1 ERICSSON REVIEW 3 ERIMAIL Message Handling System Alfaword, A Program for Word Processing using Alfaskop System 41 Ericsson Series 2000 The New Oslo Telex Exchange-Operation and Operational Reliability The New Oslo Telex Exchange-Operating Functions Optical Fibre Line System for 140Mbit/s Mobile Radio System C 600 Optimizing the Power from a Wind Turbine 1983 Information System for Public Transport Services
3 ERICSSON REVIEW Number Volume 60 Responsible publisher Gosta Lindberg Editor Gosta Neovius Editorial staff Martti Viitaniemi Address S Stockholm, Sweden Subscription one year $ 12 one copy $ 3 Published in Swedish, English, French and Spanish with four issues per year Copyright Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson Contents ERIMAIL Message Handling System Alfaword, A Program for Word Processing using Alfaskop System 41 Ericsson Series 2000 The New Oslo Telex Exchange-Operation and Operational Reliability The New Oslo Telex Exchange-Operating Functions Optical Fibre Line System for 140Mbit/s Mobile Radio System C600 Optimizing the Power from a Wind Turbine Information System for Public Transport Services Cover The mast with the wind turbine and solar panels power supply system BZP101, ERICSSON SUNWIND
4 ERIMAIL Message Handling System Anders Bladh and Per Ake Wiberg ERIMAIL is a system for text communication. It is based on the ASK 101 communication system, a multi-processor system with high availability and capacity. Another application for ASK 101 is ERIPAX, a packet switching data network which includes both network nodes and an operation and maintenance centre'. The authors discuss how the need for text communication has grown and describe the aims and function of the ERIMAIL message handling system. This service, with its superior performance and potentially lower costs, is expected to be widely used, resulting in growth in the number of subscribers and the volume of traffic. The administrations offer interworking between telex and teletex, and the users can choose between the two types of system. The further development of teletex will permit mixed alphanumerical and graphic information in transmitted documents. Fig. 1 ERIMAIL can be used to rationalize the internal and external text communication of a company and also make the communication more efficient. The handling and distribution are automatized, and the users can send and receive messages direct via their terminals Previous method for message transmission Message handling using ERIMAIL fz. Dept. A Dept. M Text communication, like speech communication, is essential in all business and industrial activities. Different systems and facilities have been developed for different needs. At present the most common public method of text communication, apart from mail, is telex, particularly in international traffic. A new text communication service, teletex, with a greater character repertoire and a higher transmission speed is now being introduced in about ten countries. External connections Telex exchange Manual handling Dept. P Dept. T Private message switching networks Private teleprinter networks using techniques similar to telex networks have long been used by enterprises requiring internal text communication. At the beginning of the 1960s computers were introduced into such transit centres. Large message switching networks based on the store and forward method have emerged, for example for international airtraffic. Such networksare used by, among others, SITA (Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautiques) and ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation). These networks are connected to the public telex networks in order to increase their usefulness and range. Special formats and rules (protocol) control the structure and handling of messages between the individual companies that are included in and use the networks. The same technique has been used within the Ericsson Group to handle the head office telex traffic, both the internal traffic and the traffic with members of the Group around the world. A new type of message switching equipment, using the store and forward method, was developed by Ericsson for this purpose and installed in the head office. The external traffic was transmitted by means of telex and via leased lines to subsidiary companies. On the local side a large number of directly connected data terminals were placed in the departments where traffic volume and communication requirements justified such equipment, fig. 1. Experience of this message switching system, which is also installed in the head office of AB Volvo, is very good. The main advantages are improved service, reduced manpower requirements and lower costs.
5 111 ANDERS BLADH PER AKE WIBERG Ericsson Information Systems AB ERIMAIL One of the main purposes of ERIMAIL is to integrate the internal and external text communication into one system with high availability and reliability. ERIMAIL has been specified and developed to meet the following general requirements: - it must be possible to distribute messages between internal and external terminals and computers via existing public and private networks - it must be possible for the user to write a message and specify the recipient without having detailed knowledge of the system or the receiving terminals - it must be possible for the user to use a terminal that is available, even if it was originally installed for other purposes. It is particularly important that ERIMAIL can be used for internal mail. Many telephone calls can be replaced by written messages on condition that: - there is a terminal close by - the distribution is quick and reliable. User model ERIMAIL automatically transmits messages to the specified recipients whether they are locally or externally connected. Messages that arrive over external networks, such as the telex network, are automatically transmitted to the specified recipient. When transmitting a message, ERIMAIL carries out the conversions necessary if the sending and receiving terminals operate with different codes or procedures. The users send and receive messages by means of terminals. These are connected via different types of local and external networks, fig. 2. Different types of computers can also be connected to ERIMAIL and the message switching facility can be used for different computer applications. To each registered user, a catalogue and a mailbox is allocated. When a message is written in, it is automatically recorded in the senders catalogue. When it has been completed and transmitted, a copy is made for each recipient given in the address part and deposited in the recipient's mailbox, fig.3. The original remains in the senders catalogue and can be used again later. The recipient is normally specified by a name that makes it possible to send the message straight to the recipient's mailbox or terminal. Alternatively the recipient can be specified with a network address, for example a telex number. The users are expected to check their mailboxes regularly However, an output facility is available which givesautomatic printout of all messages that arrive in a mailbox. The terminal to be used for the printout is individually defined each mailbox. The terminal can either be connected with a dedicated circuit or via a switched network. The system contains a special file for messages with faulty addresses which could not be rejected directly upon input, as is the case for messages input in batch mode. The sender's copy of messages that have been input by unknown senders are also kept in a special file. Fig. 2 ERIMAIL uses the store and forward technique for transmitting written messages between computer and terminals in different places. The connections are made over local and external networks Communication ERIMAIL permits three types of communication, namely interactive, batch and dialogue. The type of communication defines the functions that are available. With interactive communication the user has access to commands for composing and editing messages and reading messages in the mailbox. Batch communication provides functions for the input and output of messages, in accordance with a format. The dialogue mode of communication enables two users to "talk" with each other.
