Safety of manoeuvring, mooring and unloading of LNG carriers in the outer port of Świnoujście

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1 Sientifi Journals Maritime Universit of Sein Zest Naukoe Akademia Morska Seinie 2009, 18(90) pp , 18(90) s Safet of manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin of LNG arriers in the outer port of Śinoujśie Bepieeństo maneró umoania i preładunkó biornikoó LNG porie enętrnm Śinoujśie Stanisła Guma, Lujan Guma, Maiej Guma Akademia Morska Seinie, Wdiał Naiajn, Insttut Inżnierii Ruhu Morskieo Sein, ul. Wał Chrobreo 1 2 Ke ords: LNG terminal, safet of maneuverin, outer port of Śinoujśie Abstrat First LNG import terminal on the Balti Sea ill be loated in Poland at the outer port of Śinoujśie. Safe entrane to the port of LNG arrier (vessel of lenth abt. 300 m) to the terminal requires onsiderin of tehnial and naviational aspets, as ell as fulfilment of series of safet riteria related to manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin of LNG C arrier (LNGC). Comple manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin safet assessment of LNG in port, miht be done as an assessment of partiular tpes of manoeuvres and eploitation operations. Paper desribes all those aspets and sho proedure of LNG terminal desin ith naviational and operational problems onsideration. Słoa kluoe: terminal LNG, bepieeństo maneroania, port enętrn Śinoujśiu Abstrakt Piers rejonie Mora Bałtkieo terminal odbior LNG ostanie budoan porie enętrnm Śinoujśie. Bepiene ejśie statkó LNG do portu (dłuość ok. 300 m) ora terminalu, maa roażenia ielu aspektó aróno naiajnh, tehninh, jak rónież pełnienia krterió bepieeństa dotąh maneroania, umoania ora roładunku statkó LNG (LNGC). Kompleksoe osaoanie bepieeństa statkó LNG porie może bć konane jako osaoanie poseólnh tpó maneró ora operaji. W artkule opisano sstkie te problem ora predstaiono proedur projektoania terminalu LNG aspekie spomnianh problemó naiajnh i obsłui terminalu. Całośioe ujęie tematu ostało predstaione [1]. Introdution Safe entrane to the port of LNG arrier (vessel of lenth abt. 300 m) to the terminal requires onsiderin of tehnial and naviational aspets, as ell as fulfilment of series of safet riteria related to manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin of LNG arrier (LNGC). Comple manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin safet assessment of LNG C in port, miht be done as a assessment of partiular tpes of manoeuvres and eploitation operations. As speifi naviational problems, port manoeuvres and operation of LNGC in port folloin an be harateried: Balti Sea passae naviational safet, port approah manoeuvres, enterin to the port manoeuvres, turnin of LNGC inside port area, under keel learane durin entrane to port, moorin manoeuvres to the unloadin terminal (moorin and unmoorin), sta of vessel at terminal, unloadin operations. Safet of eah of these operations and manoeuvres is assessed ith different riteria. Fulfilment of these riteria relies on naviational and operational onditions, like tpe of vessel and 34 Sientifi Journals 18(90)

2 Safet of manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin of LNG arriers in the outer port of Śinoujśie area. These onditions miht be different for partiular tpes of operations. Balti Sea passae To alternative loalisations on polish oast have been onsidered (estern in Śinoujśie and eastern in Gdańsk). To hose final loalisation several aspets have been onsiders. One of them as probabilit of naviational aident durin passae to terminal. To solve this problem speiall desined model of naviational safet have been applied. In authors opinion the most appropriate approah to assess the safet of omple marine traffi enineerin sstems is stohasti simulation models [2, 3]. The model presented in fiure 1 ould be used for almost all naviational aidents assessment like ollisions, roundins, ollision ith fied objet [3], indiret aidents suh as anhor aidents or aidents aused b ship enerated aves. The model ould omprise several modules responsible for different naviational aidents. This methodolo has been used alread b several authors before ith different effet [4, 5]. In presented studies the model as used to assess the safet of different variants of LNG terminal loalisation. The presented models of ollisions, fire and roundins have adapted to the stohasti model of safet determination. The models ere adjusted to LNG arriers aordin to available statistial data. Several eperiments ere performed ith total real time duration of 6634 ears for roundin and 3195 ears for ollision. The lon time of eperiments is neessar to ahieve of statistial stable results. The aidents are ver rare events. The naviational onditions and ships traffi as not haned durin the eperiment. The ships traffi as estimated on level of 2005 ear. The LNG traffi as estimated to 2 LNG arriers passaes per eek one entrane and one departure from Balti Sea (96 per ear). The simulated plaes of LNG arriers ollisions are presented in fiure 2. The quantitative results are presented in table 1. The routes of hihest ollision probabilit are the S2, G1 and G4. Fi. 2. Plaes of simulated ollisions and fires on LNG board (umulated simulation time) Rs. 2. Obsar smuloanh koliji ora pożaró na statkah LNG (ałkoit as smulaji) Table 1. Safet fators on iven ships routes ith onsideration of roundin, fire and ollision aidents Tabela 1. Współnniki bepieeństa na danh trasah statkó ulędnieniem ejśia na mielinę, pożaru ora koliji statkó LNG route No. of roundins P a (ear) No. of fires P af (ear) No. of ollisions P a (ear) S E E E 03 S E E E 03 S E E E 03 Port approah maneuvers determination of approah atera parameters Fi. 1. Diaram of full developed stohasti model of naviation safet assessment Rs. 1. W pełni opraoan model stohastn saoania bepieeństa naiajneo To find the naviation safet and determine atera parameters durin port approah of LNG arrier to Śinoujśie fast time simulation (FTS) model have been applied. Model is based on similar to one presented in hapter 4 and 5 to but instead of naviator is ontrolled b mathematis model of naviator [6]. Fundamental advantaes of fast time simulations are: Zest Naukoe 18(90) 35

