WHAKATANE DISTRICT COUNCIL. Walking and Cycling Strategy. October 2007

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1 WHAKATANE DISTRICT COUNCIL Walking and Cycling Strategy

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3 DOCUMENT HISTORY AND STATUS Issue Rev. Issued To Qty Date Prepared Reviewed Approved 1 Draft Whakatane District Council 1 Elec 9/2/07 C Inder T Keyte R Burnett 2 Draft Whakatane District Council 2 3/4/07 C Inder T Keyte R Burnett 3 Final Whakatane District Council 1 Elec 9/10/07 C Inder R Burnett R Burnett Printed: 10 October, 2007 Last Saved: 9 October, 2007 File Name: K:\ Whakatane Transportation Study\Walking and Cycling Strategy\Report\Walking and Cycling Strategy_FINAL.doc Project Manager: Reece Burnett Name of Organisation: Bloxam Burnett & Olliver Ltd Name of Project: Whakatane Transportation Strategy Name of Report: Whakatane Walking and Cycling Strategy Report Version: Final Project Number:

4 CONTENTS 1.0 FOREWORD INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT WHY HAVE A WALKING AND CYCLING STRATEGY? CHALLENGES FOR WALKING AND CYCLING CONTEXT WALKING AND CYCLING IN NEW ZEALAND WALKING AND CYCLING IN WHAKATANE WALKING AND CYCLING ACCIDENTS OUR VISION AND GOALS VISION FOR WALKING AND CYCLING GOALS FOR WALKING AND CYCLING ACHIEVING THE GOALS TARGETS POLICY CONTEXT FOR WALKING & CYCLING NATIONAL POLICY CONTEXT REGIONAL POLICY CONTEXT ACHIEVING THE STRATEGY TARGETS INITIATIVES TO INCREASE CYCLING AND WALKING ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURE EDUCATION ENCOURAGEMENT ENFORCEMENT FUNDING OF WALKING AND CYCLING PROJECTS FEATURE PROJECTS STRATEGY MONITORING AND REVIEW CONSULTATION IMPLEMENTATION MONITORING REVIEW NETWORK PLANS IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM INDICATIVE 10 YEAR PLAN QUICK WIN PROJECTS QUICK WIN URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE MODIFICATIONS INDICATIVE COSTS OF INFRASTRUCTURE...32 APPENDIX A...33 EXAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY FORM...33 APPENDIX B...36 DESIGN STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES...36 APPENDIX C...37 POSSIBLE MONITORING ACTIVITIES...37

5 1.0 FOREWORD To be written and signed by a Councillor or the Mayor Page1

6 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 OVERVIEW This document prepared by Bloxam Burnett and Olliver Ltd engineering consultants, is the first Walking and Cycling Strategy (the Strategy) developed for Whakatane District Council (Council). It outlines Council s commitment and plan to advance walking and cycling in the Whakatane, Ohope and Edgecumbe areas such that there is a notable future increase in the population of people participating more regularly in walking and cycling for transport and enjoyment. It does not pertain to Murupara or Te Teko. Many people do not walk or cycle regularly. There are many reasons given for this. Examples include: the distances are too great; disability limitations, a car is needed because other people or goods have to be transported; the weather is a concern; the hills are to difficult; and specifically in the case of cycling, it is too dangerous to cycle on the roads, helmets interfere with their hair styles or current clothing fashions are not conducive to cycle. Yet in Whakatane, there are still people who do walk and cycle despite these apparent reasons for not doing so. Their challenges tend to be concerned with the existing traffic conditions they experience every day and the quality of the walking and cycling facilities provided. For the purposes of this Strategy, Walkers includes walking, jogging, running and pedestrians with disabilities. This walking and cycling strategy is intended to help Council overcome these challenges in Whakatane so that walking and cycling experience a resurgence in popularity and acceptance. 2.2 STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT This Strategy has been developed with input from Council staff, interested parties and individuals in the Whakatane community, the New Zealand best practice guide to Walking and Cycling Strategies (Land Transport New Zealand Research Report 274) and key guidelines from national organisations such as the national Walking and Cycling Strategy, Getting There On Foot by Cycle (MOT 2005). The Walking and Cycling Strategies - Best Practice (2005) guide identifies the best features of other New Zealand council strategies available at the time, and also recommends an appropriate format for the development of new strategies. Accordingly, where relevant this Strategy draws on the best practice features available from a number of those highlighted strategies, including Christchurch City Council, and Tasman, Tauranga and Central Otago District Councils. A Walking and Cycling Strategy is (and must be) a living document, reviewed and updated frequently to take account of current policy and progress in the district. It is recommended that this document be reviewed and re-published one year after publication and thereafter, every three years. The Strategy includes walking and cycling network plans and recommends the establishment of annual implementation plans, to be reviewed and updated in conjunction with the annual Long Term Council Community Plan (LTCCP) review. 2.3 WHY HAVE A WALKING AND CYCLING STRATEGY? Funding for Local Walking and Cycling Projects Land Transport New Zealand is the national funding agency for land transport initiatives. A dedicated fund was established in 2002 for the promotion of walking and cycling in the country, with access to the funds on the condition that Council s have a Strategy that set out a clear vision, objectives and priorities for cycling and walking in their district. National Policy National policies promoting cycling and walking have been prepared by a number of New Zealand Government agencies since, including the Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Health, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority and Land Transport New Zealand. These policies seek to encourage cycling and walking as sustainable and healthy transport alternatives, particularly relevant for short trips in our community instead of the use of motor vehicles. Page2

