Gebruik van predictieve markers voor targeted therapy in de algemene praktijk

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1 Gebruik van predictieve markers voor targeted therapy in de algemene praktijk Gerrit A. Meijer, MD, PhD Professor of Pathology Chair of the Department of Pathology VU Universtiy Medical Center Amsterdam The Netherlands

2 Pathology = To collect as much information relevant to the patient as possible from cell and tissue samples

3

4 normal adenoma malignant polyp carcinoma

5 > proliferation < apoptosis < differentitaion < cell cycle ctrl < basal membr. > motility <> extr cell matrix. > stroma > angiogenesis < immune system mutation loss amplification SNP methylation post transcriptional mod.

6 How to read out tumor biology? microbiology.ucdavis.edu/ sklab/images/dna%20repair %20cartoon.jpg

7

8

9 Carriers of biological information DNA Deletions Amplifications Mutations Structural rearrangements Translocations Epigegenitic changes Promoter hypermethylation LOH, MLPA FISH, CISH, MLPA Sequencing, HRM FISH, RT-PCR MSP

10 Carriers of biological information: RNA Stelling 1 Uit paraffine materiaal kun je geen goed RNA krijgen.

11 Carriers of biological information RNA mrna RTPCR, microarray mirna RTPCR, microarray

12 Carriers of biological information proteins s.com/researchherpath/ images/ Section_3-2_detection.jpg

13 PamChip 144 target peptides porous AlOx slide Mariet Labots, Henk Verheul PamGene, s-hertogenbosch

14 Logistics Samples Methods

15 Stelling 2 Hematoxylline-Eosine is de belangrijkste kleuring in het kader van diagnostiek tbv targeted therapy.

16 Samples Garbage in, garbage out Histological evaluation is mandatory Primary tumor / metastasis What is the target to treat CRC: metastases Are primaries and mets comparable Lung: primary

17 Stelling 3 Gebrekkige organisatie van de infrastructuur tussen pathologie laboratoria in Nederland belemmert efficiënte uitvoering van diagnostiek tbv targeted therapy.

18 Samples What is the material available? CRC Lung Primary tumor At least biopsy Often resection Sometimes resection Sometimes minute biopsies with minority of tumor cells Other Metastases Pleural fluid Sputum? Unique infrastructure in NL: PALGA

19 Samples Fresh frozen Limited availability Sandwich slides mandatory Formaldehyde Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) Ubiquitous (still) Excellent for DNA tests Excellent for immunohistochemistry

20 CAIRO 180k arraycgh on FFPE CRC primary tumor tissue Josien Haan, Danielle Israeli,., Bauke Ylstra

21 Pro Methods Immunohistochemistry Runs at all pathology labs routinely Simple read out: Pahtologist & Microscope Con Not stoichiometric amount of staining amount of protein Depends on Sample handling etc Settings in the lab (detection kits, Ab s) Interpretation

22 Pro What you see is what you get Con Tecnically demanding Methods In situ hybridization Interpretation not always straightforward Hybridization conditions deteriorate tissue morphology Formal scoring can be time consuming

23 Pro More black and white Better reproducible Methods sequencing Con Requires dedicated staff and equipment QA/QC is key

24 High Resolution Melting (HRM) Principle: PCR with inclusion of an intercalating fluorescent dye, with subsequent melting curve analysis. Source:

25 High Resolution Melting (HRM) The melting curve of a PCR product depends on o.a. - GC content - length - sequence - heterozygosity -> Different genetic sequences melt at slightly different rates Comparing the melting curve of a specimen to a reference (wild type) allows scanning for any sequence variation -> Pre-screen assay with possibility to sequence PCR products to confirm genotype

26 HRM EGFR/K-ras panel Panel of HRM assays to prescreen for mutations: K-ras x1 -> a.o. codon 12/13 K-ras x2 -> a.o. codon 61 EGFR x19 -> a.o. deletions EGFR x20p -> a.o. ins 770/771 EGFR x20d -> a.o. T790M EGFR x21 -> a.o. L858R Kramer et al Heideman et al. 2009

27 Procedure of mutation detection by HRM 1) run cycling and melting program 2) check for correct amplification curves 3) check for melting curves and melting peaks (amplimer area and probe area, if applicable) 4) evaluate normalized, temperature-shifted difference plot (amplimer)

28 Analytical performance: High analytical sensitivity of HRM and subsequent sequencing example: K-ras exon 1 (G12C) 2.5-5% mutant DNA in a background of wt can be well discriminated from background/noise signal Kramer et al. Cell Oncol 2009

29 Performance of HRM on DNA isolated from FFPEtissue in comparison to conventional nested-pcr/ sequencing 1. High genotype agreement of HRM following sequencing with conventional nested-pcr following cycle-sequencing (kappa > 0.95) 2. Less-test failures 3. More mutations detected by HRM (likely related to the higher sensitivity as compared to conventional assay) Kramer et al Heideman et al. 2009

30 K-ras: high genotyping agreement of HRM with conventional cycle sequencing assay Kramer et al. 2009

31 EGFR: high genotyping agreement of HRM with conventional cycle sequencing assay Heideman et al. 2009

32 Conclusion Increased interest in mutation analysis in MD in PA Current indications (January 2010; may change in time) 1) EGFR x19/x21 -> EGFR-TKI lung cancer 2) K-ras -> contra anti-egfr moab colorectal cancer Novel indications likely (b-raf, PIK3CA,...) Variety of assays available Molecular assay useful in clinical/ diagnostic setting - applicable to routine material (FFPE / cytology) - sensitive: low-abundant mutants detectable - fast and accurate - prescreen technique -> high throughput - allows for genotyping

33

34 Stelling 4 Over 10 jaar heeft een patholoog geen microscoop meer nodig op zijn bureau.

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