4 million foreign residents (2013 census). Sixty five per cent (65%) of the population being between years of age (MoH 2013). Life expectance ranged between years of age (WHO 2013). Total fertility rate per woman 2.6 (WHO 2013). Total expenditure on health per capita 1,681$ (WHO 2013) Overview Saudi Arabia
3 The Eastern Province is home to most of Saudi Arabia's oil production and it is the largest providence in the country. The population is 3,360,156. Overview Eastern Providence Area: Km 2 The major cities are: Dammam: the capital city Khobar: the commercial city Dhahran: oil industry center Qatief: largest oasis on the Arabian Gulf Jubail: industry city Abqaiq: home for the major and largest oil and gas processing
4 Overview Health Care System in Saudi Arabia Health Services Governmental Agencies Private Sectors Ministry of Health (60%) Ministry of Defence Saudi National Guard University Hospitals Primary Care Acute and ambulatory Care Primary Care Centres General & Specialist Hospitals
5 Overview Military Hospitals in Saudi Arabia The Medical Services Division of the Ministry of Defense is the second largest healthcare provider in the country after the Ministry of Health. Military hospitals (i.e. army, air force and navy hospitals) provide primary healthcare either throughout primary care clinics based within hospital settings in urban areas or throughout primary care clinics based in community settings in rural areas, with a referral system to acute and advanced healthcare. There are 16 military hospitals across the country, with three located in the Eastern Province due to its strategic location (e.g. oil field, borders, coastline). Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces. Each province has a different geographical environment and population, however, they have similar system to access healthcare services provided by military hospitals.
6 Overview Nursing Education in Saudi Arabia Nursing Education Saudi Nationals Health Institutes Junior Colleges/Hospitalbased University Sponsorship Programs Requires secondary school Level Train high school graduates Train high school graduates High school graduates Taught in Arabic - Basic Three years Diploma in Nursing - English Five years BSN English BSN George Masson University Male and Female Males and Females Females Post-Grad Monash University Nurse Aides Registered Nurse Registered Nurses
7 Overview Nursing Education in Saudi Arabia
8 Overview Nursing Workforce in Saudi Arabia The nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia relies primarily on expat nurses: Indian and Filipinas, North America, United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa, Malaysia, and the Middle East countries. Saudi nurses occupy only 30% of the nursing workforce (MoH 2013). All Saudi and non-saudi nurses are required to register with the Saudi Commission for Health Specialists in order to practice the profession. Nurses need to renew their registration with the SCFHS every three years.
9 Patient-Nurse Psychosocial and Communication Skills in Military Hospitals in Saudi Arabia
10 Problem: high reliance on expat nurses without preparing them to develop psychosocial and communication competencies (i.e. language, culture) to deal with Saudi patients.
11 Goal: to evaluate patient-nurse psychosocial and communication skills in three Military Hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
12 Objectives: to compare the views of patient and nurse participants regarding patient-nurse psychosocial and communication performance. to identify hindering factors of good performance of patient-nurse psychosocial and communication skills.
13 Research Ethics: An approval from the Research Ethics Committee has been taken. Official approval from the hospitals for access has been also taken.
14 Research Method: A descriptive survey was considered to be the most appropriate design to address the project aim and objectives.
15 Questionnaire: A 14 activity items of psychosocial and communication aspects of patient care that drawing upon the King s Nurse Performance Scale was used as a measurement tool. The King s Nurse Performance Scale was developed to produce a generic set of observable nursing actions that reflected nurse performance in clinical settings in the UK. This scale has a good estimate of reliability (Cronbach s alpha of r = 0.93).
16 Questionnaire: In addition, a translated version of this scale was successfully used in a large survey study in Jordan. The Cohen s Kappa Coefficient for this translated version ranged from (Shuriquie, 2007). Thus, the project tool is reliable and both versions (English, Arabic) were used. The Arabic version was introduced to the patient participants and the English was introduced to the nurses as the language used in the Saudi hospitals is English.
17 Questionnaire: In addition to the 14 activity items, 3 items were developed from the literature review and added to the self-administered questionnaire in order to address all the research objectives. Therefore, the content validity of the questionnaire had been tested. The questionnaire was reviewed by a panel of experts from different nationalities considering the multicultural nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. The experts were asked to critically evaluate the clarity and the comprehensiveness of the individual items and the overall instrument. Following this review minor modifications were made to enhance clarity.
18 Questionnaire: The 14 activity items were followed by a four point scale asking participants to indicate how frequently they thought that the activity was performed by the nurse, by selecting always, sometimes, rarely or never. For the 3 added items, participants were asked to select if they Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree or Strongly Disagree with each statement item.