6 Fig. 3 With the aid of the terminal, the user creates a message which is stored in the catalogue. When the message is transmitted, a copy is stored in the mailbox of each recipient. The recipient either obtains a printout automatically or fetches the message from the mailbox Different types of terminals and computers can be used, such as asynchronous terminals with IA5 alphabet (e.g. writing terminals, visual display units and word processors), telex terminals, teletex terminals and computer and word processors in accordance with the 3780 protocol. For the user to communicate with the system a connection is required between the users terminal or the computer and the system. Connection can be established via different types of access networks, fig. 4. The types of circuits that can be used are dedicated circuits and circuits via the telex network, the telephone network, circuit switched data networks, packet switched networks and PBXs. Message handling The contents of a message are divided into header and body, fig. 5. The body is generated by the sender and consists of an address field, text field and, sometimes, a copy field. The copy field is used when forwarding a received message, in which case the copy field holds the original message. The message header contains information regarding the sender, time when sent, message reference number and the recipient The header with its guide texts is made up by ERIMAIL. Information about the recipient is fetched from the address field, which is entered by the sender. The address field contains all receiver addresses together with any address attributes. The receiver addresses consist of logical names (identifying users, terminals or distribution lists) or network addresses. The address attribute can be specified for each address and is used to suppress printout of the address field and/or to trigger an acknowledgement when the recipient has received the message. A message attribute is used to specify the order of priority in which the message is to be distributed to the recipients. The message format is common for interactive and batch communication. A number of editing commands are available in the interactive communication mode. The sender can obtain verification of the given addresses before the message is transmitted. Messages delivered to mailboxes that have the printout service and messages addressed to network addresses are automatically transmitted. In order to transmit a message ERIMAIL establishes a connection with the specified network address. Internal transmission queues are set up within the system on the basis of the destination addresses and the given order of priority of the messages. Queuing messages addressed to the same address will be delivered during the same connection, with the high-priority messages first. Distribution schedules can be defined for each terminal address, in which case connections will be set up and printouts will take place only within the specified periods. High-priority messages are not affected by these schedules. Fig. 4 The user and ERIMAIL communicate with the aid of commands and response printouts (user protocol). The terminal sends and receives these in accordance with rules determined by the type of terminal (terminal protocol). The transmission between the terminal and ERIMAIL takes place over a network circuit in accordance with the rules that apply for the type of network in question (access network protocol, e.g. CCITTX.25) Acknowledgement can be requested by means of an address attribute, in which case ERIMAIL automatically sends an acknowledgement when the message has been delivered. Acknowledgements are also generated when it has not been possible to deliver a message. Message supervision and archive copy are two optional user facilities. Message supervision permits a user to have the mailbox monitored during non-working hours, and supervision copies of incoming messages are distributed to the specified supervisor. The archive copy 1983
7 113 Fig. 5 An example of ERIMAIL being used to distribute internal messages. The sender only has to specify two of the items in the header, namely priority class (URGENT) and the recipient. ERIMAIL supplies the other information automatically. The message is given a unique reference number (MSG NO) facility gives a printout each time a sent message has been dristributed to all recipients. The printout consists of a copy of the message and the time each recipient received it. No printout is obtained for informal messages. All outgoing and incoming messages are available for renewed use for a certain time, after which they are erased from the system. For each user's catalogue of transmitted messages either short-term or long-term storage may be registered. In the interactive communication mode the user has access to commands for, for example: - creating and editing messages - stopping and resuming the editing at a later time - forwarding received messages with additional text - opening and closing the printout service for a mailbox - reading the list of contents and the messages stored in the mailbox. ERIMAIL contains traffic assistance functions for handling wild messages, handling transmission interruptions and checking the state of messages during distribution. Traffic operators use the traffic assistance functions in order to assist the system in cases where a message requires manual intervention. There are no restrictions as regards the number of traffic operators or the terminals they use. Messages that have been entered in batch mode and which have a faulty address field are automatically put in a queue to one or several traffic operators, who can correct the faulty address or take any other suitable action. If necessary the system makes repeated delivery attempts for messages addressed to terminals. If the terminal cannot be reached the message is sent to a traffic operator, who can reroute the message to another terminal. An identification system is needed in order to be able to distinguish between users. Each user must therefore go through an identity check, which is manual or automatic depending on the type of terminal used and the type of communication. With automatic identification the