1 How to Write More Clearly, Think More Clearly, and Learn Complex Material More Easily Michael A. Covington Artificial Intelligence Center The University of Georgia
2 Copyright 2005, 2009 Michael A. Covington This is a draft of material intended for commercial publication. Do not redistribute without permission. (You are of course welcome to link to its location on the author s web site.) The author is available to give seminars and write articles based on this material. Please contact for more information.
3 I don t think I m really all that intelligent, but I have a talent for amplifying my intelligence. R. D. G., 1975
4 Amplifying your intelligence How to Write more clearly Think more clearly Learn more easily My central claim: These are connected!
5 Amplifying your intelligence How to write more clearly (and why you should want to)
6 How to write more clearly Why? People who write are powerful. In science, technology, or management, you influence people by writing things for them to read.
7 How to write more clearly Why? Clear writing leads to clear thinking. You don t know what you know until you try to express it. If your writing is nonsense, maybe your thoughts are nonsense too!
8 Misconceptions about writing Myth: Writing is mainly about poetry and fiction. Fact: That would be like saying exercise is mainly about ballet dancing! Most of the writing in the world is for information. It s often done by people who don t even like poetry and fiction.
9 Misconceptions about writing Myth: Writers are people who have memorized big books of grammar rules. Fact: Grammar is not the problem. You are exposed to huge amounts of good English every day. If you know what you re trying to say, 99% of the time you ll say it grammatically.
10 Misconceptions about writing Language (including grammar) is an inborn capability of the human brain. The living language comes first; then people try to write grammar books in order to describe it. You do not have to be able to name and classify the parts of your language in order to use them!
11 Misconceptions about writing At most, an educated person needs help with only a few small points of grammar. Of a 100-page grammar book, you may need 3 pages, or less. (Get people to help you figure out which 3!)
12 How to write more clearly The unselfish perspective Good writing is partly a matter of character. Instead of doing what s easy for you, do what s easy for your reader.
13 How to write more clearly The unselfish perspective I m not giving this presentation (or writing this paper) because I m important. I m doing it because you re important.
14 How to write more clearly The unselfish perspective I m not going to demand that you put up with my quirks (bad spelling, bad organization, sloppiness). I m going to package the information so that it enters your heads as easily as possible.
15 How to write more clearly Writing is almost too complicated for human beings to do. We must break up the process of writing in order to make it possible.
16 The writing process Five steps: Planning Drafting Revising Editing Formatting (deciding what & how to write) (getting it on paper once) (getting it on paper better) (fixing spelling, grammar, typing) (choosing typefaces, layout, etc.)
17 Planning Ask yourself: Why am I writing this? Who is the audience? What does the reader know/expect/want? How can I organize it? What are the format and style requirements?
18 Planning If you can t envision the audience, try using yourself as a sample. If someone had needed to give you this information 6 months ago, how should they have done it?
19 Planning Organizing a written paper is just like structured programming: Every section has its purpose and is broken down into smaller sections each of which has its purpose.
20 Planning If you can t figure out how to organize your material, try this: Write down ideas in random order, then sort them.
21 Planning You don t have to plan or write the sections in linear order. I often write the introduction last, after I know what it will introduce!
22 Drafting In the drafting step, get it down on paper not elegantly, not perfectly, just get it down on paper so you no longer have to hold it all in your brain!
23 Drafting During drafting, do not worry about grammar, spelling, or format. Concentrate on what you want to say and how you re going to organize it.
24 Drafting Three rules for clear writing: 1. Get to the point. 2. Get to the point. 3. Get to the point. Your reader won t follow you down a garden path.
25 Drafting To keep things clear and readable: State the main point before you give the reasoning that leads to it. (Unless you re writing a detective story!)
26 Drafting To keep things clear and readable: Put the main point of each paragraph in its first sentence. That way, people can skim your paper by reading just the first sentences of the paragraphs. Lots of them will!
27 Drafting K.I.S.S. (Keep it simple, stupid!) Always use the clearest, simplest language that will do the job. NEVER try to sound formal or sophisticated.
28 Drafting If your paper isn t full of street slang, it is already formal enough. Stuffy writing is bad writing!!!!
29 Drafting What words should you never use in writing? Words whose exact meanings you don t know! Never use a word unless you know EXACTLY what it means. (More about this later.)
30 Revising Now the fun begins! With computers, we can revise anything, any number of times, without wasting paper. In the bad old days, it wasn t that easy!
