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1 Norway Source: IRTAD, Public Roads Administration Inhabitants Vehicles/1 000 inhabitants Road fatalities in 2012 Fatalities / inhabitants in million Road safety data collection Definitions Road fatality: person killed in a traffic crash or deceased because of an injury within 30 days after the crash. The police do not use MAIS3+ to classify injuries, but this will be done in the future when injury data is provided by hospitals. In the meantime, Norway will use a transformation factor to supply MAIS3+ data. Data collection Crash data are collected by the police and consolidated at national level by Statistics Norway and the Public Roads Administration. Less severe crashes and injuries are often not reported to the police, and may therefore be underrepresented in the figures. This concerns in particular light injuries and single bicycle crashes. At the moment injury data is collected by the police, but there are plans to use hospital data in the future. 2. Most recent safety data Road crashes in 2012 A total of 145 persons were killed in road traffic crashes in 2012; 23 fewer than the year before. The number of killed in 2012 was the lowest since 1950, and the number of fatalities per inhabitants was 2.9, the lowest ever. The largest decrease in fatalities was in the number of head-on collisions (-15) and off-the-road accidents (-10). The number of pedestrians killed increased by five but the number of killed on bicycles was the same as in IRTAD 2014 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

2 394 Norway Provisional data for 2013 Provisional data for 2013 indicate that 187 persons were killed on the roads in 2013, an increase of 42 fatalities and an almost 30% rise in comparison to There is no single explanation for this increase in fatalities. The largest increase in fatalities was found among off-the-road accidents (+25), but there was also an increase in head-on collisions (+13). The number of motor-cyclists killed also increased (+5). The number of pedestrians killed has, however, decreased (-6) and the number of killed on bicycles is stable. Even though there was an increase in the number of young people killed in traffic in 2013 compared with 2012, the number of fatalities among older road users increased even more, in both the age groups and 65+. This development is of increasing concern, since these age groups are growing in the general population. There was also a high increase in accidents with more than one death involved. 3. Trends in traffic and road safety ( ) Traffic In 2012, around million vehicle-kms were registered on Norwegian public roads. About 44% of these were on the national roads, 36% on county roads and 20% on municipal roads. On national and county roads, heavy goods vehicles (HGV) account for about 10-11% of the total traffic. Since 1990, total vehicle-kms has increased by 58% on public roads. Change in the number of fatalities and injury crashes ( ) Since 2000, the number of road deaths has been more than halved, and the number of injury crashes decreased by 30%. The long-term trend is positive, especially among the young drivers. The number of children killed and seriously injured (0-6 and 7-15) has decreased dramatically since Between 2008 and 2012, the number of fatalities decreased by more than 40%. There is no single reason for this very positive development, but the result of a broad systematic, long-term and fact-based approach. There were positive developments on indicators like speed, seat-belt wearing, lane barriers and other key factors with known effects on severe traffic accidents. Rates In 2012, Norway reached its lowest level of mortality with a rate of 2.9 fatalities per population, thus ranking among the best performing countries. IRTAD 2013 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

3 Norway 395 Table 1. Road safety and traffic data 2012 % change from Reported safety data Fatalities % -57.5% -56.3% Injury crashes Deaths per 100,000 population % -61.9% -63.0% Deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles 1, % -67.7% -72.5% Deaths per billion vehicle kilometres % -68.5% -72.4% Traffic data Registered vehicles 1 (thousands) % 31.6% 58.9% Vehicle kilometres (millions) % 35.0% 58.4% Registered vehicles per 1,000 population) % 18.2% 34.9% Figure 1. Road safety and traffic data Fatalities Injury crashes Motor vehicles (excl. mopeds) veh-km Registered vehicles excluding mopeds. IRTAD 2014 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

4 396 Norway Road users Since 2000, road safety improvements benefited pedestrians and motorcyclists the most, while there has been less progress with cyclists safety. In 2012, the number of pedestrians killed in Norway was 23. This means an increase of 44% from 2011 but a decrease by 26% from Table 2. Road fatalities by road user group 2012 % change from Bicyclists Mopeds Motorcycles Figures too small for meaningful comparisons. Passenger car occupants Pedestrians Others incl. unknown Total % -57.5% -56.3% Age We see an increase in the number of killed in the older age groups (45-65 and 65+). Table 3. Road fatalities by age group 2012 % change from Age Figures too small for meaningful comparisons. > Total incl. unknown % -57.5% -56.3% IRTAD 2013 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