3 Stanisła Guma, Lujan Guma, Maiej Guma a reat number of ship passaes in the eamined atera eeuted in a short period of time, man initial variants of researh an be onsidered, lo ost. Model of ships ontrol is presented in [7] and is based on folloin PID ontroller: G s u e st0 s e s 1 st 1 st nm r k P sk D ki s (1) here: T 0 dela time, T nm time onstant harateriin the inertia of human nervous and Fi. 3. Safet atera obtained b FTS model of LNG 200 durin entrane to Śinoujśie port. Wind W 12,5 m/s (MAX maimal atera ih, 95% atera ih on 95% level) Rs. 3. Bepien tor odn określon modelem FTS tankoa LNG o dłuośi 200 m, podas ejśia do portu Śinoujśie. Wiatr W 12,5 m/s (MAX maksmalna serokość toru odneo, 95% shemat modelu smulajneo) musular sstems, T r another time onstant of inertia dependent on objet ontrol, k P, k D, k I the proportional, derivative and interal ains. Eample path of LNG arriers approahin to Śinoujśie obtained b several passaes of ships approahin to port is presented in fiure 3. The safe ih for tpial eamined LNG 200 m 3 on approah should be more than 180 m to fulfill the safet riteria and 0,9995 probabilit of no aident durin passae. Enterin to port determination of entrane breakater laout The real time simulation model have been applied to determine the safet of LNG maneuverin in port and on lose approah. The model used in researhes is based on modular methodolo here all influenes like hull hdrodnami fores, propeller dra and steerin equipment fores and iven eternal influenes are modelled as separate fores and at the end summed as perpendiular, parallel and rotational ones. The model is operatin in the loop here the input variables are alulated instantl (settins and disturbanes) as the fores and moments atin on the hull and momentar aelerations are evaluated and speeds of movement sure, sa and a. The most important fores atin on the model are: 1) thrust of propellers, 2) side fore of propellers, 3) sa and resistant fore of propellers, 4) bo and stern thrusters fores, 5) urrent, 6) ind, 7) ie effets, 8) moment and fore of bank effet, 9) shallo ater fores, 10) moorin and anhor fores, ) reation of the fenders and frition beteen fender and ships hull, 12) tus fores, 13) other dependin of speial harateristis of poer and steerin ships equipment. The funtional idea of the ship manoeuvrin simulation model is presented in fiure 4. Interfae of model is tpial 2D hart interfae (fi. 5). The interfae overs information of ships state (position, ourse speed, a e, qua and shore line loation, naviational markins, soundins, eternal onditions, tu and line ontrol and ontrol elements of the model. The model is implemented in Objet Pasal ith use of Delphi environment and Visual C ith use of C++ lanuae. 36 Sientifi Journals 18(90)

4 Safet of manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin of LNG arriers in the outer port of Śinoujśie Fi. 4. The main diaram of simulation model Rs. 4. Shemat łón modelu smulajneo Limitin to the usual 3DOFs (the horiontal planar motion), the ship movement over the round (thus the so-alled dnami effet of the ater urrent is introdued) is iven b [8]: Fi. 5. Interfae of simulation model Rs. 5. Interfejs modelu smulajneo m m m m m m m m d J m m m v v v v 66 dv dv m M m m m m m v v F v v F d 0 d v NS, 0 d v EW, (2) (3) Zest Naukoe 18(90) 37

