1 3 Research and analysis Safety aspects of contraflow cycling cyclist's vademecum for the brussels capital region Detailed analysis of accidents involving cyclists on cyclist contraflows in the Brussels-Capital Region (2008, 2009 and 2010)
2 Research and analysis Cyclist contra-flows encourage more people to travel by bicycle, as they allow cyclists to use safe routes and avoid unnecessary detours. The aims of this study are to: evaluate the relative risk of cycling accidents in contra-flows compared to the rest of the road network, determine the proportion of accidents involving a cyclist travelling against the flow of traffic, understand the circumstances of recorded accidents in order to determine whether the road layout could have contributed to their occurrence, and propose recommendations for the design of contraflow schemes with a view to reducing the risk of accident. It implements Action 8.3 of the Road Safety Action Plan (Plan d actions sécurité routière/verkeersveiligheid Actieplan) of the Brussels-Capital Region, and pages 2.1 and 2.2 of the Cycling Plan (Plan Vélo/Fietsplan) of the Brussels-Capital Region. Authors Isabelle Chalanton (BRSI) Benoît Dupriez (BRSI) Contributors Marc Broeckaert (BRSI), Patricia Courange (BM) Marianne Courtois (BM), Florence Dekoster (BM), Frederik Depoortere (BM), Karl Determe (BM), Yves Englebin (BRSI), Jean-François Gaillet (BRSI), Françoise Godart (BM) Michèle Guillaume (BRSI), Isabelle Janssens (BM), Laurence Sailliez (BRSI), Ulric Schollaert (BM), Arnaud Verstraete (De Lille cabinet) Acknowledgements We thank the College of Attorneys General, which allowed us to consult the official accident reports; the managers and staff of the traffic accident department at the Brussels Police Prosecutor s Office, and the police precincts of Brussels-Ixelles, Brussels-Midi, Polbruno, and Uccle- Auderghem-Watermael-Boitsfort for their warm welcome during the analysis of the official reports; and Ms Caroline Zwaenepoel, of the Police Operational Information Directorate of the Federal Police, who sent us the essential identification numbers of the official reports. Layout Ria De Geyter (BRSI) This brochure can be downloaded from the sites: (webshop.ibsr.be) and Disponible en français. Beschikbaar in het Nederlands D/2014/0779/22 Publisher : Camille Thiry (Brussels Mobility) March 2014 Glossary BM BIVV IBSR BRSI Cyclist Vehicle Pedestrian Brussels Mobility Belgisch Instituut voor de Verkeersveiligheid (Belgian Road Safety Institute) Institut Belge pour la Sécurité Routière (Belgian Road Safety Institute) Belgian Road Safety Institute
3 Table of contents 3 Summary Introduction Objectives of the study Background Analysis of the literature Methodology The mapping step Mapping the contra-flows Mapping of accidents Selection of the accidents to be analysed Analysis of the accidents Initial observations Distribution and use of contra-flows One in four streets in the Brussels-Capital Region is a contra-flow Over 4 in 10 cyclists on contra-flows travel against the traffic General characteristics of accidents on contra-flows What proportion of accidents occurred on a contra-flow? What is the breakdown of accidents involving a cyclist on a contra-flow between accidents at intersections and accidents on road sections? Are contra-flows more dangerous than the rest of the road network? Are there more accidents when cyclists travel against the traffic? Are accidents involving cyclists travelling against the traffic on contra-flows serious? Is the breakdown of cycling accidents on contra-flows by age and gender significant? Is the breakdown of cycling accidents on a contra-flow by time significant?... 22
4 4 4 - Accident profiles Accidents at an intersection Accidents on a road section Points for discussion Does specific cycling infrastructure ensure safety? What are the possible types of conflict on a contra-flow? Are narrow contra-flows more hazardous? Does the positioning of parking on the right or the left have an impact on cyclist safety? Can profiles of the most dangerous road types be identified? Conclusions Annexes References... 44
5 1 Préalables Summary 5 One street in four in the Brussels- Capital Region has a cyclist contraflow There are 404 km (251 miles) of one-way streets with cyclist contra-flow in the Brussels- Capital Region, accounting for 25% of the road network open to cyclists. Nearly 91% of them are local access streets (the local network ), 6% are local collector roads, 2.5% are primary collector roads, and 0.5% are arterial roads (the primary network ). At 48% of intersections in the Region, one or more of the streets has a contra-flow. This is the case for 50.5% of intersections on the local network, 56% of intersections on local collector roads, 44% of intersections on primary collector roads, and 34% of intersections on the primary network. Thus contra-flows constitute a significant part of the Brussels cycling network and contribute to high cycle permeability throughout the city. Contra-flows are not road safety black spots Of the 992 cycle accidents analysed, 126 (or 12.7%) involved a cyclist travelling (in either direction) on a road with a cyclist contra-flow, entering an intersection from a contra-flow, or crossing an intersection while heading towards a contra-flow. Only 47 accidents out of 992, or 4.7% of all cycle accidents, involved a cyclist travelling against the traffic on a contra-flow. When the number of accidents by direction of travel is compared with the number of cyclists travelling in each direction, there are proportionally no more accidents involving a cyclist travelling against the traffic than with the traffic; in fact, there are slightly fewer. Studies conducted abroad confirm that the introduction of contra-flow cycling has not caused a rise in cycle accidents on the roads concerned, and given the advantages it presents, it has an overall positive effect on safety. Of the 47 accidents involving a cyclist travelling against the traffic, 31 (66%) occurred at an intersection. For cyclists travelling with the traffic, the proportion of accidents at intersections (40%) was below the overall average. On sections of road away from intersections the danger is therefore greater when the cyclist is travelling with the traffic, but at intersections the danger is greater when the cyclist is travelling against the traffic. Thus the risk of accident to cyclists travelling with the general traffic flow must not be underestimated, and where necessary solutions must be found. The highest accident risk for cyclists is on the primary network The type of road or intersection is a more decisive factor in the risk of a cycling accident than the introduction of contra-flow cycling. The risk of an accident occurring per km of road is over 15 times greater on a road section or intersection on the primary network than on a road section or intersection on the local network. On the local network, where most contra-flows are located, there are fewer cycle accidents per km on sections of road with contra-flow cycling than on sections of road without contra-flow cycling. On the basis of cyclist counts, the risk for a cyclist of being involved in an accident is approximately four times greater per km travelled on the primary network and twice as great on local collector and primary collector roads than on the local network.