user identity is tied to the physical connection, which means that everybody using one and the same terminal gets the same identity. Manual identification means that the user gives his/ her name and code, which ERIMAIL then checks against the recorded information. The same terminal can therefore be utilized at different times by users with different identities. A certain user can make use of different terminals. When the user has been identified the system also knows his/her authority. The system contains stored information regarding the user category and the registers that should be made available to each registered user. For example, a certain user can have access to several mailboxes. The user category information also determines which commands are made available. Fig. 6 The first delivery of ERIMAIL will be to the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. It comprises a system like the large one on the right, with some 80 connections and a 2x40 Mbyte secondary store. The small figure shows a small, unduplicated ERIMAIL system
8 114 Fig. 7 An ERIPAX network can be equipped with message handling facilities. The figure shows a network with three ASK 101 communication processors, one of which is used as a pure network node, NN, another as a combined network node and message switch and the third as a combined network node and network management centre, NMC Operation and maintenance functions As in other ASK 101 applications the ERIMAIL operation and maintenance functions are based on commands and printouts The operating functions include the registration of users, connection and disconnection of lines and terminals, statistics and charging. The maintenance functions include fault detection, alarm generation and, in the case of a fault in duplicated equipment, automatic changeover to the faultless equipment. System structure ERIMAIL is an application of the ASK 101 system, which has previously been described in Ericsson Review 1. An ERIMAIL system is built up of the ASK101 modules CM (Computer Module), LM (Line Module) and SM (Storage Module). These can be combined to form a system of any size from the minimum of one CM, one LM and one SM up to a very large system of tens of CMs and LMs and a couple of extended SMs, fig. 6. Winchester discs for 10 Mbyte or 40 Mbyte are used for message storing, together with floppy discs for initial program loading. If necessary the system can be equipped with telex modem modules, which include a function for automatic changeover to standby terminals in the event of a system breakdown ERIMAIL is equipped with duplicated line control and duplicated inter-computer bus in order to obtain high availability. The availability can be further increased by having the messages automatically stored in two separate SMs, normally connected to different CMs. In the case of a CM or SM fault the system will restart automatically and switch over to the faultless unit. Combined applications ERIPAX ERIPAX is a communication network designed in accordance with the CCITT recommendations for packet switching. Its main application is as a general data transport network between terminals and computers. An ERIPAX network can be supplemented with ERIMAIL, which gives message hand ling as an additional facility in the network. ERIMAIL then uses the ERIPAX network for data transfer. A subscriber who wants to use the message handling facility requests a connection to ERIMAIL, after which a session of the desired type is established between the ERIMAIL function and the terminal. In the case of a printout initiated by ERIMAIL, the system requests a connection to the desired address, after which the messages are transmitted through the network in the form of data packets. Both ERIMAIL and ERIPAX are applications of ASK 101, and both functions can be integrated in one and the same physical system. Thus the ERIMAIL function can be introduced in an ERIPAX network by adding Winchester discs and a software package in one or several of the network nodes, fig. 7. The ERIPAX and ERIMAIL services can be handled by one and the same computer module, CM. This is important in order to be able to build a low cost communication processor for data and text
9 115 Fig. 8 MD110 with ASK 101 constitutes an integrated system for voice, data and text communication. The transmission network can be used for all types of communication communication in small applications. The system has a modular structure and can easily be extended to meet increasing requirements. The operation and maintenance functions in combined ERIMAIL and ERIPAX networks can be handled from a common network management centre. MD110 Special advantages can be obtained through functional interworking of ERIMAIL and the PABX system MD When a telephone call cannot be established the caller can send a text message instead. The recipient of a text message can obtain an automatic indication when it is deposited in the mailbox. The chosen interface gives flexible load distribution, high availability and good economy, fig. 8. Message switching networks Enterprises with a wide geographical distribution and large message traffic may need local ERIMAIL systems. In such cases it is possible to build up a network with ERIMAIL nodes. These are connected by means of point-to-point lines or with switched circuits over public or private networks. The ERIMAIL nodes interwork when transmitting messages to recipients with mailboxes in nodes other than the sender's. The transport networks between ERIMAIL nodes can consist of ERIPAX networks or PABX networks built up of MD110. Summary ERIMAIL provides a range of functions which meet the needs of all-round text communication. With the multitude of mixed communication services and requirements that now exist and are continually being developed, ERIMAIL offers a sage and flexible solution. The system is based on a sophisticated processor design with good modularity, efficient function and high availability, exploiting Ericsson's extensive experience of telecommunication systems. References 1, Logdberg, L.-E.: ERIPAX, a Data Communication System. Ericsson Rev. 60 (1983):2, pp Morlinger, R.: MD a Digital SPC PABX. Ericsson Rev. 59 (1982):1, pp.2-13.