31 Revising The goal of the revising step is to make your writing clearer and easier to read. This is done mainly by finding better ways to put ideas into words.
32 Revising When revising, pretend to be your own worst enemy. Is there anything that can be misunderstood? If so, change it so that it can t!
33 Revising BEFORE: Students may request AFTER: Students are allowed to request OR? Students sometimes request
34 Revising Make sure the main point of each paragraph is in the first sentence. A person reading just the first sentences of the paragraphs should get a summary of your paper.
35 Revising Whenever possible, shorten your sentences by removing needless words. Time taken to process an n-word sentence is proportional to n 3, or more. Cut the length in half, and you make it 8 times easier to read. (Maybe.)
36 Revising An example: One of the best things you can do for yourself to improve your writing is to learn how to cut out words that are not necessary. Keep watching
37 Revising An example: One of the best things you can do for yourself to improve your writing is to learn how to cut out words that are not necessary. Keep watching
38 Revising An example: One of the best ways to improve your writing is to learn how to cut out words that are not necessary. Keep watching
39 Revising An example: One of the best ways to improve your writing is to learn how to cut out words that are not necessary. Keep watching
40 Revising An example: One of the best ways to improve your writing is to learn how to cut out unnecessary words. That s a lot better. Can we go further?
41 Revising An example: One of the best ways to improve your writing is to learn how to cut out unnecessary words. Keep watching
42 Revising An example: To improve your writing, learn how to cut out unnecessary words. Keep watching
43 Revising An example: To improve your writing, learn how to cut out unnecessary words. Keep watching
44 Revising An example: To improve your writing, cut out unnecessary words. There! 25 words reduced to 8!
45 Editing Editing is where you fix up the grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Guess what? Your computer doesn t know best. It doesn t know what you re trying to say!
46 Editing Grammar, spelling, and punctuation are not a layer of added decoration. They help express the meaning. If you let a computer correct them, you may not get what you intend. Spilling chequers or grate!
47 Editing What if you re a bad speller? Some exhortations
48 Editing Don t be quick to label yourself a bad speller. Remember, none of us were born knowing how to spell. If you can spell int main(int argc; char* argv); you can learn how to spell its and it s!
49 Editing To become a better speller (1) Take the time to learn the spellings in the first place. (2) Don t practice bad habits. Whatever you normally write will look correct to you!
50 Editing To become a better speller (3) Recognize related words (govern, government ). (4) Pronounce words carefully, or even comically, to help you remember spellings (significant, California not Cal-uh-fornia!).
51 Editing By the way, in case you re wondering, the difference between its and it s = the difference between his and he s. his = of him its = of it he s = he is it s = it is This is my idea of how to teach grammar!
52 Formatting With computers, we can make decisions about layout and typography long after we write the text. And we all need some training in graphics!
53 Formatting The basics: Keep it simple Keep it standard Avoid meaningless variation
54 Formatting Keep it simple Use familiar typefaces, no more than 2 or 3 in a document, each with a clearly defined purpose.
55 Formatting Keep it simple Use conventional roman type for text, typewriter type for computer programs, and maybe sans-serif type for headings. Sans-serif type is also good for labels and presentations.
56 Formatting Keep it simple Needless decoration distracts the reader and can look really stupid!
57 Never draw the reader s eye to anything that is not the main point.
58 Formatting Keep it standard Look at well-produced material and make sure you re following accepted practices. Don t leave out anything basic, such as page numbers or adequate margins!
59 Formatting Keep it standard This is not your grandpa s typewriter. Use italics instead of underlining. Use a dash ( ) instead of 2 hyphens (--). Follow the standard practices of the printing industry, not the limitations of the typewriter!
60 Formatting Avoid meaningless variation A basic principle of communication: The reader will expect every change to mean something.
61 Formatting Avoid meaningless variation If you have 2 typefaces, or different margins in different places, there had better be a reason, or the reader will waste a LOT of time looking for one!
62 So much for writing more clearly. Now for thinking more clearly
63 Amplifying your intelligence How to think more clearly Language Logic Epistemology
64 Language We all use language (or other symbolic representations) to do most of our thinking. Here are some insights from philosophy of language.
65 Language Earlier I said not to use words if you don t know what they mean. How do you know whether you know what a word means?