6 summary 6 Failure to give way (yield) is the most common cause of accidents when the cyclist is travelling against the traffic The main causes of accident when a cyclist is travelling against the traffic are: failure to give way (yield) (by one or other of the two road users) at an intersection: 14 accidents poor positioning of the road users involved at an intersection: 7 accidents vehicle turning at an intersection, cutting across the path of an oncoming cyclist: 6 accidents vehicle leaving a parking space on a road section: 6 accidents pedestrian crossing a road section: 5 accidents oncoming vehicle on a road section: 4 accidents. Studies conducted abroad confirm that most accidents with a cyclist travelling against the traffic take place at an intersection. Accidents on a road section generally involve pedestrians who fail to check whether a cyclist is coming in the opposite direction.. Influence of the width of the roadway and the positioning of parking The narrowness of streets does not appear to be a major accident factor; narrow streets are awkward, but the number of accidents involving contra-flow cyclists is lower than the proportion of such streets in the road network. The risk to cyclists appears to be less where parking is situated on the left (the main traffic flow being on the right) than where parking is situated on the right. Parking on the left greatly reduces the risk of accidents involving drivers opening car doors without looking, but it involves two main risks for contra-flow cyclists: it encourages the cyclist to veer towards the centre of the road, which is a riskier position to be in when approaching intersections; and it can mask visibility for pedestrians crossing between two vehicles without paying attention to contra-flow cyclists. A follow-up study would be useful to confirm this analysis with a larger sample of observations. Conclusion Overall, the accident risk for cyclists travelling on, entering or leaving a contra-flow is low. Nonetheless, two conclusions can be drawn on intersections: (a) intersections should be properly designed in order to reduce speeds and increase mutual visibility; (b) road users should be encouraged to take greater care when approaching an intersection with a contra-flow.
7 7 1 - Introduction 1.1. Objectives of the study Brussels Mobility identified four objectives for this study: evaluate the relative risk of accidents for cyclists on contra-flows compared to the rest of the road network; determine the percentage of accidents involving a cyclist travelling against the traffic; understand the circumstances of the accidents to determine whether the road layout could have contributed to their occurrence; make recommendations regarding road layouts with a view to reducing the accident risk. Figure 2 - F19 + M4 road signs at the entrance to a contra-flow 1.2. Background Since 2004, highway authorities have been required to authorise two-way cycling on oneway streets. They can only refuse to do so on grounds of safety, such as insufficient road width, lack of visibility at bends, or excessive traffic speed that has not yet been reduced. Cyclist contra-flows, known in Belgium as limited one-way streets (sens unique limité/ SULs or beperkt eenrichtingsverkeer/bev), are indicated by (compulsory) road signs (Royal and Ministerial Decrees of 18 December 2002) and (optional) road markings. Available road width <2.6 m 2.6 m >3 m 3 m contra-flow prohibited contra-flow authorised contra-flow mandatory Figure 1 - Introduction of contra-flow cycling depending on available road width according to regulations (Sources: Royal and Ministerial Decrees of 18 December 2002; IBSR 2004) Figure 3 - C1 + M2 road signs at the exit from a contra-flow. Despite the advantages of contra-flows for cyclists - shortest route, avoidance of busy and/or dangerous main roads, eye contact when passing oncoming traffic - some contraflows are sometimes still perceived as being dangerous. It is therefore necessary to evaluate contra-flows in order to respond objectively to criticisms and comments. Chapter 2 explains the methodology used. The overall results of the study are presented in Chapter 3, while the accident scenarios identi-
8 introduction 8 fied as a result of detailed analysis of the official accident reports are discussed in Chapter 4. A number of specific issues are discussed in greater detail in Chapter Analysis of the literature There are few published studies on accidents involving cyclists travelling against the traffic on contra-flows. However, the progressive introduction of contra-flows in several cities provides us with initial feedback from neighbouring countries. In Germany, cyclist contra-flows have been allowed since 1997, and a few already existed before then. At the end of the 1980s, the city of Munster introduced a number of contra-flows. A study by Planungsgemeinschaft Verkehr (1992) showed that the number and severity of cycling accidents on the roads concerned remained almost unchanged. It also showed that the introduction of contra-flows improved traffic conditions for cyclists, which in turn led to increased use of contra-flows by cyclists. Over half of cyclists considered contra-flows to be safe, while most had encountered critical situations there. For their part, half of motorists believed that contra-flows were dangerous. The main problem cited by both cyclists and motorists was the road width, while most conflicts actually occur at intersections, as on narrow streets road users tend to slow down and adapt their behaviour. Narrow streets are nonetheless more problematic when there is more motorised traffic. The study concludes that the accident risk is similar, or even lower, when the cyclist travels against the traffic than when he travels with the traffic. Better signage of contra-flows, especially by means of road markings, and more awareness-raising measures are desirable. The study by Alrutz D. et al. (2002), conducted in 15 German cities, showed that most accidents