7 The Bay of Plenty Regional Land Transport Strategy 2007 The Bay of Plenty Regional Land Transport Strategy 2007 (RLTS) includes sustainability as a strategic outcome. In particular, the outcome being sought is that real efforts are made to manage travel and travel demand, optimise existing networks and improve alternative modes. One of the corresponding actions in the RLTS is to implement local pedestrian and cycling strategies, including the Whakatane Walking and Cycling Strategy. The Benefits of Walking and Cycling The benefits of increasing the number of people who regularly walk and cycle for short trip transportation and leisure are far reaching for individuals, the community and the country. Benefits at a personal level include an improved mental and physical health due to the more active lifestyle, and better social interaction with people and connection to the community, while at a local level the benefits include less demand on local health services, less Council spending on car related infrastructure (roads, intersections and car parks) less environmental pollution and reduced vehicle congestion in the urban environment. Combining the benefits of increased walking and cycling in each town and city would then translate nationally to a significant cost saving for New Zealand s public health system, reduced reliance on non-renewable energy resources for transportation and an improved economy and environment due to the reduced congestion and air/noise pollution in the main cities. The Whakatane district is extremely well suited to walking and cycling due to the warm coastal climate, generally flat topography, the numerous recreation tracks and scenic views, and for Whakatane township in particular, the relatively close proximity of residential housing areas to the predominant employment areas in the town. Many people choose to live in Whakatane for these lifestyle reasons. However, as illustrated in Section 3.0, walking and cycling as modes of transport for short trips are significantly underrepresented in Whakatane compared with car driver/passenger trips. Accordingly this Strategy will provide Council with a clear vision, objectives, supporting policy, targets and an action plan for promoting walking and cycling in the community. 2.4 CHALLENGES FOR WALKING AND CYCLING Several key issues affect the attractiveness of cycling and walking and these are outlined under the following headings. Land Use Planning and Traffic Generation Development in Whakatane has been characterized by low-density suburban development that is heavily dependent on private motor vehicles for every-day transportation. Footpaths have generally been constructed when roads are built, although consideration of concepts like connectivity and providing where people wish to walk have often been overlooked in this process. The result of planning and construction geared towards vehicle use has increased reliance on private motor vehicles for even short local trips, and the associated increase in traffic volumes has had a negative effect on the safety and desirability of cycling and walking. Reduced Health The general health of the population has become an issue because of the increase in diseases related to inactive lifestyles and poor diet. Sedentary jobs have become more common and the increased use of motor vehicles, machines and technology allows us to perform a greater number of tasks without physical exertion. Furthermore our recreational activities have increasingly become more focussed on entertainment such as television and video, movies and video games. Consequently, opportunities for physical activity have almost been eliminated from our daily working lives. This is evidenced in increased obesity levels in New Zealand. Results of the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey (A Portrait of Health) revealed that one in five New Zealand adults are obese, and one in three adults are overweight (excludes obese). The sub-regional Physical Activity Plan contains a special component for Whakatane District Council that promotes Walking and Cycling in line with the SPAC (Sport and Recreation New Zealand) philosophy More People, More Active, More Often. Page3