66 Language An answer: You know what dog means if you know how to look at things and tell whether or not they are dogs.
67 Language Or more generally: You know what dog means if you know how, in principle, to tell whether things are dogs, even if you cannot perform the test yourself.
68 Language Dilbert s boss wants an object-oriented database but he does not know what makes a thing a database or what makes it object-oriented. He doesn t know what he s talking about!
69 Language Our knowledge of word meanings is sometimes imprecise. Do you know what elm means?
70 Language Levels of knowing the meaning of elm : (1) It s a tree. (2) It grows in the USA and looks a lot like an oak or maple. (3) It s exactly so-and-so
71 Language Is it ever legitimate to use a word without knowing its exact meaning? Maybe.
72 Language Example 1: I can tell you there are elms in New Haven, Connecticut, even though I can t identify them myself. I am relying on other people s authority for the correct use of the word.
73 Language Example 2: The clerk at Radio Shack knows they sell things called capacitors, identified by certain numbers. He/she can sell me a 22-µF, 35-V capacitor without knowing what a capacitor really is or what the numbers mean.
74 Language Example 3: Dilbert s boss wants an object-oriented database. (Relying on reliable authority, or just making a fool of himself? The difference is sometimes subtle!)
75 Language The important thing is that you should know whether you know what your words mean. Do not get used to putting words together in familiar ways without understanding them!
76 Language How do you know what a sentence means? Largely, by knowing how to find out if it s true or false. The test may be impossible to perform, but you should have an idea what it would be.
77 Language Example: All dogs are brown can be proved true by examining all the dogs in the world and finding them brown, or proved false by finding one black dog. If you don t know that, you don t know what All dogs are brown means.
78 Logic Oops! We ve strayed from philosophy of language to logic. Let s keep going
79 Logic Some sentences, such as Murder is wrong, cannot be proved true or false by physical tests. I do not think this means that they are meaningless or neither true nor false, only that they are different from sentences about physical facts.
80 Logic Some sentences, such as There are invisible, undetectable elves all over this room, really are meaningless; there is no imaginable way to prove them true or false.
81 Logic Some sentences that sound very deep, such as, Everything happens exactly the way it was fated to happen, may be just as meaningless as the sentence about elves.
82 Epistemology Epistemology is the study of how to acquire knowledge by observing the world around you.
83 Epistemology The goal is to end up believing things that are true and not believing things that are false.
84 Epistemology Your epistemology has gone wrong if you disbelieve things that are true, or if you believe things that are not true.
85 Epistemology Scientific method is part (not all) of epistemology.
86 Epistemology How to form beliefs based on evidence: (1) Propose a belief (a hypothesis). (It should be something that, if true, would be worth knowing, not a waste of mental effort.) (2) Try to confirm it. (3) Also try to disprove it.
87 Epistemology Stages: (1) Conjecture or guess (2) Opinion; belief supported by evidence (3) Firm belief, thoroughly tested against evidence and still holding up This looks like science, but is actually applicable to thinking about almost anything.
88 Epistemology Really important point (from Sir Karl Popper): A belief isn t warranted unless you could have known if it s not true. That is, there should be some way that you could tell if it were false.
89 Epistemology Popper s principle implies: (1) Your guesses and opinions have to be testable. They have to say what will not happen. Beware of vague predictions that are compatible with any outcome!
90 Epistemology Popper s principle implies: (2) It s your job to test your opinions against evidence. You should always be looking for evidence that your current beliefs are not correct.
91 Epistemology Example: If you believe all dogs are black, you must not only look for black dogs, but also look for dogs that aren t black.
92 Epistemology Fortunetellers, quacks, and salesmen want you to only try to prove your guesses true and not try to prove them false. Covington s Law of Medical Research: Somebody will get well no matter what is done to them.
93 Epistemology Now let me attack some widespread and fashionable epistemological mistakes from the late 20 th century.
94 Epistemology Misconception: It s OK to believe anything you want, because we never really know anything; it s all just opinions. Fact 1: Our knowledge of the world is incomplete. Fact 2: Nonetheless, the world is objectively real.
95 Epistemology If you step out in front of a bus, it will run over you, even if you can find people whose opinion is different.
96 Epistemology Misconception: If there are good arguments on both sides of a controversy, then the question is undecidable. Fact: The evidence for one side can still be a lot stronger than the evidence for the other.