5 Norway 397 Figure 2. Road death rates by age group Fatalities per population in a given age group, years years years years years 65+ years Death per population in a given age group years years years 65+ years years 0-14 years Road type In 2012, approximately 75% of road fatalities occurred on roads outside densely-populated areas. Thirty-nine per cent were killed in head-on collisions and 33% of those were killed in run-off-the-road accidents. 4. Economic costs of traffic crashes Traffic crashes represent a very significant cost for society, estimated at around EUR 1.93 billion (excluding property damage costs). Costs are calculated by a willingness-to-pay approach. Table 4. Costs of road crashes, 2012 Costs (EUR billion) Unit Cost Total Fatalities 0.63 Hospitalised people 0.79 Slight injuries 0.51 Property and damage costs Not included Total (EUR) 1.93 Source: Public Roads Administration. IRTAD 2014 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

6 398 Norway 5. Recent trends in road user behaviour Impaired driving Drink driving The legal maximum blood alcohol content is 0.2 g/l. The number of impaired drivers due to alcohol seems to be fairly stable or slightly reduced. Drugs and driving The legal maximum content of illegal drugs is equivalent to 0.2 g/l alcohol. The number of impaired drivers due to drugs seems to be fairly stable or slightly increased. Distraction In Norway, the law stipulates that mobile phones must be correctly attached to the front panel in the vehicle, as close as possible to the driver. Hands-free devices can be used. There are no good estimations on the number of fatal crashes due to the use of mobile phones, but research shows that this is a factor to be watched carefully. Fatigue In-depth studies show that fatigue and sleepiness was the cause in 19% of all fatal crashes in Norway in Speed In-depth studies in Norway show that excessive speed or high speeds incompatible with road conditions (snow, ice, fog or rain) are an important element in fatal accidents and their consequences. The average speed has been decreasing over the last few years. In almost 40% of high-speed crashes, high speed has been vital or of great importance. The table below summarises the main speed limits in Norway. Table 5. Passenger car speed limits by road type, 2014 General speed limit Comments Urban roads Rural roads Motorways 50 km/h 80 km/h 100 km/h No restriction regarding age or weather conditions. Source: National Public Roads Administration. The development in speed has been positive over the last few years. The average speed, regarding all speed limits except 100 km/t, has decreased since Seat belts and helmets Seat-belt use has been compulsory in front seats since 1975 and in rear seats since The seat-belt wearing rate is high, 95% in IRTAD 2013 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

7 Norway 399 There is no monitoring of seat-belt use in rear seats yet, but it is estimated to be seven to eight percentage points lower. An in-depth analysis of all fatal crashes estimates that 41% of car occupants killed were not wearing a seat belt. Studies suggest that as many as 50% of these fatalities could have been avoided. All riders of motorised two-wheelers are required to wear helmets. There is no mandatory helmet-use law for cyclists. The helmet-wearing rate by riders of motorised two-wheelers is high, and close to 100%. Helmet use by cyclists over the age of 12 is 52%. In 2012, 7 of the 12 cyclists killed on the roads did not wear a helmet. Table 6. Seat-belt wearing rate by car occupants Front seat General 88% 91% 95% Urban roads 92% 91% 94,4% Rural roads 80% 94% 95,6% Rear seats Adults 84% 6. National road safety strategies and targets Organisation of road safety Norway adopted Vision Zero by a decision in Parliament (Stortinget) in 2001, and strategies based on the Vision were first implemented in the National Plan of Action for Traffic Safety The Government have since reiterated that Vision Zero will provide the basis for traffic safety activities in Norway in all subsequent National Transport Plans and in the latest National Plan of Action for Traffic Safety The Norwegian Vision Zero involves all modes of transport. The main focus is to reduce crashes that can lead to fatalities and serious injuries. The highest priority is given to the reduction of head-on crashes, single-vehicle crashes and collisions with vulnerable road users (cyclists and pedestrians). High-risk road users, such as young drivers, elderly road users and motorcyclists, are also paid special attention. The traffic safety work in Norway is co-ordinated by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA). In addition to NPRA, the police, the public administrations of both Health and Education training, together with the leading NGOs, are main stakeholders in the traffic safety work at national level. At regional and local levels, the work of counties and municipalities is of key significance. IRTAD 2014 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