involving a cyclist travelling against the traffic occurred with pedestrians who failed to check whether a cyclist was coming in the contra-flow direction. Accidents between a cyclist riding against the traffic and a motor vehicle are rather rare and occur mainly at an intersection. The study concludes that the introduction of contra-flows has no negative effects on road safety, and that it is even positive as it enables cyclists to get off busy main roads and use quiet back streets instead. These conclusions are confirmed by the study conducted by Ryley T and Davies D (1998) in London. Video sequences filmed on five contra-flows showed that cyclists travelling against the traffic were not in danger. Furthermore, no accident was recorded following the introduction of contra-flow cycling (during the study period). Most cyclists interviewed felt safe but believed that better signage was necessary. In France, 215 km (134 miles) of two-way cycling streets were opened during the summer of 2010 in 30 km/h (20 mph) zones in Paris. A study conducted at seven sites by Paris City Hall (2011) showed a sharp increase in use of the roads concerned by cyclists. Despite the increased number of cyclists, there was no increase in the number of accidents. The study also concluded that the introduction of contraflows is safe and that the much-feared head-on collisions are extremely rare, but that there is a conflict between contra-flow cyclists and pedestrians crossing between parked vehicles. Other studies conducted in France by CERTU [Centre for Studies on Road Networks, Transport, Urban Planning and Public Facilities] (Nuyttens, 2008) with the aim of evaluating contra-flows show that few accidents involve cyclists travelling against the traffic, and that all accidents occur at intersections.
9 9 introduction Finally, in Oslo, the Norwegian Centre for Transport Research has studied the introduction of contra-flows on two roads. In one case, video observations showed that the conversion of a parking lane into a contra-flow cycling lane led to a reduction in the number of conflicts between cyclists and pedestrians on the pavement (sidewalk), to the satisfaction of pedestrians. Thus in neighbouring countries the introduction of contra-flows has not caused a rise in cycling accidents on the roads in question and, given the advantages, has a positive overall effect on safety.
10 Methodology This study comprises two methodological components: the first involves mapping the contra-flows and identifying the exact location of cycling accidents in the Brussels-Capital Region; the second involves analysis of the accidents that occurred on contra-flows or at an intersection with a contra-flow The mapping step This step is necessary in order to determine which cycling accidents occurred on a contraflow or at an intersection with a contra-flow, as this information is not mentioned in the accident database provided by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (SPF Économie/FOD Economie), Directorate-General of Statistics and Economic Information (see explanations below) Mapping the contra-flows Mapping of the contra-flows is based on the UrbAdm_sa layer of Urbis We first identified the road network accessible to cyclists by eliminating motorways, tunnels and certain bridges. This network comprises 12,424 sections of roadway and has a total length of 1,654.2 km (1,027.9 miles). The mapping of one-way streets and one-way streets with cyclist contra-flow is based on the map of the Brussels-Capital Region for active travel modes (cycling and walking), September 2011 edition. As this source has some errors, it was checked against the One-Way Map application of the Brussels Regional Informatics Centre (CIRB/CIRG) and Google Street View. As these two sources are not entirely up to date, there may be some inaccuracies in the mapping of one-way streets and one-way streets with cyclist contra-flow Mapping of accidents The cycling accidents were first identified using the database of accidents involving injury compiled each year by the Ministry of Economic Affairs(SPF Économie/FOD Economie), Directorate-General of Statistics and Economic Information. These data, extracted from the forms for the analysis of traffic accidents with fatalities or injuries, are seriously underrecorded, especially with regard to slight injuries 2. In 2008, 2009 and 2010, 824 cycling accidents involving injury were recorded in the Brussels- Capital Region. These three years were chosen because contra-flows were rolled out across the 19 municipalities making up the region in Of these 824 accidents, 433 took place on a road section between intersections and 391 at an intersection. These accidents were mapped using the ArcGIS Online geolocation tool (in the absence, at this point in the study, of a geolocation tool based on the Urbis data). The location of most of the accidents at an intersection was verified manually. For 13% of the accidents on a road section no house number was given, which makes it impossible to identify the precise location. These accidents were assumed to have occurred in the middle of the road segment Selection of the accidents to be analysed The location of the accidents was identified using the ArcGIS projection system (WGS 84 projection). The map of the accidents was then imported into the Belgian Lambert 72 projection system, used for the URBIS data (which 1. The URBIS data are cartographic data generated by the Brussels Regional Informatics Centre (CIRB/CIBG). The UrbAdm_sa vector layer contains the centre line of all roadways in the Brussels-Capital Region. 2. Accidents with injury, and especially those involving vulnerable road users, are by no means all identified in the list compiled on the basis of the accident analysis forms:, the police are not called out to every accident with injury, especially where the cyclist is the only person involved, and the police do not always fill in an accident analysis form in addition to the accident report.