8 Perception of Safety Perceptions of poor safety are reasons given for not walking or cycling. Crime, anti-social behavior, vehicle speeds and increased traffic volumes, and poor driver behaviour are all perceived or real safety factors. Public walkways are often viewed as unsafe as historically they tend to be fenced on both sides, narrow, poorly lit, often vandalised, and vegetation not always adequately maintained. Maintenance Lack of maintenance, resulting in broken footpaths, overgrown vegetation and unswept cycle lanes as examples, pose a safety risk for and have a negative effect on the quality of the environment and the goal of encouraging cycling and walking. Both cycle and walking facilities require regular monitoring to ensure things such as broken glass, loose stone chip, debris from car crashes, rubbish, graffiti and overgrown vegetation are dealt with. Balancing the needs of different users. Balancing the various needs of different cycle users is a key challenge. Recreational cyclists who may choose to cycle in parks and on footpaths have very different needs from commuter cyclists who cycle to get from point A to B as efficiently as possible. There is also a need to cater for all pedestrians, from able-bodied pedestrians, to people pushing children in strollers and wheelchair and mobility scooter users. Other users, such as roller blades and skateboards are considered pedestrians also. Accordingly facilities need to be functional with provision of safe crossings of street for all. Urban Design The quality of the environment is an important factor when it comes to encouraging more cycling and walking. Common design problems that occur include: Uneven footpath/cycleway surfacing, no consideration for impaired mobility users Poor consideration for where pedestrians and cyclists wish to go (desire-lines). Inadequate street lighting Inadequate sightlines Overgrown vegetation Obstacles such as street furniture Graffiti, rubbish and broken glass Poor connectivity with other facilities Page4

9 3.0 CONTEXT 3.1 WALKING AND CYCLING IN NEW ZEALAND Walking is a mode of transport used by many people. For some it provides a critical link between their doorway and other modes of transport, and for others it is their primary mode of transport for short trips and day-to-day activities The New Zealand Walking and Cycling Strategy, Getting There - On Foot, by Cycle 1 and the New Zealand Pedestrian Profile 2 provides some insight into walking and cycling travel by New Zealanders. Nearly twenty percent of household trips are undertaken by foot Walking is particularly significant in the travel of children, young people and older adults Social and leisure are the most common reasons for walking followed by shopping, education and work trips. However Walking as a mode of transport for short trips is declining in favour of travel in cars. It is estimated that New Zealanders took some 400,000 fewer walking trips per day in 1998 than in 1990 The number of walking trips by children going to school declined by 10 percent between 1989/90 and 1997/98. The decline in both walking and cycling as forms of household travel is most apparent among the young. Between 1990 and 1998 the number of cycling trips in New Zealand reduced by 39%. 1. Getting There - On Foot, by Cycle, February New Zealand Pedestrian Profile, 2000 The reduction in the number of young people cycling in New Zealand is a significant concern. Research by Land Transport New Zealand (Report 273: Balancing the Needs of Cyclists and Motorists) found that Whether or not a parent used to cycle to school, is related to the likelihood of their high school children cycling to school. Accordingly future efforts to encourage cycling to school will be further impeded by the absence of a cycling history in parents. 3.2 WALKING AND CYCLING IN WHAKATANE Walking and cycling are activities undertaken by people for a number of different reasons, each with different needs. They can be categorised into three user groups, and the Strategy should address each group specifically if walking and cycling are to grow in popularity. The user groups are: Commuters those who walk or cycle to employment, places of education or service Recreational users - those who walk and/or cycle for sports, fitness, and leisure Tourism walking and cycling for sightseeing and the outdoors experience Commuter Walking and Cycling in Whakatane District The New Zealand Travel Survey carried out by the Land Transport Safety Authority in 1999, found that commuting trips across New Zealand accounted for 42 percent of all cycling trips and 29 percent of all walking trips. Detailed results from the 2003/04 Travel Survey remain unavailable at this time. Census Data Commuter walking and cycling data specific to Whakatane is currently restricted to Census surveys that involve the collection of Main Means of Travel to Work data. Census data records the mode of travel, age and household location of the survey participant. The data is useful as a five yearly snap-shot of walking and cycling in the district, but has the following limitations: Page5