10 Alfaword A Program for Word Processing using Alfaskop System 41 Karl-Erik Elfgren Alfaskop System 41 is a multi-function terminal for interworking with different host computers. It can also be used as a personal computer and for remote job entry, RJE. The terminal permits local word processing by means of the Alfaword software package. Alfaword is easy to learn to use and can be installed at and used from an optional terminal in an Alfaskop cluster. The author describes the word processing facilities provided by Alfaskop, its operation an how it interworks with other functions. Fig.1 Alfaskop System 41 Alfaword is a document orientated word processing system for Alfaskop System 41, fig. 1. The text is stored on floppy discs, each of which holds pages of size A4. The part of the text that is presented on the visual display screen comprises 80 characters per line and a total of 24 lines. The displayed text can be rolled sideways in steps of 10 characters by moving a cursor horizontally. The text can also be moved up or down, a line at a time, by moving the cursor vertically. Alfaword is menu controlled and easy to operate. The operator is always guided by explanatory texts which are shown on the screen, and has to choose parameters and alternatives. Text variants are available for different languages. Editing and text storage in Alfaword are compatible with the corresponding functions in the word processing systems that are available for the minicomputer and terminal system Ericsson Series 2000, which is described elsewhere in this issue of Ericsson Review 1. Functions Alfaword has a large number of editing and printout functions. The functions that are included in the current software package are described in the fact panel opposite. It is the intention to develop the program further in order to obtain a wider range of functions. The system is updated with a new program by changing a floppy disc. Installation Alfaword can easily be installed in Alfaskop System 41. The visual display unit function as usual, and the keyboards are supplemented with a simple plastic template which explains the function of the different keys in the word processing mode. Alfaskop System41 contains a microcomputer, which is loaded with different programs for different functions. The programs are stored centrally on floppy discs and are loaded via a communication processor when the function has to be changed, for example from interworking with a host computer to word processing. The availability can be increased by having several floppy disc units for programs connected to the system. In an Alfaskop network with several terminals such resources as floppy disc units and printers can be shared by several users. All physical units can be addressed, and a number of local work positions for word processing can be established by adding floppy disc units and printers, fig. 2. Editing Editing is done by moving the cursor to the required position on the screen and then adding, changing, removing or inserting text. Updating to the correct format is carried out automatically. The format for a certain section is determined by the previous format line. A document can contain an optional number of different formats for running text, tables, indented paragraphs etc.
11 117 KARL-ERIK ELFGREN Ericsson Information Systems AB List of functions Main functions are available for - inserting text - removing text - moving text - copying text from another document - retrieving text - replacing text - retrieving and replacing text - predefining the format - changing the format. There are also main functions for - automatic division into lines - word hyphenation - division into pages - continuity of text in a line - automatic underlining when writing in - indentation of paragraphs - decimal tabulation - automatic pagination - automatic supplementing of each page with a headline/footnote - finding a page - riffling pages - riffling on the screen - riffling lines - free cursor movement - marking by intensified light and inverted light conditions - repetition of depressed key. Printout can take place on - daisywheel printers with cut sheet feeder or sprocket paper feeder - multi-function printers with cut sheet or sprocket feeder - matrix printers with sprocket feeder. The printout can be made - simultaneously with the editing of another document - with 10 or 12 characters per inch - of a whole document - of individual pages in a document - of the information that is shown on the screen - with underlinings, exponentials and indices if it takes place on a daisywheel printer. Format changes are made by changing the corresponding format line, e.g. removing or adding tabulator stops, moving margins, changing line spacing or changing the number of lines per page, fig.3. When moving or copying words, sentences or paragraphs, the text concerned is easily and clearly indicated by moving the cursor over the relevant words, which are then shown in reversed light. When an editing process has been completed, the operator can, if necessary, return to the beginning of the document and initiate word hyphenation and a new division into pages. Most editing functions are initiated by depressing the corresponding function key. Certain less frequent editing functions are initiated by depressing a function key and two letter keys. The two letter combinations are mnemonics suited to the various language versions of Alfaword. Printout The Alfaskop system can include a number of different printers in one and the same installation. Thisenablestheoperator to choose to have an early draft output on a matrix printer which might not give the best quality, but which instead can produce a document quickly. After editing, the final document can be written out on a slower printer which, however, gives a printout of letter quality. The matrix printer writes on a continuous roll of paper, whereas the slower daisywheel printer can be equipped with a cut sheet feeder. The matrix printer cannot write underlinings, indices or exponentials. If a printout request comes in to a printer in an Alfaskop network which is occupied by work from another display unit, the request will automatically be put in aqueue, and the printout will take place as soon as the printer is free. However, the waiting time can always be filled since it is possible to edit other documents during a printout or while waiting for a printout. Fig. 2 One Alfaskop System 41 configuration for IBM communication and word processing with Alfaword. Alfaword 1, 2 and 3 use common floppy disc units and common printers. The users can easily change between word processing using Alfaword and IBM communication