11 11 methodology had been used to map the contra-flows). Due to this change of reference system, these points may not be perfectly positioned on the correct street segment of the URBIS network. It was thus necessary to take account of this imprecision when selecting the accidents. For this, the selection of accidents located on a contra-flow segment was extended to include those located less than 10 metres from a contra-flow segment (using the select by location tool of ArcGIS). Nonetheless, some accidents whose location is out by more than 10 m may not have been selected, while they should have been. On the other hand, those that were selected in error (because they were less than 10 m from a contra-flow without having occurred there) were removed during the analysis. Mapping the accidents involving cyclists from 2008 to 2010 shows that 222 accidents (out of a total of 824) occurred on a contra-flow or at an intersection with a contra-flow. A previous study conducted in 2009 by the Belgian Road Safety Institute (IBSR/BIVV) (Dupriez, 2009) showed that 16 accidents (out of a total of 168) took place on a contra-flow or at an intersection with a contra-flow in 2005, 2006 and 2007 in the municipalities of Etterbeek, Evere, Saint- Josse-Ten-Noode/Sint-Joost-ten-Noode, Schaerbeek/Schaarbeek, Woluwe-Saint-Lambert/ Sint-Lambrechts-Woluwe and Woluwe-Saint- Pierre/Sint-Pieters-Woluwe. These accidents were added to the analysis, as in these six municipalities contra-flows were generalised in The study thus deals with 238 accidents that occurred on a contra-flow or at an intersection with a contra-flow. Four of the case files were not available for consultation; 234 accidents were therefore analysed Analysis of the accidents The accidents were reconstructed on the basis of the official accident reports. The files were consulted in the police precincts of Brussels-Ixelles/Brussel-Elsene, Brussels-Midi/ Brussel-Zuid, Polbruno, and Uccle-Auderghem- Watermael-Boitsfort/Ukkel-Oudergem-Watermaal-Bosvoorde and at the Brussels Police Prosecutor s office. The official report numbers, not included in the database provided by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, were provided by the Police Operational Information Directorate of the Federal Police. Each file was then studied using an analysis chart that includes data on the locations, the road users, the sequence of events in the accident (divided into four phases 3 ) and several factors judged to contribute to an accident (see the analysis charts in the Annex). Field visits were then made to determine the extent to which the road layout could have played a role in the accident. In the vast majority of cases, the road layout had not changed between the time of the accident and that of the analysis. Where it had changed, it was still possible to reconstruct the road layout at the time of the accident relatively accurately, in particular using aerial photographs. Following the analysis, cases considered similar were grouped together on the basis of the sequence of events in the accident to obtain several accident profiles. 3. Namely, the driving situation, the accident situation, the emergency situation and the collision situation. This sequential analysis of the accidents follows that proposed by INRETS (French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research) (Brenac et al., 2003).
12 fiche n o Initial observations 3.1. Distribution and use of contra-flows One in four streets in the Brussels-Capital Region is a contra-flow Network accessible to cyclists Two-way One-way with contra-flow One-way Kilometers Figure 4 - One-way streets in the Brussels-Capital Region (2009).
13 13 initial observations Mapping the one-way streets shows that there are 3,116 sections of one-way street with cyclist contra-flow out of a total of 12,424 road sections accessible to cyclists in the Brussels- Capital Region, or 25% of the roads. The total length of contra-flows is linear km, or 24% of the 1,654 km of roadways accessible to cyclists. There are 722 sections of one-way street without contra-flow cycling, making a total of 88.9 km. The breakdown of contra-flows by hierarchical level of road, as defined in the Iris 2 regional mobility plan (see Figure 7), is as follows: Hierarchy Total number of road sections Number of contra-flow sections Percentage of contra-flow sections in this category (%) Total number of intersections 4 Number of intersections with at least one contra-flow Percentage of intersections with at least one contra-flow in this category (%) Local network , ,5 Local collector road Primary collector road Primary network , , , , , Total , Figure 5 - Road hierarchy as defined in the Iris 2 plan Almost 91% of contra-flows are on the local network, 6% on local collector roads, 2.5% on primary collector roads, and 0.5% on the primary network. At 48% of all intersections in the region, at least one of the roads is a contra-flow; 50.5% of intersections on the local network include at least one contra-flow, compared with 56% on local collector roads, 44% on primary collector roads, and 34% on the primary network. Thus contra-flows constitute a major part of the Brussels cycling network and contribute to a high permeability of cyclists throughout the city Over 4 in 10 cyclists on contra-flows travel against the traffic The recent series of cyclist counts organised by Provelo, Cyclists count 6, provided some information on the use of contra-flows by cyclists. Of the 212 cyclist counts conducted on the local road network (106 different sites), 87 of them on contra-flows (43 different sites), the average number of cyclists counted was greater on contra-flows than on two-way or one-way streets: approximately 10 cyclists per site (observed over 20 minutes) compared with approximately 8 on the other roads. 4. Intersections were categorised according to the highest hierarchical level of road present. We took into account only those accessible to cyclists. 5. The hierarchical level of the road is not specified for all segments on the map file provided by Brussels Mobility. 6. These data come from 381 individual 20-minute counts, carried out during the rush hour by cyclist counters at locations chosen by them during a specified one-week period. While these data have no scientific value, the large number of individual counts provides orders of magnitude which are useful for the purposes of this analysis. Campaign site:
14 initial observations 14 These counts also show that 56% of cyclists travelling on contra-flow sections of the local road network are travelling with the traffic and 44% against it General characteristics of accidents on contra-flows Although this data should be treated with caution, it is the only information available in such detail, and provides at least orders of magnitude on use of the road network by cyclists What proportion of accidents occurred on a contra-flow? 992 accidents* 758 No contra-flow in the vicinity no presence of a contra-flow? yes 60 No user on the contra-flow 48 Other vehicle on the contra-flow no no presence of one of the 2 users on the contra-flow? yes Cyclist on the contra-flow? yes 79 Cyclist riding with the traffic on the contra-flow no Cyclist riding against the traffic on the contra- yes 47 Cyclist riding against the traffic on the contra-flow Figure 6 - Breakdown of cycling accidents in the Brussels-Capital Region by type of road (with or without a contra-flow) and by direction of travel of the cyclist * 824 accidents out of the 19 municipalities (years 2008 to 2010) accidents out of 6 municipalities (years 2005 to 2007) = 992 accidents.