10 The weather on Census day can affect walking and cycling figures Surveys only Employed persons Surveys only Commuter trips Surveys only those aged 15 years and over. Hence children walking or cycling to school are not counted. Figure 1 illustrates the percentage of commuters (aged 15 years an over) in the Whakatane District who walked (jogged/ran) or cycled as their main means of travel to work on the day of the Census surveys from 1986 to Figure 1: Whakatane / New Zealand Travel to Work by Walking and Cycling 1986 to % Percent Main Means of Travel to Work 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 13.7% 10.2% 11.2% 9.1% 9.9% 5.7% 8.5% 4.5% 7.1% 3.1% Walk or Jog Whakatane Cycle Whakatane Walk or Jog Nationally Cycle Nationally 0% Census Year Data Source: Statistics New Zealand Data in this graph only relates to those who travelled to work. It does not include those who work from home or didn t go to work. The above graph illustrates that commuter walking is more popular than commuter cycling in the Whakatane District, but both transport modes have experienced a steady decline in participants since In 1986, 13.7% walked (jogged/ran) and 10.2% cycled to work as their main means of travel, compared with 7.1% and just 3.1% respectively 20 years later in For New Zealand as a whole, the graph similarly shows a reduction over the same period for commuter cycling rates, while the number who walk to work initially reduced but has been static at around 7% since For all years shown, the rates of commuter walking and cycling in Whakatane have been above or equal to the national figures. Figure 2 illustrates commuter walking and cycling rates in Whakatane township compared with Nelson urban area. Nelson has been selected for comparison with Whakatane due to the similar coastal climate, sunshine hours and topography. Figure 2 shows that commuter cycling is declining in both Nelson and Whakatane, although Whakatane s rate of decline is significantly more rapid. Before 1996 Whakatane commuter cycling rates exceeded that of Nelson, and commuter cycling was more popular than walking in Whakatane. The number of people walking to work is also declining in Whakatane, albeit slower than cycling. However this trend is in contrast with Nelson rates where, after 1996 commuter walking has been gaining in popularity again and now at 9.6%, exceeds Whakatane s rate by 2.1%. Page6

11 Figure 2: Whakatane / Nelson Travel to Work Trends by Walking and Cycling 1986 to % Percent Main Means of Travel to Work 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 10% 14.0% 11.5% 8.8% 9.0% 7.6% 8.1% 5.8% 7.5% 4.0% Walk or Jog Whakatane Cycle Whakatane Walk or Jog Nelson Cycle Nelson 0% Census Year Data Source: Statistics New Zealand Overall, the Census survey results reveal that commuter Walking and Cycling in Whakatane are continually declining in popularity, similar to the trend throughout New Zealand. However Whakatane s rate of decline is much greater than that occurring in Nelson, indicating the need for a Walking and Cycling Strategy to help reverse the declining trend. Count Data Pedestrian and cycling count surveys were carried out in Whakatane Township on weekdays of the 19 th to 21 st of August Cycling and pedestrian count data is useful for indicating the popularity of walking and cycling in the community. The counts were carried out at various strategic intersections illustrated in Figure 3, to capture numbers on the popular urban access routes. Figure 3 Page7

12 Two surveys were also situated on the stop-bank by the Landing Road Bridge and the Motor Camp (at McGarvey Road) and a further survey was conducted at the CBD end of Hillcrest Road. The surveys were carried out during the peak commuter hours of 7:30am 9:30am, 11am 1pm, the school departure peak 3pm 4pm and the commercial peak period, 4pm - 6pm. Table 1 summarises the survey findings. The cyclist and pedestrian volumes include all arrivals on all approaches to the survey location. Table 1: Cyclist and Pedestrian Survey Count Summary Location 7:30am - 9:30am 11am - 1pm School Peak 3pm - 4pm 4pm - 6pm Cyclists Pedestrians Cyclists Pedestrians Cyclists Pedestrians Cyclists Pedestrians McAlister Street / The Strand Roundabout Commerce Street / The Strand Roundabout Gorge Road / Valley Road Roundabout Landing Road / Hinemoa Street McAlister Street / Domain Road Landing Road / Eivers Road King Street / Domain Road Goulstone road / King Street Stop Bank at Landing Road Bridge Stop Bank at Motor Camp (McGarvey Rd) Hillcrest Road (by Stairway to CBD) Surveyors observed the following functional issues for pedestrians and cyclists at the Landing Road / Hinemoa Street roundabout: The roundabout approaches, being very busy with traffic are difficult to cross for pedestrians and cyclists heading to or coming from the bridge footpaths. Many cyclists choose to ride on the paths across the bridge due to the narrow traffic carriageways in either direction. Those who continue on the road tend to be confident cyclists who ride in the centre of the traffic lane. The narrow paths on either side of the bridge are designated as shared-use for pedestrians and cyclists. They require significant care and attention by users when pedestrians encounter a cyclist riding in the opposing direction on the path. Hinemoa Street has no crossing facilities in place or formal refuge island for pedestrians at the roundabout, despite count data proving this is a popular location particularly for students to cross. Pedestrians were seen to stand on the vegetated splitter island while waiting to cross. Kerb let-downs and footpaths leading to the kerbs are typically in poor condition or nonexistent. Furthermore there are no formal kerb let-downs or paths for cyclists riding to and from the bridge shared use paths. Informal dirt tracks indicate the desire paths of cyclists. Many pedestrians choose to use an informal and track beneath the bridge instead of crossing Landing Road at the bridge. The informal track is a potential security issue for users in it s current state, and could be improved and formally linked to footpaths at street level. Illustrating the lack of formal cycle kerb let-downs Landing Road Bridge cycle/pedestrian path Page8