5 Stanisła Guma, Lujan Guma, Maiej Guma v v NS EW os sin v sin os v (4) here: v, v, ship sure, sa and a veloit over the round, 0, 0, position Cartesian oordinates and headin, m ship mass, m, m, m 66 added masses, m empirial fator, F, F, M eternal eitations (resultant/total sure, sa fore and a momen, enerall onsistin of the folloin items (denoted b additional subsripts) and bein enerall the funtions of ship speed throuh the ater ('v '): v F F F F M M v v, v, v,, v, v, (5) v v, v v v (6) v os sin v os (7) v sin os v sin here: v and represent the veloit and eoraphial diretion of the ater urrent (a uniform urrent b defaul [ m ] Iobata 14.5 m Iobata 13 m Fi. Rs. 6. Bepien Staes obsar of manero development biornikoa LNG of 145 final podas ejśia shape do portu of shronienia entrane Śinoujśiu. breakaters Rs. 6. Etap opraoania ostateneo kstałtu falohronu ejśioeo 95% Wmiaroanie SB Wmiaroanie PS [ m ] Eample of results obtained b the model is presented in fiure 6 here steps leadin to obtain final shape of entrane breakater are presented. Safet of LNG turnin manoeuvres in Śinoujśie port Main safet of naviation ondition durin manoeuvre of turnin an be formulated as follos: p(, ) D( dijk D( h(,, T(,, (,, (8) here: D( aessible naviational area (meetin the ondition of aessible depth at moment, d ijk aessible manoeuvrin area (traffi lane) of the i-th vessel, performin the j-th manoeuvre in k-th naviational onditions, h(,, the depth of the area at point ith oordinates (, ) at moment t, T(,, the draft of the vessel at area point ith oordinates (, ) at moment t, (,, underkeel learane at area point ith oordinates (, ) at moment t. Sets of points of the aessible naviational area D(, as also the safe manoeuvrin area d ijk an be identified ith areas of definite linear parameters. These riteria ere applied to estimation of aessible area in outer port of Śinoujśie. Simulation method ere developed for this purpose. Simulations ere arried out at simulators in Marine Traffi Enineerin Centre over Konsber s Polaris full mission simulator. Researhes ere onduted on 3 tpes of mathematial LNGC s models: s/v Emar Ealibur apait = u.m., Loa = m, s/v Umm Bab apait = u.m., Loa = m, m/v Al Gatarra (QFle) apait = u.m., Loa = m. Manoeuvres of turnin ere onduted at ind onditions of 12.5 m/s (different diretions), ith 4 tus: tus of pullin fore 48 t (aipod drive), tus of pullin fore 30 t (onventional drive). Full mission Simulator made b Konsber Polaris loated at Marine Traffi Enineerin Centre (MTEC) premises in Maritime Universit of Sein have been applied in this stae of researhes. The MTEC simulator omprises (fi. 7): one full mission naviation bride simulator ith 270 visual projetion and live marine ship equipment (DNV lass A), 38 Sientifi Journals 18(90)

6 Probabilit Safet of manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin of LNG arriers in the outer port of Śinoujśie Eample results from this researhes of LNGC 138 k u.m., at ind N 12 m/s are presented in fiure 8. Diameter of turnin plae as set up to 600 m. Fi. 7. Bride A at MTEC (ith 270 visual projetion) Rs. 7. Mostek smulatora CIRM ( 270 projekją iji) to part task naviation brides ith 120 visual projetion and mi of real and sreen- -simulated ship-like equipment inludin one Voith-Shneider tu onsole (DNV lass B), to desktop PC simulators ith one monitor visual projetion and one monitor sreen- -simulated ship-like equipment. Underkeel learane The stohasti model of under keel learane evaluation as presented in [2]. It is based on Monte Carlo methodolo here overall ships underkeel learane is desribed b folloin mathematial model (fi. 9): UKC H 0 Hoi T Ti Sa Si N (9) here: Hoi the unertainties onerned ith depth and its determination, Ti the unertainties onerned ith drauht and its determination, Si the unertainties onerned ith ater level and its determination, N naviational and manoeuvrin learane. v = [m] Iobata 13 m Iobata 14.5 m Rs. Pas ruhu biornikoa LNG 140 podas umoania do terminalu LNG Śinoujśiu, Fi. 8. Results from researhes iatr N. turnin area determination of LNGC 138 k u.m. in Oputer Port of Śinoujśie at ind N 12 m/s Rs. 8. Wniki badań obsar obrotni dla LNG 138 k m 3 porie enętrnm Śinoujśiu, iatr N 12 m/s 95% Ma Śre [m] v f s(s) f h(h) Fi. 9. Conept of stohasti UKC model Rs. 9. Konepja stohastneo modelu apasu od pod stępką UKC [m] Fi. 10. Distribution of underkeel learanes for an LNG tanker approahin Śinoujśie (speed: si knots, ave heiht: one metre) Rs. 10. Rokład apasu od pod stępką dla tankoa LNG hodąeo do Śinoujśia (prędkość 6, sokość fali 1 m) Zest Naukoe 18(90) 39