15 15 initial observations Of the 992 cycling accidents analysed, 126, or 12.7%, involved a cyclist travelling on a contraflow, entering an intersection from a contra-flow, or crossing an intersection towards a contra-flow. Accidents involving a cyclist travelling against the traffic on a contra-flow accounted for 47 cases out of 992, or 4.7% of all accidents involving cyclists. In 48 accidents the other vehicle was on the contra-flow section, and in 60 cases none of the users involved was coming from or heading towards the contra-flow section. A concentration of cycling accidents was observed on the primary network and on the central boulevards. related to the contra-flow (n=115) not related to the contra-flow (n=107) not on a contra-flow motorway/trunk/arterial road primary collector road local collector road local access road kilometers Figure 7 - Cycling accidents in the Brussels-Capital Region in 2008, 2009 and 2010 and hierarchy of roadways.
16 initial observations What is the breakdown of accidents involving a cyclist on a contra-flow between accidents at intersections and accidents on road sections? As can be seen in Figure 8, of the 992 accidents involving a cyclist, 47.8% occurred at an intersection. Of the 126 accidents involving a cyclist travelling on a contra-flow, entering an intersection from a contra-flow or entering a contra-flow, a similar proportion (48.7%) occurred at an intersection. Section n=514 Intersection n=478 on a section not on a contra-flow at an intersection without a contra-flow or other vehicle on contraflow (n=48) on a section on a contra-flow - cyclist with the traffic at an intersection with a contra-flow- cyclist with the traffic on a section on a contra-flow - cyclist against the traffic at an intersection with a contra-flow - cyclist against the traffic Figure 8 - Breakdown of cycling accidents in the Brussels-Capital Region between those at or not at an intersection, those with or without a contra-flow in the vicinity, and the direction of travel of the cyclist. Figure 9 shows that of the 47 accidents involving a cyclist travelling against the traffic, 31 (66%) occurred at an intersection. In the case of cyclists travelling with the traffic, accidents at intersections were, at 39.7%, below the overall average. The danger is therefore greater when the cyclist is travelling with the traffic on a road section or against the traffic at an intersection. Thus the risk of accident for a cyclist travelling with the traffic must not be underestimated, and where necessary measures must be taken to reduce it. Intersections at the exit from a contra-flow should also be laid out in such a way as to reduce traffic speeds and increase mutual visibility. Road users should also be encouraged to take extra care when approaching an intersection with a contra-flow.
17 17 initial observations 100% 90% 80% 70% 512 ON A ROAD SECTION % 50% 40% average 30% 20% 10% AT AN INTERSECTION 31 0% total cyclist on a contraflow travelling with the traffic cyclist on a contra-flow against the traffic Figure 9 - Comparison of the number of cycling accidents at an intersection and on a road section Are contra-flows more dangerous than the rest of the road network? On a road section Nearly 91% of contra-flows are on the local network. They should therefore be compared primarily with this type of road. Contra-flows account for 32.9% of the total length of the local network, and had 30.5% of the accidents that occurred on the local network. The rest of the contra-flows are distributed as follows: 6% on local collector roads, 2.5% on primary collector roads, and 0.5% on the primary network. When the number of accidents involving cyclists on a road section is divided by the number of kilometres of each category of road, the following results are obtained (see Figure 10): On a road section, the level of danger for a cyclist travelling on the local network is thus 5 to 6 times less per km travelled than on the primary network, and 3 to 4 times less than on a primary collector road. On the local network, contra-flow road sections even appear to give rise to fewer accidents per km of road than other roads (two-way or ordinary one-way). On the rest of the road network, the number of cycling accidents on a section is too small to be able to make the same distinction between roads with and without contra-flows.
18 initial observations 18 25,0 24,8 20,0 15,0 15,6 13,8 10,0 5,0 average 4,4 3,9 0,0 Primary Primary collector Local collector Local roadway not contra-flow Local roadway contra-flow Figure 10 - Number of cycling accidents on a road section per 100 km of road (Brussels-Capital Region, 2008 to 2010, N=824). At an intersection The breakdown of accidents by hierarchical level of intersection is as follows: Primary Primary collector Local collector Local % of intersections 12 19, ,3 Of which, % of intersections with at least one contra-flow ,5 % of cycling accidents 37,5 30,6 17,2 14,7 Of which, cycling accidents related to the contra-flow(%) 1,3 6,1 1,8 5,1 Figure 11 - Number of cycling accidents at an intersection by hierarchical level. The proportion of cycling accidents occurring at an intersection on the primary network (37.5% of all accidents) is three times the proportion of intersections located on the primary network (12% of all intersections). This table also shows that the proportion of accidents related to the contra-flow is greater at intersections on primary collectors. Intersections on primary collectors and the primary network with a contra-flow must therefore be carefully designed.