13 Informal track under Landing Road Bridge No pedestrian facility across Hinemoa Street Questionnaire Survey BBO carried out a phone questionnaire survey for the Whakatane District, involving 152 participants selected randomly from the phone book (approx. 1% of study area population (Census 2006) over the age of 14). The survey contained questions in 3 categories: 1. Usual mode of transport to work or place of study 2. Whether participant walks or cycles for recreation/fitness 3. Whether any school aged children living at the address walked or cycled to school regularly. An example survey form is located in Appendix A to illustrate the questions, along with a full analysis of the survey results. A summary of the survey results relating to Transport to Work and School Aged Children follows: Transport to Work 52% of respondents went to a regular place of employment or study. The majority who did not attend a regular place of employment or study were retired. Of those who did, 64% drove a car for 1-10min to work. 8% walked regularly to work while only 1% cycled. The 1-10min driver timeframe was important in this questionnaire as it identified those may live within cycling or walking distance to work or place of study. The predominant reasons by those people who drove their car to work for 1-10min each day rather than walk or cycle, are as follows: 40% identified time constraints in the morning 13% admitted they drive because they are lazy 15% required their car for work purposes Only 4% identified safety concerns with walking or cycling to work or place of study. Other minor reasons included disabilities or that the distance was too far. School Children Just 22% of respondents (33) had school aged children living at home. Of those respondents, 33% of children regularly walked to school while 9% regularly cycled. 30% drove their children in a car 1-10 minutes to school, of which 60% said they did so because it was on the way to work while only 20% identified road/traffic safety concerns as the reason their children do not walk or cycle the distance. Recreational Walking and Cycling in Whakatane District Formal survey data does not exist, either district wide or nationally, concerning the number of recreational walking or cycling trips undertaken each year. Accordingly BBO included questions relating to walking and cycling for recreation and/or exercise in the phone survey. Recreation Of the 152 survey participants, only 32% did not walk or cycle regularly for recreation of exercise. Page9

14 Walking was considerably the most popular of the two activities, with 56% of participants compared with 4% that cycle. 7% regularly do both activities. 85% of walkers walked at least twice per week, while all those that cycled do so at least twice per week. In total, 77% of respondents that walk, cycle or both for recreation did so for 30 minutes or more per occasion. The following are the predominant reasons given by those who did not walk or cycle for recreation: 6% go to the gym for recreation and exercise 35% identified disability reasons (typically retired participants) 19% said they had no time 17% identified laziness as the reason Tourism The Ministry of Tourism Research collects information from international visitors concerning their stay in New Zealand, including aspects such as reasons for visiting, main activities undertaken, destinations and means of travel within our country. The information is provided on the Ministry s website 3 for the National and Regional levels, and although not town specific, it gives an indication of tourism trends and the potential regional tourism market for Whakatane to be a part of. At year ended September 2006, a total of 2.2 million international visitors aged 15 years and over visited New Zealand. Of these 38,200 listed Cycling on Road and 24,800 identified Mountain Biking as activities undertaken while here. Similarly, 283,800 people listed walking (non-specific) and 182,700 listed a ½ hr bush walk as activities enjoyed in New Zealand. Concerning transportation types, 6,600 people identified cycling as a means of travel in New Zealand, up from 3800 in 2001, while 24,900 identified walking/tramping as a means of travel. Domestic and international travellers in 2005 made a total of 3.4 million visits to the Bay of Plenty Region (all locations in the area except Rotorua). Cycling was a transportation type for 16,700 domestic visitors, while cycling data for international visitors to the region cannot be provided as it found to be unreliable on the website. 3. Page10