12 Alfaword also uses codes that are specific to System 41, and whose numerical values are given on the screen by hexadecimal ASCII codes in the interval E. In this way binary values can be given without any risk of their being confused with, for example, the control codes in a host computer. Fig.4 shows an example of this coding. Fig. 3 An illustration of how the text is displayed on the screen. Three different format lines are used, one for running text, one for a table with decimal tabulation and one for a layout with indented paragraphs Fig. 4 The text lines Alfaskop and Alfaword on the screen are stored line by line in the computer by means of the following codes: APC T2 ST ALFASKOP APC I ST NEL APCT3ST ALFAWORD APC I ST NEL The significance of the codes is APC ST NEL Next line (85) T2 Tabulator stop 2 Application Program Control (9F) String Terminator (9C) T3 Tabulator stop 3 I Margin indication The numbers in brackets are the hexadecimal codes used for the storing in the computer. The tabulator stops are given in zero numbering. Special characters are used in the tabulator stop code instead of Arabic numerals Text storage Certain floppy disc units are used for filing and others for temporary storage of text during work. The former are accessible to all operators in the system as long as they have the correct authorization, whereas the latter can only be reached by a limited number of users. Text is stored on the floppy discs in blocks of 1018 characters. The text incorporates all the control characters needed for the display on the screen and for the printout. The chosen codes and control characters are in accordance with ISO Standard Since Alfaword is document orientated, all changes and additions made on the screen will immediately be included in the contents of the corresponding block. This means that the program automatically and quickly reads and writes the blocks that are currently being displayed on the screen. Text communication A prospective function in Alfaskop System41, which will be very useful for word processing purposes, is the possibility of using the normal interactive communication with an IBM computer for the purpose of transmitting text in one direction. A program is initiated in the host computer which, by means of a dialogue via the screen, requests from the operator the data required for transmission. The program compiles these data into a parameter list, which is transmitted to the System 41 terminal, where it is identified as an order to transmit the specified text to or from the IBM computer. In this way texts can be transmitted to the host computer for central processing and conversion. It will also be possible to fetch centrally stored standard texts for local use. Summary Alfaword is an advanced system for word processing, which is easy to install and which constitutes a valuable addition to the other functions in an Alfaskop System41 installation. The word processing is not reserved for secretaries but can be used by anybody who has access to an Alfaskop terminal. Owing to the uncomplicated text communication with the host computer and the possibility of sharing the resources with other users, the word processing function can be added to a previously installed system at low cost. References 1. Fernius, I. et al: Ericsson Series Ericsson Rev. 60 (1983):3, pp ISO Standard 6429: Additional Control Functions for Character-Image Devices. 1980/
13 Ericsson Series Ove Anglevik, Ingemar Fernius, Bjorn Johansson and Staffan Ofverstrom Ericsson Information Systems AB has developed and recently launched a product family of computer systems. Ericsson Series2000. It replaces the earlier products Series 16 for administrative data processing and D16/10 for bank terminal applications. The authors first give a summary of the functions offered by the computer systems. This is followed by a more detailed description of the different members of the product family. Finally they describe a series of software packages for different types of office support, such as word processing, document retrieval, message handling, conference and diary. Parts of this software have been developed in cooperation with AU-System Network AB. UDC :651 Ericsson Series2000 is a product family for administrative applications, distributed data processing and sophisticated terminal systems. Its modular structure makes it possible to meet varying user requirements and to add new functions successively. Series 2000 contains a number of hardware and software units, which can be combined to form different systems. So far two such systems have been defined, namely: - Ericsson System 2100 for bank applications - Ericsson System 2500 for business applications two work stations. Work station modules in the form of different keyboards, visual display units of different sizes, special bank printers, personal identification equipment etc. have been developed which meet stringent demands forergonomic design and flexibility. The software in the terminal computer makes it possible to carry out transactions using local functions and dialogues with a host or local computer, and to use the terminal computer as a personal computer, on condition that at least one floppy disc unit is connected. At small bank branches the terminal can include communication functions for connection to a host computer or the local computer of a nearby branch. However, a special communication computer is normally used for communication with the host computer. A floppy disc unit is always connected to the communication computer, and sometimes also a unit for a 10Mbyte Winchester disc for storing programs as well as making it possible to use certain functions even when the connection with the host computer is broken. Fig. 1 System structure for Ericsson Series The peak represents the overall system concept. The second level comprises the separate systems, whose design is determined by the markets for which they are intended. At present E2100 for bank applications and E2500 for office applications are available. The third level represents the subsystems, e.g. the E250 family, which is a range of local computers. The fourth level consists of the individual hardware and software units Ericsson System 2100 Ericsson System2100 is a sophisticated terminal and office computer system, particularly suited for bank applications. The work stations in System 2100 are controlled by a separate terminal computer with a memory capacity of kbyte. A number of different work station modules can be connected to the computer and built up into one or In many cases the bank offices are equipped with extensive local data power. One of the members of the local computer family is then installed. The local computer contains a communication computer, which handles the communication with the host computer or other computers and terminals. System 2100 can be efficiently built out to meet the needs of any office, from the smallest to the very largest, without losing any program compatibility, fig. 2. Fig. 2 System 2100 can be built out in stages to meet the requirements of any office from the smallest to the very largest while retaining its software and hardware compatibility LC Local computer XC Communication computer TC Terminal computer
14 INGEMAR FERNIUS STAFFAN OFVERSTROM Ericsson Information Systems AB OVE ANGLEVIK BJORN JOHANSSON AU-System Network AB Fig. 3 Some of the hardware units in Ericsson Series 2000 Ericsson System 2500 Ericsson System 2500 is an office computer system intended for distributed data processing From one to 100 work stations can be connected to System Upgradings can easily be carried out on the customer's premises and take on average one hour. System 2500 can be built out in step with the customer's requirements, without any major hardware modifications and using the same software throughout. System 2500 offers the user a number of modular software packages for many fields within business and industry. Office support functions have been given particular importance. Local computer LC E250 is a computer family designed for efficient execution of COBOL programs and data base functions. E250 provides local computer power in different types of distributed systems, but it can also be used as a host computer in independent systems. The E250 family consists of four compatible models with different capacities. The primary memory capacity is 128 kbyte for the smallest configuration and 2048 kbyte for the largest. Up to four integrated communication computers and two disc control units can be connected. The design of the central units permits a very compact code, which only requires approximately 25% of the space required for a conventionally packed code. The system also contains a