19 19 initial observations Road sections and intersections Figure 12 shows that on the primary network, primary collectors and local collectors there are more cycling accidents at intersections than on road sections. Conversely, on the local road network, more accidents take place on a road section. It should be noted, however, that the Ministry of the Brussels-Capital Region classifies intersections according to the highest hierarchical level of road present. As a result the higher hierarchical levels are somewhat over-represented. The risk per km of road can be found by dividing the number of accidents that occurred on each of the categories of the network (road section + intersection) by the linear distance of this category. Figure 13 shows that the risk of accident per km of roadway is over 15 times greater on a road section or intersection on the primary network than on a road section or intersection on the local network. This means that improving safety by redesigning 1 km of the primary network will have a significantly greater effect on the road safety of cyclists than redesigning 1 km of the local network. The accident rate on local collector roads is very similar to that on primary collector roads, even though local collector roads are supposed to resemble local roads more closely than primary collector roads (see the Regional Development Plan). 160 not related to a contra-flow related to a contra-flow - cyclist travelling with the traffic related to a contra-flow - cyclist travelling against the traffic Accidents not related to a contra-flow Accidents related to a contra-flow and with cyclist going with the traffic Accidents related to a contra-flow and with cyclist going against the traffic # accidents Road Section Primary Intersection Road Section Intersection Primary collector Road Section Road Section Local 156 km 231 km 155 km 1108 km Figure 12 - Number of cycling accidents at an intersection or on a road section by hierarchical level (Brussels-Capital Region, , N=824). Intersection Local collector Intersection Number of accidents per 100 km of road and per year Primary Primary collector Local collector Local average 156 km 231 km 155 km 1108 km Figure 13 - Relative risk of a cycling accident (road section or intersection) per 100 km of road by hierarchical level (Brussels-Capital Region, , N=824).
20 initial observations 20 The average risk for a cyclist (the concept of "risk exposure") can be calculated by dividing the number of accidents per km of road by the average number of cyclists who use that type of road. The only data available on the number of cyclists by hierarchical level of road come from the "Cyclists count" data collected by Provelo in These figures should be treated with caution, but they nonetheless reveal a general trend. The results obtained by Provelo are as follows : Hierarchical level of the road Primary network Primary collector Local collector Local network # cyclists on average/20 min Figure 14 : Number of cyclists by hierarchical level of roadways (Source: Provelo). On the basis of the above cyclist counts, Figure 15 shows that the accident risk per km travelled on the local road network is below the average for the entire road network (=1), while the accident risk on other road types is above average. Relative risk of accident per km travelled by bike 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 Accidents not related to a contra-flow Accidents related to a contra-flow Primary Primary collector Local collector average Local 156 km 231 km 155 km 1108 km The accident risk for a cyclist per km travelled is approximately 4 times greater on the primary network and twice as high on primary collector or local collector roads as on the local network. The counts appear to show that there are more cyclists on contra-flow sections than on other sections of the local network. If these counts are confirmed, they would tend to show that the risk for a cyclist per km travelled is less on a contra-flow section of the local network than on other sections of the local network. Overall It is clear that the hierarchical level of the road section or intersection is a more decisive risk factor for bike accidents than the introduction of contra-flow cycling on one-way streets. On the local network, where most contra-flows are found, the number of cycling accidents per km is lower on contra-flows than on other roads. Figure 15 - Relative risk of accident per km travelled by bike (Brussels-Capital Region, , N=824, Provelo cyclist counts). 7.
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Introduction Bicycle Safety Enforcement Action Guidelines People ride bicycles for many different reasons: fitness, recreation, or for transportation. Regardless of the reason for riding, bicyclists young
Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in Copenhagen By Søren Underlien Jensen, Trafitec, firstname.lastname@example.org Claus Rosenkilde, Road & Park, City of Copenhagen, email@example.com Niels Jensen, Road
Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013 Annual Report Focus on pedal cyclists Key findings The key findings from this article include: Pedal cyclist deaths have seen a long-term fall, but have fluctuated
Accident Causation National accident databases mostly focus on crash circumstances so in-depth investigations are required to provide a more detailed analysis of causation. This Fact Sheet presents basic
SAN DIEGO - A BICYCLE FRIENDLY CITY MANY OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT SUMMARY The designated bicycle paths and lanes in the City of San Diego (City) are often substandard because of their location and
chapter 3 basic driving skills When curving to the left, keep the front wheels close to the right edge of the lane to keep your driver s side rear wheels out of the next lane of traffic. Curve ahead slow
A Scientific Study "ETAC" European Truck Accident Causation Executive Summary and Recommendations 1 Introduction 1.1 The project and its objectives Currently, only limited statistics are available regarding
MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data Analysis: 2005-2010 FINAL REPORT Prepared by: T.Y. Lin International and Western Michigan University 4/3/2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS List