97 Epistemology It is important to be able to understand and present sympathetically a position that you do not agree with. If people believe something, they probably have a reason worth knowing about even if they re mistaken.
98 Epistemology Example: The earth is round. But some people think it s flat, and we should be able to explain why it looks flat.
99 Epistemology Misconception: It is unfair to say that anything is really better than anything else. Fact: Because the world is objectively real, of course some things are better than others, by any reasonable criteria. You re not just showing your cultural bias when you say so.
100 Epistemology Misconception: Fact: You have no right to impose your beliefs on me. It sounds like you re imposing a belief on me! Lots of beliefs are imposed on us by evidence.
101 Epistemology Misconception: Fact: If something isn t subject to physical measurement (or doesn t fit in a preconceived system), it doesn t exist. If all knowledge depends on physical measurement, then not only do you lose truth, beauty, and love, you also lose mathematics, logic, and even epistemology!
102 Amplifying your intelligence How to learn complex material more easily
103 How to learn I ll be brief because I ve already given you the tools.
104 How to learn 1. Have goals and adjust them often. 2. Use a suitable learning strategy. 3. Insist on clear understanding. 4. Organize the knowledge for yourself.
105 Have goals You have to want to learn something and have some idea what it is. Don t wait passively for the teacher or textbook to take you on a ride.
106 Have goals Because you don t start out knowing exactly what you re going to learn, you must constantly update your goals as the material is revealed to you. Changing your goals is OK. Not having goals is not!
107 Have goals Example: We don t read textbooks like novels, just to see where they go. We read textbooks because we want them to tell us something (incl. tell us what they re going to tell us!).
108 Learning strategy When a student finds my courses unduly hard, it s usually because of the wrong learning strategy Memorizing what should be deduced Deducing what should be memorized Skipping essential background Demanding background that isn t there
109 Learning strategy Different kinds of material require different learning strategies.
110 Learning strategy A learning strategy for history or literature: Main goal is familiarization with lots of things. Many large trends but few rigorous logical connections. There is no starting point you can start anywhere. Read a lot of books and get the big picture. Subjective judgment is important; careful reasoning is not.
111 Learning strategy A learning strategy for mathematical science: Main goal is clear understanding of key points. Important ideas are not so much learned as rediscovered, often in a flash of insight. It is important to trace ideas to their sources (remember who discovered them). You must take things in order; if you skip a chapter, or even a page of definitions, you re lost.
112 Learning strategy A learning strategy for engineering or computer programming: Main goal is to apply science to solve problems. It s easy to experiment to find out whether your solutions work (especially with computers). You must learn things in order. No need to trace ideas to sources; any book that gives you the information will do. Tendency to follow authorities blindly.
113 Learning strategy A student who is only good at one subject is often someone who only has one learning strategy.
114 Clear understanding Insist on clear understanding! My C and D students are so accustomed to being confused that they don t realize it isn t normal.
115 Clear understanding We ve already talked about how to know whether you understand a word and whether you understand a sentence. Put that knowledge to use!
116 Clear understanding Learn the vocabulary, and be precise about it. If you don t, you can t learn anything else.
117 Clear understanding If something is unclear, don t wait for it to clear up later. Back up and get it clear. Students who are lost have always been lost longer than they want to admit.
118 Clear understanding If you guess anything, you must test your guess immediately. Not just whether it might be true but also whether it might be false. (Remember epistemology?)
119 Clear understanding Our educational system encourages unclear understanding. If 70% is a passing grade, you can almost get by with nothing but guesses and vague familiarity.
120 Clear understanding 70% knowledge of American history is worthwhile, but 70% of the multiplication table (with random gaps) is almost useless! People accustomed to incomplete learning get terribly lost in rigorous, logical, mathematical material.
121 Organizing knowledge Don t expect the teacher or the textbook to organize the contents of your head for you. Organize the knowledge yourself. Make your own notes. Pretend you re writing a textbook! That s how I ended up writing so many books
122 Organizing knowledge Constantly check your own understanding in as many ways as you can. Try things on the computer check other reference books quiz yourself try explaining the material to others.
123 Organizing knowledge Learning is a lot like writing a book. The goal is to build a structure in your own mind, not to absorb something that somebody else gives you. The knowledge in your mind is your own creative product! We build our own tools.
Critical analysis Be more critical! More analysis needed! That s what my tutors say about my essays. I m not really sure what they mean. I thought I had written a really good assignment this time. I did
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