7 Stanisła Guma, Lujan Guma, Maiej Guma The result obtained b the model [9] as historam of epeted underkeel learanes of approahin LNG in iven onditions are presented in fiure 10. Fiure presents probabilit of aident in funtion of to main fators affetin UKC: ships speed and ave heiht. nab [knm], E d permissible kineti ener of vessels ontat absorbed b fenderin-vessel sstem stat [knm], E d permissible kineti ener, of hih indued ork ill not deflets vessels hull permanentl [nnm]: d () here: sinular maimum hull stress from fender reation fore [kn/m 2 ], d permissible sinular hull stress from fender reation fore [kn/m 2 ]. Parameters of kineti ener distribution of 216 ku.m. LNGC ontat ith terminal in Śinoujśie are presented in fiure 12. These parameters ere obtained from real time simulation researhes. Fi.. Probabilit of an aident (P(<0)) at various speeds of approahin ships and various ave heiht. The marked line indiates idential probabilities of epeted losses p (P = 0.043) Rs.. Pradopodobieństo padku (P(<0)) dla różnh prędkośi podhodąh statkó ora na różnh sokośiah fal. Wskaana linia onaa takie samo pradopodobieństo spodieanh strat p (P = 0,043) Safet of manoeuvres of moorin LNGC in outer port of Śinoujśie Analsis of maunderin tatis proved, that most ruial moment of manoeuvres is first ontat of vessel s hull ith struture. Durin this time kineti ener is transformed into ork of ollision that affets on hull and fenderin sstem. Ener indued in fenderin sstem ill affet potential damaes, hilst seond and folloin ontats ont indue that amount of ener as firs one. Keepin this assumption in mind it an be stated that safe moorin riteria is ener absorbed b fenderin sstem Ea durin first ontat of vessel s hull and berth. It should be treated as a kineti ener indued on berth. Amount of absorbed b fenderin-vessel sstem ener reflets reation fores that deides over potential damae. Thus, riteria of naviation safet an be formulated as follo: a t i E E a a ti t i E E nab d stat d (10) here: E maimum kineti ener of vessels ontat absorbed b fenderin-vessel sstem [knm] 6,20 634, ,80 Fi. 12. Ener indued durin moorin of LNGC 216 k u.m. to terminal in Śinoujśie Rs. 12. Eneria indukoana podas umoania statku LNGC 216 k m 3 porie Śinoujśie Fenders shall be seleted for moorin ener indued b maimum vessel, hih an be desribed b amma distribution on onfidene level. Area of ontat beteen terminal and moorin vessel shall be taken into aount for maimum alloable hull stress. Safet of LNGC alonside terminal jett Gas arrier an safel sta alonside at unloadin terminal under onditions: that hull s flat bod (fi. 13) is in ontat ith fenders (ith permissible fores as ell as for hull and fender line); permissible tensions of all moorin lines is hiher than lonitude and traverse pull fores indued b maimal ind speed blos for iven port. Thus, eneral onditions of safe sta alonside the unloadin terminal an be as follos: 712, , ,00 Min Śre Ma St.dev 95%norm. 95%amma 40 Sientifi Journals 18(90)