SAFE CYCLING GUIDE 7th Edition BEFORE SETTING OUT A Check tire pressure B Check that the chain does not slip C Check the brakes D Check lights and reflectors: 1 A WELL-MAINTAINED BICYCLE is key 3 4 5 Adjust
Photo: Boegh (Flickr) Cycling in Cities Research Program School of Population & Public Health The University of British Columbia Faculty of Health Sciences Simon Fraser University Driving near bicyclists
SAFE CYCLING GUIDE 6th Edition BEFORE SETTING OUT A WELL-MAINTAINED BICYCLE is key A Check tire pressure B Check that the chain does not slip C Check the brakes D Check lights and reflectors: 3 4 1 5 2
1. When driving your car Into traffic from a parked position, you should: A. Sound your horn and pull Into the other lane. B. Signal and proceed when safe. C. Signal other traffic and pull directly into
Cycle Safety Some tips on safer cycling Údarás Um Shábháilteacht Ar Bhóithre Road Safety Authority Be safe For further information on safe cycling, please look at the Rules of the Road website at www.rulesoftheroad.ie
Summary How severe are the injuries of victims of road traffic accidents Analysis of the MAIS severity scale for injuries suffered by victims of road traffic accidents hospitalized in Belgian hospitals
Texas Bicycle Laws These "rules of the road" are based on Texas Transportation Code statutes. Find the complete bicycle code at the bottom of the page Bicyclists have the rights and duties of other vehicle
Summary Safe to school Analysis of road accidents involving children near primary schools and kindergardens Acknowledgements: The authors and the Belgian Road Safety Institute want to thank the following
This survey includes questions regarding biking activity, accidents, and injuries, as well as the answer options provided by the Nashville MPO. Introduction 1. Have you ridden a bicycle within the past
DRIVING TEST POSSIBLE QUESTIONS & ANSWERS. Question 1. What shape and colour is a warning sign? Diamond Shape - Yellow and Black Question 2. When should you not drive? While under the influence of alcohol,
Brisbane s yellow BICYCLE symbols a new way to show how to Share the Road Prepared by Michael Yeates, Convenor, Bicycle User Research Group 7 Marston Avenue, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, Queensland, AUSTRALIA
The Cyclist - According to the Nova Scotia Motor Vehicle Act cyclists have the same rights and responsibilities as motorists. When cyclists and motorists follow the same set of rules, the chance of a collision
STAKEHOLDER TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION The Department for Transport s campaign provides road safety information for road users. Our aim is to encourage safer behaviour to reduce the number of people killed and
Joined-Up Cycling Cycle Links for Horsham Town Centre 1 4 3 6 2 5 Proposals to improve cycle access to the town at the Albion Way/Bishopric junction and join up some of the fragmented cycle routes in the
6: LANE POSITIONS, TURNING, & PASSING BASIC LANE POSITIONS Traffic law says that slower vehicles should stay to the right. But where exactly should bicycles ride? Here are some basics. Never Ride Against
Infrastructure Give Cycling a Push INFRASTRUCTURE/ NETWORK LINKS CYCLE LANES Overview A cycle lane is a legally reserved driving space for cyclists on the road, visually separating them from traffic. It
Tr a f f i c S i g n s 7 7. TRAFFIC SIGNS Many collisions and near crashes occur as a result of drivers who ignore or fail to respond appropriately to traffic signs. It is essential that the meaning of
BICYCLE TRENDS IN CAMBRIDGE Cambridge promotes bicycling as a healthy, environmentally friendly way of getting around as an important part of the City's efforts to improve mobility and protect our environment.
Signs and signals Signs Traffic signs and signals are an essential part of the road traffic system. Paying attention to traffic signs helps you move around safely and efficiently. There are three common
Framework Traffic Management for Shared Zones in Large Private Estates AITPM 2014 National Conference Presented by : Wayne Johnson Senior Project Manager GTA Consultants Wayne.firstname.lastname@example.org Outline
Department for Transport Improving road safety for pedestrians and cyclists in Great Britain LONDON: The Stationery Office 14.35 Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 6 May 2009 REPORT BY THE
Traffic accidents in Hanoi: data collection and analysis Nguyen Hoang Hai Vietnam, Hanoi Department of Transport, email@example.com 1. Introduction Hanoi, the capital and administrative center of Vietnam,
A Guide to Safe Bicycling in Hawai i Sharing the Road: A Guide to Safe Bicycling in Hawai i What Motorists & Bicyclists Should Know Everyone has the right to be safe on Hawai i s roads. Law of the Splintered
What roundabout design provides the highest possible safety? In Sweden, as in several other countries, the number of roundabouts is on the increase. According to a study recently carried out by the VTI,
Driver Distraction in Finland Petri Jääskeläinen In Finland mobile communication is very common 5 billion calls from mobile phones yearly. Average duration of a call is 3.2 minutes 5 billion text messages
In This Issue: FMCSA Webinar Nov.18th to Examine Large Truck Crash Fatalities Involving Pedestrians & Bicyclists Help Prevent Roadway Accidents involving Pedestrians How to Steer Clear of Accidents with
Motorcycle and Scooter crashes Recorded by NSW Police from January to December 2011 Data supplied by the Centre for Road Safety, Transport for NSW Analysis completed by the Survive The Ride Association
New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law A public health and safety disaster New Zealand is one of only three countries in the world with national all-age mandatory bicycle helmet laws, the others
I. GENERAL ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR TAH ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE SAFETY MANAGEMENT ANNEX III B i. The setting up and implementing of appropriate management procedures is an essential tool for improving the
Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The