8 400 Norway This broad and collaborative approach is of great importance, as well as the co-ordination of efforts among all stakeholders, based on a common strategy. Road safety strategy for The Road Traffic Safety Plan was released in March 2014 and is available on 739/binary/949929?fast_title=Nasjonal+tiltaksplan+for+trafikksikkerhet pdf. The report is not yet translated to English, but this will be done by the end of May Target setting The Plan s target is to reduce by half the number of killed and seriously injured by Calculations based on existing knowledge show that it is possible to reach 630 fatalities and seriously injured by In addition, taking into account the fact that it is not possible to assess the effect of all measures and that new technology may bring additional benefits, a new target was set of no more than 500 fatalities and seriously injured by Monitoring Developments concerning fatalities and the seriously injured are constantly monitored. In addition, the Norwegian Public Roads Administration is monitoring a set of safety performance indicators, related to speed, seat-belt wearing and heavy vehicle safety standards. Figure 3. Trends in road fatalities towards national targets IRTAD 2013 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

9 Norway 401 Evaluation of past road safety strategy Every year the NRPA reports to the Government on progress with implementing the National Plan of Action for Traffic Safety , on behalf of all the stakeholders. As part of this reporting, there is an evaluation of the Plan. This knowledge was incorporated into the work on the National Plan of Action for Traffic Safety Recent safety measures ( ) Driver behaviour Speed management In the summer of 2009, the Ministry of Transport and Communications asked the Norwegian Public Roads Administration to test average speed cameras on three stretches of road. The results from the evaluation of average speed cameras shows that this is an effective and strong measure in achieving a significant reduction in driving speeds on stretches of road where the speed is initially higher than the speed limit. Under the tested conditions, the results show that the average driving speed is reduced by up to 10%. The size of the reduction is dependent on how high the driving speed is before the establishment of average speed cameras. The Ministry has approved the extension of about 40 more road stretches until This includes some experiments in tunnels, as well as sub-sea tunnels, and the results were published in NPRA has established new criteria for speed limits on roads with high traffic and severe crashes. The purpose is to reduce the number of fatalities and severely injured by persons per year. High speed is, on average, found to be an important factor in almost 50% of all fatal accidents. This implies that on 420 kms of road the speed limit will be lowered from 80 to 70 km/h and on 70 kms of road from 90 to 80 km/h. The new criteria extends the existing policy regarding speed limits, but the focus is now more on traffic safety, especially for roads with a high risk of head-on collisions and for roads without a median barrier. Impaired driving From 1 st February 2012 impairment-based legislative limits for driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs has been implemented. For further information: Vindenes, V. et al. (2011), Impairment-based legislative limits for driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs in Norway, Forensic Science International, November, 24. Introduction of an alco-lock programme, aimed at impaired drivers of goods transport vehicles. Instead of drivers losing their licence, the vehicles will have alco-locks installed. Enforcement Penalty point endorsement of driving licences was introduced in 2004 to prevent high-risk driving. On 1st July 2011, the system was renewed, targeting young drivers and risky behaviour. Education and awareness The NPRA is running three big national traffic safety campaigns on speed, seat belts and car-cyclist communication. There is also on-going work on a campaign targeting young people. IRTAD 2014 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

10 402 Norway The national speed campaign for has been evaluated. The main result is a significant change in self-reported speed behaviour of the target group (persons aged 25 to 40 years). The evaluation does also contain objective measurements of general average speed, and a small but significant decrease in speed has been recorded. It is difficult to conclude how much of the effect is due to the campaign, but the reduced average speed corresponds strongly with the campaign. Due to the positive evaluation, it has been decided to continue with the speed campaign. Vehicles Norway has no car industry. The NPRA is, however, promoting the use of EuroNCAP, and recommends consumers to buy safe cars, preferably with five stars. Infrastructure Infrastructure measures targeting traffic safety are mainly focused on preventing head-on collisions by building motorways and median barriers, reducing the consequences of road crashes by providing safe roadsides, and protecting vulnerable road users by building safe crossings and cycle-paths. Useful websites and references Public Road Administration TOI Research Institute fortransport Economics International Research Institute SINTEF Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic medicine and Drug Abuse Research National Road Safety Plan Contact For more information, please contact: IRTAD 2013 Annual Report OECD/ITF 2014

11 From: Road Safety Annual Report 2014 Access the complete publication at: Please cite this chapter as: OECD/ITF (2014), Norway, in Road Safety Annual Report 2014, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications, databases and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgment of OECD as source and copyright owner is given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to Requests for permission to photocopy portions of this material for public or commercial use shall be addressed directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) at or the Centre français d exploitation du droit de copie (CFC) at

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