15 3.3 WALKING AND CYCLING ACCIDENTS Pedestrians and Cyclists are vulnerable road users. They are required to share and compete at times for road space with vehicles of significantly greater size, speed and weight, often on roads that poorly cater for their needs. The CAS database operated by Land Transport New Zealand contains a record of the cycle and pedestrian accidents involving vehicles reported to police. However it is likely that the number of pedestrians and cyclists accidents per year is much greater. Land Transport New Zealand estimates that 40 to 60 percent of injury accidents go unreported. While others estimate that more than 60 percent of injury accidents go unreported, and that falls associated with cyclist error or road features are rarely reported 4. The reasons for this under reporting of accidents are: The Transport Act 1962 only requires motor vehicle crashes to be reported and therefore the Police need only record those cyclist or pedestrian crashes involving a car. Crashes between a pedestrian and a cyclist or a fall from a cycle, or pedestrian falling on a footpath are not recorded. Crashes that do not involve serious injury can go unreported if the parties involved choose not to phone the police. Further, Land Transport New Zealand reports that of those injuries requiring hospitalisation between 1997 and 2001, 84% of cycling and 26% of pedestrian injuries were either off-road or did not involve a motor vehicle Wood, K Bicycle Crashes in New Zealand 5. LTSA Draft Pedestrian and Cyclist Strategy Framework, October 2003 Figure 4 illustrates the number and injury status of reported pedestrian and cycle accidents in the Whakatane District for the 5 year period from 1997 to Figure Cycle and Pedestrian Accidents in Whakatane District 16 Accidents per 5 Years Cyclists Pedestrians FATAL SERIOUS MINOR Non-Injury Injury Data Source: Land Transport NZ CAS Database In total, 24 crashes involved cyclists and 22 crashes involved pedestrians. Of the combined total, 81% occurred in an urban speed environment. As shown, 5 of the pedestrian accidents resulted in fatality 3 of which were under the age of nineteen. A total of 10 (45%) accidents involved pedestrians under the age of 19, while only 3 involved pedestrians over the age of 70. Of the 24 cyclist accidents, 9 were under the age of nineteen although a further 10 accidents were reported without a cyclist age. Roundabouts featured in 7 (29%) of the 24 cycle crashes, while a further 7 crashes were recorded at T Intersections. Of the T intersection crashes, 5 were directly related to the operation of the intersection. Figure 5 illustrates the number and injury status of reported pedestrian and cycle accidents in the Whakatane District for the most recent 5 year period in the database, August 2001 to August Page11

16 Figure 5 August August 2006 (Last 5 Years) Cycle and Pedestrian Accidents in Whakatane District Accidents per 5 Years Cyclists Pedestrians FATAL SERIOUS MINOR Non-Injury Injury Data Source: Land Transport NZ CAS Database In total, 22 crashes were reported for the District involving cyclists and 26 crashes involved pedestrians. Of the combined total, 87% occurred in an urban speed environment. One cyclist accident resulted in a fatality. A total of 8 (31%) accidents involved pedestrians under the age of 19, while 3 involved pedestrians over the age of 70. However 9 pedestrian accidents were reported without the pedestrian s age. Of the 22 cyclist accidents, 7 were under the age of nineteen, 2 over the age of 70 and a further 5 accidents were reported without a cyclist age. Roundabouts featured in 7 (33%) of the 21 cycle crashes, while a further 8 crashes were recorded at T Intersections. Of the T intersection crashes, 5 were directly related to the operation of the intersection. Improving the safety of cyclists and pedestrians can be achieved through better education of all road users, reducing urban traffic volumes and speeds, and network infrastructure improvements. Interestingly, research 6 shows that there is a safety in numbers effect in relation to cycling. That is, the number of accidents for cyclists is more strongly influenced by motor vehicle volumes than cyclist volumes. Accordingly, although the total number of cycle accidents will increase as the volume of cyclists increases, the accident rate per cyclist tends to reduce. This is related to an increased level of cyclist education and awareness of cyclists by vehicle-drivers. 6. Research Study by Turner and Francis, 2004 Page12