Memo: Background Research, Bike Law/Safety Enforcement Video Values, roles, and challenges of training law enforcers in bicycle safety What the value behind training law enforcers? Increasing knowledge
Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,
1 Direct Compensation Agreement for the Settlement of Automobile Claims Automobile Insurance Act (R.S.Q., chapter A-25, sections 116 and 173) (13th edition) This brochure represents the Direct Compensation
A Review of Serious Casualty Motorcycle Crashes in Tasmania D epart ment of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources A Review of Serious Casualty Motorcycle Crashes in Tasmania Traffic and Infrastructure Branch
11 signs, signals and road markings This chapter is a handy reference section that gives examples of the most common signs, signals and road markings that keep traffic organized and flowing smoothly. What
STAKEHOLDER TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION The Department for Transport s campaign provides road safety information for road users. Our aim is to encourage safer behaviour to reduce the number of people killed and
Cycling more for safer cycling Cycling presents a lot of benefits to the individual and to society. Health, environment, accessibility, local businesses, all gain when more people cycle. Yet many governments
Background In early 2014, Transportation Services initiated a review of the Division's design guidelines and standards to move our organization in a direction consistent with the transportation departments
Cycling and The Highway Traffic Act Ontario Cycling Association Club Presidents Day Sasha Gollish, P.Eng., M.Eng., LEEDap Vehicles Users Safety Roads Federal Provincial Municipal Cycling and the Law Safest
Why Do We Bike? And where, how, who, when, and with what What will I learn today? Knowledge of laws for bikes in traffic: your rights and responsibilities as a bicyclist and motorist Examples of safe and
Chapter 1: Background 1.1 Trends in Bicycle Ridership and Collisions in Toronto Toronto has relatively high levels of bicycle traffic on its downtown streets. On a typical weekday, bicycles make up roughly
Back to School Car Safety Direct Buy Warranty Staff September 19, 2014 It s back to school season, and that means kids are picking out new clothes, putting on their backpacks, and hitting the road to get
Credit: ThinkStock SAME ROADS SAME RULES SAME RIGHTS AAA S GUIDE TO A SAFE BIKE RIDE DRIVING A BICYCLE Yes, bicyclists MUST drive their bicycles in the same manner that motorists drive their cars. Most
Level 2 Award in Safe Driving at Work Student notes (sample) www.britsafe.org Membership Training Qualifications Audit and Consultancy Audit and Policy Consultancy and Opinion Policy Awards and Opinion
Pass Plus evaluation 06224 April 2009 CONFIDENTIALITY Please note that the copyright in the attached report is owned by TfL and the provision of information under Freedom of Information Act does not give
Analysis of Accidents by Older Drivers in Japan Kazumoto Morita 1, Michiaki Sekine 1 1 National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory, Japan Abstract Since Japan is a rapidly aging society, ensuring
INSTRUCTOR S GUIDE Stay on the Right Track Highway-Railway Crossing Awareness Training for Newly Licensed Drivers WHAT WE DO Operation Lifesaver is a nationwide, non-profit public information and education
Appendix DRIVER SAFETY 167 DRIVER SAFETY New Jersey Driver Manual www.njmvc.gov Traffic Signs, Signals and Road Markings Traffic signs, signals and road markings are set up to control the flow of traffic,
SIDEWALK BICYCLING SAFETY ISSUES Lisa Aultman-Hall and Michael F. Adams Jr. Department of Civil Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506-0281 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Transportation Research
Pedestrian safety Every year, one in seven people killed on NSW roads is a pedestrian. Pedestrian crossings are used to reduce crashes and to help both pedestrians and drivers use the road safely. Whether
Infrastructure Give Cycling a Push INFRASTRUCTURE/ NETWORK LINKS TRAFFIC CALMING and CYCLING Overview On quiet, residential streets, road space can be safely and comfortably shared by all users, without
BBAC Report on City of Beavercreek /Cyclist Accidents 2007-2011 Prepared June 4, 2011 by committee members Roger Brislawn Jerry Walling /Cyclists Accidents 2007-2011 Total For reporting period 19 accidents
Investigation of bicycle accidents involving collisions with the opening door of parking vehicles and demands for a suitable driver assistance system. M. Jänsch, D. Otte, H. Johannsen Abstract Vulnerable
Put the Brakes on Speeding The risks of driving too fast The costs and consequences Tips to maintain a safe speed Speed kills There s no doubt about it driving over the speed limit is dangerous. It puts
a U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Computer Accident Typing for Bicyclist Accidents Coder's Handbook INTRODUCTION This Coder's Handbook is part of a package
1 Paragraph 95: Alcohol and the road user. Drinking alcohol seriously affects driving/riding ability. Which of the following is incorrect? [ ] (a) Gives a false sense of confidence. [ ] (b) Affect judgement
Reported road accidents involving young car drivers: Great Britain 211 Road Accident Statistics Factsheet No. 1 August 212 Introduction This factsheet presents summary information relating to the casualties
Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference 2012 7-8 November 2012, Helmond, The Netherlands Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove * * European Cyclists Federation
Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,
Smart Cycling IN SANTA MONICA BE SMART. BE VISIBLE. BE ATTENTIVE. HAVE FUN! Safety Tips and Rules of the Road for Cyclists SANTA MONICA POLICE DEPARTMENT Rules of the Road Drivers, bicyclists, and pedestrians
Regional Seminar on Safe, Climate Adaptive and Disaster Resilient Transport for Sustainable Development Nov. 17 th, Seoul Rural Road Safety Policy in Korea: Lesson Learned Sangjin HAN Korea Transport Institute
FORENSIC COLLISION INVESTIGATION REPORT Prepared by: Martin Lowe Prepared For: Solicitors for the XXXXXXXXXX Table of Contents 1. Brief.....1 Instructing Solicitors Instructions Location of the collision