8 Safet of manoeuvrin, moorin and unloadin of LNG arriers in the outer port of Śinoujśie manifold VR loaded flat bod ballast base line Fi. 13. Flat bod setion of LNGC Rs. 13. Prekrój tankoa LNG l r ballast l r loaded l d ballast l d loaded l l l l d r (12) here: l distane from C/L (entre line) of manifold (i.e. vapour return manifold line) to last fenders this distane is measured on terminal; l d, l r lenth of flat bod from C/L to bo and sterns diretions, for ballast ondition this distane is speifi to iven vessel. n i1 n i1 P P ib i Q b Q (13) here: P ib, P i tension of i-th moorin line traverse and lonitude respetivel; Q b, Q maimum pull fore form ind blos traverse and lonitude respetivel. Additionall for loation of fenders folloin shall be onsidered: 1) stabilit of vessel durin moorin ill be fulfilled for distane of fenders from manifold minimum 1/3 of maimum vessels lenth; d ma d min loaded ond. ballast ond. vessel Fi. 14. Loadin arms orkin rane Rs. 14. Zasię pra ramion ładunkoh hih level referene level lo level terminal 2) smmetrial fender distribution that ill affet tensions on sprin lines. Safet of unloadin operations Interonnetion of vessels and land sstems is performed b onnetin adequate pipes flanes of unloadin arm to ships manifold. Formulatin this basi safet ondition of unloadin an be ritten as (fi. 14). d d ma min D T D T bal lad h h ma min (14) here: d ma, d min orkin rane of unloadin arms, ma and min respetivel, measured from referene line; D heiht of manifold from vessels base line; T lad, T bal draft of LNGC loaded and in ballast ondition; h ma, h min differene in ater level in aordane to referene line (maimum and minimum for iven period). Conlusions Safet of manoeuvrin, moorin, stain alonside and unloadin of LNGC inside port requires fulfilment of several riteria onerned ith: safet durin Balti Sea passae, port approah, manoeuvre of turnin, berthin manoeuvre, moorin alonside unloadin terminal, unloadin of aro. Some of above aspets related to ne desin polish LNG terminal have been presented in limited etend. All LNG tankers oin inbound port must ompl ith these riteria. For desinin proess of outer port in Śinoujśie safet assessment has been onduted for tpial LNG vessels ithin rane of prospeted operations inside the port. Vessels that ill be deliverin aro to Poland are in ranes of apaities from to ubi meters. Final laout of LNG outer port in Śinoujśie is presented in fiure 15. Zest Naukoe 18(90) 41

9 Stanisła Guma, Lujan Guma, Maiej Guma 6. GUCMA S.: Marine Traffi Enineerin, Żelua i Okrętonito, Gdańsk ZALEWSKI P.: Fast time simulation model of ship movement based on path predition.; Zest Naukoe No. 55, Insttut Inżnierii Ruhu Morskieo, Wżsa Skoła Morska Seinie, Sein ARTYSZUK J.: A Novel Method of Ship Manoeuvrin Model Identifiation from Sea Trials. Annual of Naviation, nr 6, GUCMA L., SCHOENEICH M.: Probabilistn model określania apasu od pod stępką biornikoó LNG na podejśiu do branh terminali Polse (Probabilisti model of underkeel learane of LNG arriers on approah to iven polish terminals) Pro of Transport XXI Conferene, Fi. 15. Final laout of LNG terminal in Śinoujśie Rs. 15. Ostaten plan terminalu LNG Śinoujśiu Referenes 1. GUCMA S. (ed): Simulation methods in marine traffi enineerin, Maritime Universit of Sein, Sein GUCMA L.: Risk Modellin of Ship Collisions Fators ith Fied Port and Offshore Strutures (in polish). Akademia Morska Seinie, Sein GUCMA L.: Models of ship's traffi flo for the safet of marine enineerin strutures evaluation. Pro. of ESREL Conf. Rotterdam: Balkema FRIIS-HANSEN P., SIMONSEN B.C.: GRACAT: Softare for Groundin and Collision Risk Analsis. Collision and Groundin of Ships; Pro. Intern. Conf. Copenhaen MERRICK J.R.W. ET AL.: Modellin Risk in Dnami Environment of Maritime Transportation. Pro. of Intern. Conf. of Winter Simulation. Washinton Other referenes 10. GUCMA L., ZALEWSKI P.: Damae probabilit of offshore pipelines due to anhorin ships. Polish Maritime Researh, GUCMA L., PRZYWARTY M.: Rko koliji biornikoó LNG na branh trasah Bałtku Południoeo (Risk of ollision and roundin of LNG arriers on routes to Polish ports) Pro of Transport XXI Conferene, OTAY E., TAN B.: Stohasti Modellin of Tanker Traffi Throuh Narro Wateras Pro. of Intern. Conf. on Oil Spills in the Mediterranean and Blak Sea Reions, Aknoledements Authors ishes to aknolede all Polish LNG projet partners and o authors. Reenent: prof. dr hab. inż. Bolesła Maurkiei Akademia Morska Seinie 42 Sientifi Journals 18(90)

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