21 Population: All nurses and Saudi patients located in the in-patient (medical/surgical units) and ambulatory care departments (primary care clinics, out-patient clinics) within the hospital settings were the target population. As this research focused upon adult care, certain units (e.g. child and maternity units) were excluded. In addition, critical care and emergency departments were also excluded due to the nature of nursing care where primacy is given to clinical intervention.
22 Data Collection Plan:
23 Sampling: In order to achieve good response rate a quota sampling method was utilised. In this research, quotas were developed by stratification at two levels: first, by defining hospitals related to the military sector in the East providence (i.e. army, navy, air force), and second, by defining the participant groups (i.e. nurses, patients) from each hospital.
24 Sampling: The number of nursing staff provided by the head nurses over the three targeted hospitals ranged between 70 to 120 nurses. Thus, the researcher could calculate the minimum desired quota, following Polit and Beck s (2008, p. 342) recommendation, for each individual hospital (n = 67). The estimated number of patients allocated in the in- and out- patient units provided by the head nurses over the three targeted hospitals ranged between 35 to 60 patients. Thus, the minimum desired quota (n = 34) was calculated, following Polit and Beck (2008, p. 342) recommendation, of each individual hospital
26 Data Analysis: The data was analysed quantitatively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, 17.0) software and included three sections of data: participants demographic data, psychosocial and communication aspects of patient care data, and patient-nurse communication hindering factors.
27 Results: In this research 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to each nurse and patient participants within the three military hospitals. The overall response rate was 61% (n = 362), with a response rate by sample group as follows: nurses (n = 218, 73%), and patients (n = 144, 48%).
28 Results: (Nurse participants demographic data) Gender: Female (n= 206, 95%) Male (n= 12, 6%) Qualification: BSN or Higher (n= 116, 77%) Diploma in Nursing (n= 102, 47) Nationality: Filipino (n= 77, 34%) Indian (n= 58, 27%) Saudi (n= 22, 10%)
29 Results: (Nurse participants demographic data) Age Group: years (n= 63, 29%) years (n= 69, 32%) 50 and over (n= 3, 2%) Professional Level: Staff Nurse (n= 112, 52%) Senior Nurse (n= 100, 46%) Place of Practice: Surgical Ward (n= 50, 23%) Medical Ward (n= 61, 28%) Out-Patient Clinics (n= 47, 22%)
30 Results: (Patient participants demographic data) Gender: Female (n= 76, 53%) Male (n= 68, 48%) Qualification: High School (n= 41, 29%) College or Higher (n= 44, 31%) Age Group: years (n= 22, 16%) years (n= 22, 16%) years (n= 31, 22%) years (n=21, 15%)
31 Results: (psychosocial and communication aspects of patient care) While the data shows that more than half (>50%) of the nurse participants reported that nurses always perform most of the activity items, most of the patient participants ( 40%) reported sometimes. The patient participant responses confirming that patient-nurse communication performance in military hospitals needs improvement, as it is performed occasionally and seems not delivered within the nursing daily care. Thus, this project relied on the patient participant responses as patients are the customers.
35 Results: (patient-nurse communication hindering factors) While more than half of the nurse participants (n= 112, 53%) agreed that the nurse does not have enough time to communicate with the patient effectively, slightly more than 60% (n = 86) of the patient participants disagreed indicating that patients are expecting patient-nurse communication within the nursing daily care. However more than half of the patient participants agreed that the nurse does not speak the patient s language to be able to communicate with him/her (n = 74, 53%) and the nurse has very limited knowledge about patient s culture to be able to communicate with him/her (n = 79, 56%). Thus, an improvement of nurses communication skills (i.e. language, culture) is needed for effective performance.
37 Conclusion: Unlike other countries, Saudi Arabia may face number of challenges to improve patient-nurse psychosocial and communication. However, healthcare policy makers need to consider: Reforming the nurse registration requirements to ensure language and cultural competence. Providing a good quality of interpretation service to improve nurse-patient psychosocial and communication.
38 Conclusion: However, healthcare policy makers need to consider: Providing training programme for nurses to effectively implement psychosocial and communication skills within their daily practice. Preparing Saudi nationals to become nurses, thus, their number would be increasing.
39 Research Limitation: This research has been conducted in one healthcare sector (Military). This research has been conducted in one province (Eastern Province). This study has focused only on Adult-Care.
40 Thank You Dr. Ameera Mohammed Aldossary Director of Nursing: Saudisation, Practice, Education, and Research King Fahad Specialist Hospital Saudi Arabia
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