PEDESTRIAN PLANNING AND DESIGN MARK BRUSSEL

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1 PEDESTRIAN PLANNING AND DESIGN MARK BRUSSEL

2 CONTENT OF LECTURE a) Walking as a transport mode b) Walking in Sub Sahara Africa c) Policies for pedestrians d) Pedestrian characteristics e) Network planning for pedestrians f) Pedestrian design issues

3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES OF THIS LECTURE After this lecture students should be able to: Appreciate the relevance of walking as a transport mode in the context of Sub Sahara Africa Discuss ways to involve pedestrian planning in transport policy Discuss concepts of pedestrian planning and design Argue suitability of plans and designs for a SSA context 3

4 THE NATURAL MODE Walking is the most natural and basic form of transport for humans. All of us walk. No special equipment is needed, it is zero emission and zero energy. Walking has positive consequences for the economy, peoples health, the environment and social contacts. It is key to a livable city. Many trips in cities are walking trips or involve walking (e.g. PT trips) Despite its significance, walking is often overlooked in transport planning, where it is often not seen as a transport mode and is not being appropriately planned for. As a consequence, often little data is available on walking trips to inform transport policy and planning 4

5 SUB SAHARAN AFRICA WALKING In urban areas of SSA more than 50 % of trips are walking trips, however: Infrastructure conditions are often poor o a lack of sidewalks o unsafe crossings o hawking and street vending, parking and other uses reduce the space for pedestrians Road safety and personal safety for pedestrians are important issues to be addressed 5

6 FOR SHORT TRIPS? In an African context many trips are walking trips and a lot of trips are very long! 6

7 WALKING IS BY FAR THE BIGGEST MODE IN SSA IN TERMS OF MODAL SHARE World Bank, SSATP working paper 80,

8 SUSTAINABLE BUT VULNERABLE Many (fatal) accidents involve pedestrians. On average % of all fatal accidents in SSA involve pedestrians The nr. of fatalities is 40 times larger than in Europe Accidents happen particularly in crossing roads or when pedestrian infrastructure is non existent or insufficient and pedestrians need to walk on the road. 8

9 POLICY FOR PEDESTRIANS Very few countries/cities have developed explicit policy for pedestrians, if policy is made, it is often part of the general mobility policy. Ideally, policy conditions under which pedestrian infrastructure is to be promoted need to be set, as wel as a legal and institutional framework under which conditions for implementation are provided. 9

10 TYPICAL POLICY OBJECTIVES Encourage walking as a healthy and environmentally friendly mode Promote pedestrian areas to create lively and liveable cities Provide facilities for pedestrians that allow for safe walking and safe crossing of roads Where possible, integrate walking infrastructure with cycling and public transport Enable people of all ages and with physical disabilities to make use of the pedestrian infrastructure 10

11 SNOWBALLING DISCUSSION In groups of two, discuss the two most important policy objectives associated to the provision of pedestrian infrastructure that are relevant to the conditions in Sub Sahara Africa. Join groups in groups of 4 and choose a maximum number of 3 policy objectives Join in groups of 8 Join in a plenary session and decide on max 5 policy objectives 11

12 PEDESTRIAL CHARACTERISTICS: NOT ALL PEDESTRIANS ARE EQUAL PLANNING AND DESIGN NEEDS TO ACCOMODATE FOR VARIETY IN USERS Pedestrian planning and design guide of New Zealand 12

13 PEDESTRIAN CHARACTERISTICS RELEVANT TO DESIGN Aspect Heterogeneity Space use Trip distance Action radius Residence Vulnerability Pedestrian characteristics Almost everyone is or can be a pedestrian, so wishes and needs vary per group and per individual. A pedestrian requires approximately 0,5 m² of space, much less than other modes of transport. The average distance and speed limits are much lower than (almost) all other modes of transport. The action radius is much smaller than other modes, but also highly dependent on the ability of people. The pedestrian does not only move, but also is part of/resides in public space. Pedestrians are vulnerable, also because they are not protected by a vehicle Source: Bach,

