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4 for the MANET ID, then clearly the probability of 2 MANETs with same ID is 1/256. This leaves 16 bits for host ID, allowing up to 64K hosts in the MANET. The mechanism presented here provides a distributed algorithm for allocating the remaining address space (in this example 16 bit address space) to the hosts. Network Initialization When the very first host wishes to join the network it sends broadcast message to its neighbors and simultaneously starts the acknowledgement timer. At least one acknowledgement message should be received from requester s surrounding hosts (although in this case there are none) before timer expires. If not it repeats the procedure few times (threshold time). If requester s timer expires without any response from its surrounding hosts then this requester decides to configure by it self with very first IP address of the network. It selects randomly a MANET ID, and takes the very first address in the host ID space. Address generation in the Network The idea of this mechanism is that every mobile host in the network is capable of generating a range of addresses, and the ranges of addresses of any two hosts in the MANET is disjoint. A new host receives an unused IP address as will be explained next. Each host is numbered, according initially to the order of arrival on the MANET, but when a host departs from the MANET the number is reused, in which case it will not represent the order of arrival of the new host. Any given host, whose number is n, can allocate the following addresses: Base Value - 1 n x Base Value + i (1) i=0 Where Base Value = 2, 3, 4,.... Host Number n = 0, 1, 2, i = 0, 1, 2, 3, (Base Value 1) The values obtained in Eq.(1) are then added to the first address in the host range to generate a new address. This algorithm leads to a tree structure in the way the addresses are generated, as shown if Figure 2 for the base value of 2. The higher the base value, the wider the tree and the higher the number of leaves with free addresses to allocate. This relation between the number of nodes in the MANET, the base value and the number of nodes with free addresses is depicted in table 1 and Figure 1. Base Value No of Hosts with Free Addresses for MANET with: 50 Hosts 100 Hosts 200 Hosts 500 Hosts Table 1. No of Free Hosts for Different MANET Size P14/4

5 Base Value vs Free Address No of Hosts with Free Addresses Base Value 50 Hosts MANET 100 Hosts MANET 200 Hosts MANET 500 Hosts MANET Figure 1. No of Free Hosts for various Base Values For illustration purposes, we show the generation of addresses with Base Value as 2. The first host number is 0. Table 2 and Figure 2 show how the algorithm generates the sequence of addresses. The very first host selects randomly the MANET ID and picks as its IP address the first address in the host ID range. The first host generates the address of the second host, which generates the address of the third and fourth, and so on. The generated value shown in Table 2 is the value to be added, in binary, to the address of the very first node, i.e. the first address in the range of host IDs. Host Joining the Network When a new host comes to join the network, it sends a broadcast message requesting a new address to join the network. One or more hosts, those with available addresses, will respond to that broadcast message. If a new joining host receives more than one response from other hosts, it gives priority to the address allocating host with the lowest address. Host Number i Value Generated Value Table 2. Address Generating Sequence Figure 2. Address Allocation Tree P14/5

7 Firstly we considered the graceful partitioning in MANET. For example, one or a few groups of hosts can depart from the MANET to participate in some other session separately. This means that a network may split into multiple partitions gracefully. Parent network knows its partition and has to perform addresses clean up through entire network. But the more challenging part is abrupt network partitioning. Let us consider a MANET split into a few partitions. The network identity of these partitions will not change. Hosts in this child partitions need to clean up the addresses according to the new topology changes. This address clean up would happen only when new host come to join the network. Until a new host will comes to join the network, address cleanup will not be performed. So to detect the network partitions hosts could use information of routing tables in either proactive or reactive routing protocols as described below. Proactive Routing Protocols Hosts maintain routing information to every other host in the network in tables (The Global State Routing Protocol maintains 3 tables and a list of all available neighbours) [3]. These tables are periodically updated if the network topology changes. With these types of clues, hosts in partitioned network can realize hosts in parent network are no longer reachable. Then a clean up for the addresses of all unreachable hosts could be initiated. This would result in hosts in the child partition acquiring new network identity. This can be achieved by detecting lowest IP address of child partition and it informs new network identity to all hosts in use in the new network. Reactive Routing Protocols In this type of routing protocol, routes are determined and maintained for hosts only when they need to send data to a particular destination. Just after the network partitioned, hosts in the second partition doesn t know exactly which hosts exist and which are don t. When source initiating a route to a destination and if the source does not have the route towards the destination in its current routing table (due to topology changes), it broadcast a route discovery packet throughout the child partition to find the route between itself and destination. With this route discovery, existing hosts in child partition realized that could not possible to reach some hosts already in parent network. As mentioned above detecting lowest IP address in the child partition and can be allocated new network identity. B. Network Merging When two hosts (say X and Y) from different networks come within communication range of each other, they exchange their network identities. As the received and sent network identity are different, then X detects the merger with Y s network and host Y also detects the merger with X s network at the same time. After detecting merger, both X and Y exchanges their respective addresses in use. Although the MANET IDs should be different, the host IDs are likely to be repeated in both MANETs. So the merged network start allocating new addresses for the MANET with lowest MANET ID, and both merged MANETs will have the MANET ID of the highest one. Say X s IP address in MANET 1 (M1) is; MANET ID Host The first 8 bits represent the network identification and next sixteen bits show host identification. With this sixteen bits, the address space corresponds to 64K hosts. Say Y s IP address in MANET 2 (M2) is: P14/7

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