real-time clock, a clock for diary time with standby battery, and automatic reloading function and a function for restart after a mains break. Communication computer XC The communication computer is one of the main constituents of Ericsson System It is designed to handle both internal and external communication, which lightens the load on the central unit. The communication computer has a two-wire high-speed circuit, the SS3bus, for connecting in up to 16work stations placed within 1500 m of the local computer. The communication computer includes a 16-bit microprocessor and a special slave processor for large data transmissions. A System 2500 installation can be extended with up to 36communication lines and four SS3buses. Disc store System 2500 can serve two disc control units, each with four disc units. Each disc control unit has its own local buffer and a bit-slice type processor. The disc units use a standard interface, SMD (Storage Module Device). System 2500 can handle three types of disc units, with: - fixed discs of the Winchester type, for 38 or 70 Mbyte - fixed and interchangeable discs for 24,48 or 70 Mbyte - interchangeable discs for 60 or 220 Mbyte. Work stations The standard Ericsson System2500 equipment includes two families of work stations, designated E230 and E240. Work station family E240 This family consists of two models, both of which are connected in via the SS3bus, either direct to the local computer or via a remote control unit: - E244 with a monochrome 15" screen - E242 with a 14" four-colour screen
15 Fig. 5 Work station E241 includes, for example a memory for loadable software and local buffers. Word processing is one example of local functions that can easily be programmed 121 Fig. 6 Work station E231 is ergonomicaily well designed, with its compact visual display unit and separate low keyboard Fig. 4 The system structure permits the distribution of different tasks to computers intended for different purposes, for example communication computers and work station computers Computer bus Work station E240 contains a microprocessor for storing input data and for controlling the screen. The capacity of the built-in memory is 64 kbyte. It can be loaded with software that defines the identity and functions of the work station. For example, a program for word processing can be read in, and this function can then be used locally. The capacity of the display screen is 25 lines of 80 characters. The light intensity can be adjusted individually for the fields and the guide texts respectively. On the E241 screen the information is shown with amber characters on a brown background. The E242 colour screen can display information in red, blue, green and white. The screen can be tilted and rotated for the convenience of the operator. The keyboard is divided into sections to suit different types of inputs. It includes automatic repetition of the character or function of a depressed key. A clicking sound with adjustable volume confirms that the key has been depressed. A warning signal, also with adjustable volume, indicates that a faulty value has been entered in a data field. A variant of the keyboard is equipped with amagnetic card reader. Work station family E230 The family comprises two models, E231 for local terminals connected to a terminal circuit, and E232 for remote terminals. The display screen capacity is the same as for the E240 family. Printers Several types of printers, with a printing speed of between 40 characters per second and 600 lines per minute, can be connected to the system. Printout can take place simultaneously with input via the keyboard Programs that are initiated and controlled from another work station can also output data on a printer while the work station to which the printer is connected is used for other tasks. Operating system The operating system in System2500 gives the user real time access to a large number of functions and stored data. The operating system can control both autonomous systems and systems in advanced data networks. The operating system handles simultaneously all processing requirements from a number of users. A large number of tasks can be performed in parallel, for example data base processing, word processing and communication within and between systems. The main task of the operating system is to control and supervise the interactive COBOL programs that serve the work stations. The operating system carries out functions for distributing common resources, for example processortime, memory, channels, peripheral units and data bases. The system structure is such that different tasks are allocated to computers designed for different purposes. For ex-
16 122 Fig. 7 The SNSII software package makes it possible to connect up a number of E250 computers to form a flexible network ample, a communication computer handles data communication, and a work station computer handles local functions such as editing and word processing. This results in a considerable reduction of the load on the local computer. Communication aids The communication computer is equipped with a number of operating aids, such as emulators for transferring files to and from the host computer and communication between work stations. Some of the aids are described below. Internal communication system The protocols for the internal communication system are structured in accordance with the ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model in a way that gives the best possible flexibility, function and performance. The various protocols comply with international standards where applicable. For example, standard HDLC protocols are used (balanced and unbalanced). The internal communication system is used between computers and terminals. Different line types and transmission speeds can be used: leased lines, public data networks, local buses etc. DSC 3270 Data Stream Communication 3270 makes it possible to obtain access to 3270 applications in an IBM host computer (or a compatible system) from a Series2000 work station. The built-in path selection function enables the operator to communicate directly with the host computer, without having to go via the local computer. This method can be used for data collection, questions, updating etc. DSC3270 permits all functions that are necessary for the emulation of a 3270 control unit and the connected display unit and printer. From the point of view of the host computer Series2000 with DSC appears as a 3274 cluster controller with printers and display units. DSC3270 works together with a line handler (LHS 3270) for the line protocol. The DSC software consists of a cluster control module (CCM) in the communication computer and a presentation service module (PS3270) at the work station. The presentation service module is normally automatically loaded into the work station when the current is switched on, and is then available there, together with the presentation service workstation, PSWS, for the normal local work at the work station. This makes for very rapid change between central and local applications SNS II SNS II (Systems Network Support) is a software package for connecting together a number of E250 computers into a flexible data network. SNSII constitutes a supplement to normal E250 usage and gives the user a number of general and powerful functions for - quickand easy building up and use of a flexible data network - supervising and controlling the network. From the point of view of the user a network of E250 computers, built up with the aid of SNS II, appears and behaves very much like an individual E250 computer. The methods for reaching geographically dispersed files and programs in the network are identical to the methods for processing files and programs locally. The nodes in a SNS II network do not need to be connected direct to each other in order to be able to exchange data, since messages can pass through one or several nodes on their way to the