14 PLANNING FOR PEDESTRIANS 1. Determine attraction poles (residential areas, PT stations, activity centers) and connect them via desire lines 2. Convert desire lines into concrete routes 3. Determine which areas have a special function such as shopping, sports, parks etc. and need to be designed for pedestrians only. 4. Determine circulation measures. 5. Determine priorities for the location of pedestrian crossings 6. Determine design guidelines of side walks, foot paths and other infrastructure that is appropriate for the local conditions 7. Design appropriate signage and develop of pedestrian maps where useful 14

15 DESIGNING WALKABLE COMMUNITIES Pedestrian planning and design guide of New Zealand 15

16 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES MINIMUM SPACE REQUIREMENTS Pedestrian planning and design guide of New Zealand 16

17 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES WALKING SPEED Walking speed is affected by: Pedestrian characteristics such as age, gender and physical condition Trip characteristics such as walking purpose, route familiarity, trip length and encumbrances Route characteristics such as width, gradient, surfacing, shelter, attractiveness, Pedestrian density and crossing delays Environmental characteristics such as weather conditions. 17

18 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES WALKING SPEED DIFFERS PER PERSON A fit, healthy adult will generally travel at a mean speed of 5 km/hr the aged and those with mobility impairments travel more slowly, at around 4 km/hr This is however context specific, no data of SSA is known Walking speed has an impact in terms of design on abilities to cross streets, the operation of lights and other aspects. 18

19 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES SIDE WALKS Side walks basically need to be provided on all urban roads, with the exception of highways or other high speed through roads. Side walks form the backbone of the pedestrian infrastructure and need to be designed in such a way that all pedestrian functions are facilitated. In view of the large modal share of walking in SSA, it is important that side walks are sufficiently wide and provide safety and comfort to the pedestrian. Where side walks are absent or where there is insufficient space for side walks, road need to be narrowed. 19

20 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES SIDE WALK SPACE Side walks need to contain an effective walkway that is free of obstacles (such as street furniture and signage, stalls of vendors etc. This includes also overhead space that may be compromised by buildings protruding into the street Where possible a planting zone is advised, attractive for landscaping and also offer protection to pedestrians. Share the road, UNEP 20

21 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES SIDE WALK SPACE DEPENDS ALSO ON PEDESTRIAN FLOW, E.G. Pedestrian planning and design guide of New Zealand 21

22 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES CROSSINGS Pedestrians need to cross roads very often on a trip The perception of the walking experience is largely determined by the difficulties in crossing roads. Most pedestrian casualties occur when crossing roads. It is therefore of utmost importance that crossings are well designed, well built and well signed. 22

23 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES CROSSINGS The elements of safe and accessible crossings include Identification of good crossing locations; Reduction of crossing distances; Provision of direct crossings; Use of appropriate traffic control and signals; Reduction of motor vehicle speeds. Share the road, UNEP 23

24 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS SHOULD HAVE Standard zebra stripes and stop lines; Location at a grade crossing where pedestrians cross a maximum of two lanes before reaching a pedestrian refuge (sidewalk or median); Medians are at least two metres wide to provide enough space for a bicycle to stop; If crossing more than two lanes at once, it ideally includes pedestrianactivated traffic lights; Sufficient lighting; Kerb ramps that are aligned to the pedestrian crossing; and Present at an intermittent distance (every m) depending on the urban context and concentration of pedestrians. Share the road, UNEP 24

25 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES IMPORTANT OTHER FACILITIES Solutions when high volume roads need to be crossed (wide roads with speeds over 50 km/hr) include: Pedestrian tunnels: expensive solution, needs careful design, otherwise it has disadvantages in terms of personal safety Pedestrian bridge: often large structures in view of necessary height to allow trucks and other large vehicles to pass. In order to accomodate all users (wheel chairs, cyclist, hand carts, etc) ramps are needed that need to be of sufficient length, which requires a lot of space. 25

26 VARIOUS DESIGN ISSUES OVERVIEW OF PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES AND EFFECTS Share the road, UNEP 26

27 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 27

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