17 4.0 OUR VISION AND GOALS 4.1 VISION FOR WALKING AND CYCLING Whakatane District Council s Vision for walking and cycling is A District where walking and cycling are convenient, attractive and popular forms of everyday transportation and recreation. A District that promotes Sustainable Transportation. 4.2 GOALS FOR WALKING AND CYCLING Council s goals to fulfil the Vision for walking and cycling in the Whakatane District are: 1. To increase the number of people who regularly cycle or walk to school and work (measured by Census, traffic counts and public consultation surveys), particularly those living within 3km of their regular daily travel destination. 2. To establish and promote a strategic Cycle and Walking Network within the Whakatane District. 3. To continually develop road infrastructure that is accessible, wellconnected and safe for pedestrians and cyclists, such that walking and cycling become more viable and convenient forms of travel and recreation in Whakatane. 4. To reduce the number and severity of Pedestrian and Cyclists injury accidents per year in the District 5. To educate and develop a driver culture of awareness and acceptance that cyclist and pedestrians are legitimate road users. 6. To ensure that cycling and walking are promoted in Council s land use and transport planning, engineering and development control policies. Page13

18 5.0 ACHIEVING THE GOALS 5.1 TARGETS Quantifiable targets have been set, based on the trends illustrated in Section 3.0, to meet Whakatane s goals for walking and cycling. Targets for Goal 1 To increase the mode-share of walking and cycling commuter trips, measured by Census survey, from 2006 levels (8% and 4% respectively) to the following levels: Walking; 10% by 2011 and 13% by 2016 Cycling ; 6% by 2001 and 9% by 2016 To increase the volume of students, living within walking or cycling distance to school, to 60% by 2011, from the baseline 2006 levels identified (approximately 42% combined), measured by questionnaire survey of parents, or student surveys at schools. To establish a program of regular pedestrian and cycle count surveys on key routes within Whakatane, starting with and building on the survey locations of this strategy. To record an increasing trend in walking and cycling volumes year by year relative to the baseline count data reported in this Strategy. Target for Goal 2 To establish and promote the development of a Strategic Walking and Cycling Network within the Whakatane District by 2008, with completion of the networks by Targets for Goal 3 To ensure that the development of the cycle and pedestrian facilities are designed according to New Zealand s best practice engineering design guides identified in Appendix B, and carried out with priority towards completion of the Strategic Walking and Cycling Network. To record and sustain an increase in regular recreational walking and cycling to 80% of survey respondents by 2011, as a result of the increased viability and convenience afforded by the improved walking and cycling infrastructure. (An 80% rating targets the 11.5% who identified no time or too lazy as reasons for no recreational walking or cycling participation in the 2006 questionnaire survey) Targets for Goal 4 Council implement and administer a register for recording unreported cycle and pedestrian accidents. To reduce the number of Fatal cycle and pedestrian accidents per 5 year period to 0. To reduce the number of cycle and pedestrian Serious injury accidents per 5 year period to 2 each respectively. To reduce the number of cycle and pedestrian Minor injury accidents per 5 year period to an average of 8 each respectively (a 40% reduction from the 5 years to 2006). To provide adequate resources so that the proportion of students who have the opportunity to undertake LTSA sanctioned cycle training by Year 7 (Form 1) is 100% per annum by Targets for Goal 5 To achieve an 80% satisfaction rating in surveys of cyclists and pedestrian perceptions by 2011, concerning a change in driver culture towards acceptance of cyclists and pedestrians as legitimate road users. Page14