17 123 Fig. 8 The need for office automation is illustrated by the fact that during the years the labour cost had doubled, whereas productivity had only increased by 4% Fig. 9 Official estimates in the US indicate that efficient use of office automation can give a saving of US S on the administrative side recipient. An alternative route is automatically selected if any transmission link in the network is broken SNSII can use leased long-distance circuits, and locally a two-wire bus. The most natural method would be to use a public data network, which like SNS II permits addressing from everyone to everyone. Functions SNS II contains three categories of functions: - functions for creating, controlling and maintaining the network - functions that are used by an operator in an existing network (Remote log-in. Remote file copy, Broadcast) - functions that support programs for easy access to data or programs in other nodes (Remote file access. Remote program access, Remote file copy). User software On the basis of experience gained from D15 and Series 16 Ericsson has further developed a number of software packages for various applications. They include ODEN II for order handling, invoicing and inventory, MIMER II for material and production control, and financial systems for accounting and accounts receivable and payable. Ericsson Series 2000 contains a number of powerful office support functions, such as word processing, document retrieval and electronic mail. Rapidly growing wage costs have created an awareness of the necessity of improving the efficiency of work on the administrative side to the same extent that the efficiency of work on the production side has been improved during a number of years. The falling costs of electronics and the development of data communication during recent years have led to rapid international development within the field of office automation. Terminals and computer-supported systems for improving the efficiency of office work can therefore in future be considered as a normal part of the communication system in an organisation. In order to gain more experience as to the functions that may be useful in an office system and how these should be designed, the Business Systems Division of Ericsson Information Systems, together with AU-System Network AB, have developed a range of integrated software products for office support. The project designation was Office-83. Office-83 Two of the main prerequisites of Office- 83 have been that terminals should be connected via the PABX network and that they should be so cheap that they can be used generally. Using PABXs as the primary network gives high availability and low connection cost, as well as a simple means of communication with different computers and systems from one and the same terminal. It is then also possible to use one and the same computer application from different terminals. Office-83. the first version of which has now been introduced, contains functions for - word processing - personal registers - document retrieval - diversion service - telephone directory - message handling - electronic conference - diary - calculator. These functions must give an integrated solution for the office support functions required by an organization. However, the integration must not mean restriction, it must also be possible to use the functions individually. The functions are being tested in pilot projects during It is the intention to have programs prepared at an early stage for office support functions designed for present and future product generations. The ability to interwork with the division's standard software products for administrative applications, e.g. order processing and bank routines, is just as important as the fact that these office support functions are available in an open COBOL and data base environment, in which applications that are specific to the customers can also be integrated. In a communica-
18 Present position With electronic message handling tion orientated environment the functions in Office-83 can be used as natural building blocks together with other Ericsson products, primarily Alfaskop and MD110. Initially the system will use E231 and E241 work stations. In the long term these might be replaced by low cost multi-function terminals that also include functions for Videotex. be given authorization to reach different parts of the system. The authorization system protects each user's own data against unauthorized reading and modification by other users. A user can authorize an assistant (secretary) for certain functions in the system. The assistant is then able to deal with and change the regular user's data. Fig. 10 A study of communication requirements in banks shows that access to the EMBLA message handling system can drastically reduce the need for personal meetings and the need for secretarial assistance Fig.11 The display screen of the terminal work station shows the main list of the choice of functions in Office-83 Office-83 can be installed either in a local computer (local node) or in a network of computers (nodes). A user is connected to his local node. The telephone support system TOPAS, which contains a directory of all telephone subscribers within the organization, is installed in one of the nodes. In the case of decentralized organizations the network can contain several TOPAS nodes. In installations with only one computer the local node and TOPAS node are included in the same computer. Each local node can serve up to 100work stations. The software package SNSII (Systems Network Support) described above is used for communication between the nodes in such a network. All functions in Office-83 are protected by an authorization system, in which the user identifies himself/herself to the system by a code word. Different users can The identifying and addressing of the user, for example when transmitting a message, can be done by means of several types of scanning concepts, such as name, abbreviated name, service code or a combination of these. A user can also define his own abbreviated names for the people with whom he communicates most frequently. It often happens that a particular group of people, e.g. a department, are sent messages or called to meetings frequently. Such communications can be simplified by means of subscriber lists stored in the system. Subscriber lists can either be generally available or individual for a certain user and available only to him/her. A user can copy a general subscriber list and after additions or deletions use it as an individual list. A subscriber list can refer to one or several other subscriber lists, which permits a hierarchic grouping of the users, for example in order to follow an organization chart. Word processing system SAGA II SAGA II is an advanced word processing system in Series 2000 containing a number of aids for the input and processing of all types of texts, from simple documents to technical descriptions. The SAGAII functions are identical to those in Alfaword and they were developed simultaneously. Every effort has been made to ensure that SAGAII and Alfaword are easy to handle, and at the same time comprise functions for the most demanding office tasks. Alfaword is described elsewhere in this issue of Ericsson Review 1. The input and editing functions have been placed in the terminal in order to give the user the quickest possible processing. Function keys are provided for the most frequently used functions.