19 Targets for Goal 6 To ensure the District Plan and all other development policy manuals recognise the Walking and Cycling Strategy, and accordingly provision/consideration for the needs of pedestrians and cyclists is mandatory for new developments. Time Frame: At the next review of each of the Whakatane District Council planning documents. To ensure Council s Engineering Codes of Practice requires good-practice design of pedestrian and cyclist facilities, and that safety and amenity provision for walking and cycling is mandatory in all new or upgraded infrastructure. Time Frame: The next review of the Code of Practice 6.0 POLICY CONTEXT FOR WALKING & CYCLING 6.1 NATIONAL POLICY CONTEXT New Zealand Transport Strategy The New Zealand Transport Strategy sets out the government's vision for transport and will guide policy decisions about transport. Therefore it is important that this Strategy reflects the objectives of the New Zealand strategy. The objectives of the New Zealand Transport Strategy are to: Assist economic development Assist safety and personal security Improve access and mobility Protect and promote public health Ensure environmental sustainability. The New Zealand Transport Strategy objectives are met in this Walking and Cycling Strategy by: Considering means of assisting safety and personal security through identifying existing road safety concerns and urban personal security issues for pedestrians and cyclists; Identifying improvements to access and mobility that promote a sense of community Promoting public health by promoting active means of transport Promoting sustainable transport modes that cause little adverse impacts on the environment and reduced reliance on fossil fuels In providing for these land transport objectives, Council will also help to assist economic development and promotion of environmental sustainability. New Zealand Land Transport Management Act The Land Transport Management Act (LTMA) represents the biggest change to land transport legislation since the late 1980s. The Act was passed in November 2003 and envisages an integrated, long-term approach for land transport funding and management, with more emphasis on social and environmental needs. It expands the role of Land Transport New Zealand so it focuses on land transport as a whole and not just the roads themselves. In line with the vision of the New Zealand Transport Strategy, Land Transport New Zealand will have to contribute to achieving a land transport system that is integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable. The LTMA Act requires organisations seeking funding from Land Transport New Zealand to prepare detailed land transport programmes and to submit them to Land Transport New Zealand for approval. All approved programmes will be consolidated into the National Land Transport Programme. Whakatane s Pedestrian and Cycleway Strategy will provide the basis of Council s programme for walking and cycling initiatives in the Whakatane District. Land Transport Act Sections 175 to 183 of the Land Transport Act require Council to develop and implement a Regional Land Transport Strategy (RLTS). The Bay of Plenty RLTS (2007) identifies the land transport needs of the region and provides Whakatane Council with a set of policies and actions for meeting these needs. Page15

20 Road Safety 2010 Strategy In September 2002, the Minister of Transport, Hon. Paul Swain, announced the Government's new road safety goals of achieving no more than 300 fatalities and 4,500 hospitalisations per annum across New Zealand by In considering the present national road safety statistics, the Road Safety 2010 Strategy highlights that: Children account for a high number of fatalities and injuries in walking and cycling related crashes. However over-representation may be due to their limited road safety skills and higher use of walking and cycling as a means of independent transport. Accident statistics show that the greatest risk to cyclists and pedestrians occurs in urban areas where the majority of crashes occur. Under-reporting of accidents is however acknowledged in respect of recreational cycling and walking. Provision of dedicated cycle lanes and pedestrian facilities can significantly reduce localised safety risks. Councils shall provide safe facilities where these are justified. Other National Policies Other national policy papers that support the need for increasing the amount of walking and cycling in New Zealand, include: Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy. Ministry of Health Draft Healthy Action Healthy Eating Strategy Getting There - On Foot, by Cycle 2005 (MOT). 6.2 REGIONAL POLICY CONTEXT Bay of Plenty Regional Land Transport Strategy (RLTS) The Bay of Plenty Regional Land Transport Strategy 2007 (RLTS) is consistent with these national policy directions. The RLTS identifies the need to provide and plan for walking and cycling transport modes in the following actions given to Road Controlling Authorities (RCAs) in Chapter 7: To ensure cyclists and pedestrians have safe access along and across the road network. Develop procedures to ensure new development incorporates pedestrian, cycling and public transport facilities. Outcome 8 (public health) contains an action for the region to actively encourage recreational walking and cycling in order to promote public health. For Whakatane District Council to develop and implement their Walking and Cycling Strategy (this report). Performance indicators in the RLTS include recording of pedestrian and cyclist numbers. Travel Demand Management also features in Chapter 6 of the RLTS, with a focus on promoting modal shift for short trips, from car use to cycling and walking modes. The Strategic Regional Walking and Cycling Package contained in the RLTS seeks to advance this objective with the following initiatives to be implemented by TLAs across the region: Strategic cycleway network development [all]; Inform and educate strategy for identified cycle routes [Environment BOP/ all districts]; Cycle facilities on major commuting routes (development of standards and shoulder widening [Transit, TCC, RDC]; Develop regional cycling design standards for commuter routes [Transit/Environment BOP]; Narrow bridge assessment and mitigation programme (bridge widening or use of warning technologies Cyclist on bridge ) [Transit/Environment BOP]; and Develop school travel plans including walking school buses. Whakatane District Council LTCCP Council have committed in the LTCCP to producing this Walking and Cycling Strategy and seeing that it is implemented over the next 10 years, from 2006 to Projects identified in the implementation plan featuring later in this Strategy, will be added when programmed to Council s Annual Plan, and to the LTCCP s Transport Network and Systems program during the 3 yearly LTCCP review process. Currently the only programmed construction of walking and cycling facilities in the LTCCP is on Ohope Road during the seal widening and upgrades from 2007 to Page16

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