19 125 As soon as information regarding a document has been recorded or altered it is instantly available for use, for example when searching combinations of searching words. Fig. 12 List of choices for functions in SAGA I In addition to display orientated functions for searching and retrieval, ASK II contains functions for the printout of document lists and searching lists, where the sorting order and selection are decided by the user through dialogue with the system. Printouts can take place on any printer connected to the system. Ericsson can offer daisywheel or matrix printers with high printout quality. Personalized sales letters, proposals and contracts can be prepared quickly by using standard documents with marker data references. Data are fetched from a data base and are inserted in the text in the desired place in the document. The data base can form part of one of the software packages that belong to Series2000, e.g. customer registers or article registers. The document retrieval system ASKII enables documents that have been produced in SAGA II to be stored for quick retrieval. Document retrieval system ASK II ASK II is a system for storing and retrieving document information, and if integrated with SAGA II it can also be used for document texts In addition ASKII can be used to answer the following questions: - Which document has the observation date X and refers to department Y? - Which documents have been issued by author A on subject matter B and concern product C? - Which documents refer to author D and contain scanning word E? One characteristic of the system is that all recording and change of information is done in real time via the keyboard and display screen. The checks are designed so that faults are detected already during the recording. Search word, i.e. information intended fordirect searching, are updated immediately. ASK II can with advantage be used as an independent system. ASK II and SAGAII in combination provide an integrated method for the production and retrieval of documents. Computer assisted telephone service TOPAS TOPAS (Telephone Operator Assistant) is a computer-controlled telephone support system, which has been integrated with other office support functions. The system provides PABX operators with up-to-date information to enable them to process any type of telephone call quickly. TOPAS contains a - directory part - diversion part - message part. The directory part replaces the internal telephone directory and contains information regarding names, telephone numbers, internal addresses, service codes and employment numbers. The directory data are available to all terminal users in the office support system. The telephone number of a subscriber is obtained by giving his/her name, abbreviated name or service code, or a combination of these searching concepts. The information can be provided either locally from the local TOPAS node or globally in a system comprising several TOPAS nodes. If the given searching concept can refer to several subscribers, the information provided will comprise all these. The diversion part is used to record both short-term and long-term diversion. A user can enter, change and remove his own diversion information by means of
20 126 his terminal. The user can also utilizethe terminal to put questions regarding his own and other people's diversion messages. The diversion data must specify how long the person is absent, where he/she can be reached and any messages for anyone who might call during the period of absence. The subscribers can also input messages, which are stored in the system and are forwarded via the electronic mail system if the addressee is a mail subscriber. Otherwise the message is output on an optional printer for delivery via the internal mail distribution Program generator GENIUS The setting up of personal files, such as index files and address registers, often requires the assistance of ADP specialists and usually also extensile development work. GENIUS is a program generator. This means that GENIUS is a tool which enables a terminal user with no previous knowledge of programming to create, by means of a simple dialogue with the computer, his/her own tailor-made systems for recording data and handling file information. The user records on the display screen how he wants to input the file information, i.e. which data are to be recorded and in what order, and the automatic checks that are to be carried out. In this way forms with guide texts are created, which then help the user in future filing work. In a similar way the user defines the editing and contents of the reports and lists that the finished system is to produce. Calculations which have to be carried out in connection with listing and reporting can also be specified Several forms can be defined if a register post contains a large quantity of data for input. A form sequence can also be specified, to give automatic changeover between forms in connection with the recording of data. Complicated systems, which include processing and simultaneous updating of several interworking files, can also be built up when the user has become familiar with the system. Once the user has specified the properties of the desired system, GENIUS automatically generates complete programs in the COBOL programming language. These programs are ready for immediate use. The user can put questions to GENIUS in moments of hesitation, both when specifying the system and when using it. Guided by the answers displayed on the screen even an inexperienced user can work efficiently and can quickly learn how to operate the system. Fig. 13 List for selecting EMBLA functions for electronic mail