1 KARANATAKA STATE OPEN UNIVERSITY B.A PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SEMESTER SYSTEM SYLLABUS
2 Syllabus and Regulations Governing BA PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Title of the Programme: BA PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Program Duration: Minimum Duration - 3 years Maximum Duration 6 years Eligibility Criteria: Regulations I For Candidate Seeking under this regulation no educational qualification is prescribed. Those who have completed 18 Years of Age on 1st July 2010 (those born on or before ) are eligible to apply for B.A. Degree Programme (no relaxation even for one day). All eligible candidates will be admitted to First Year of the respective Programmes. The duration of Programme is THREE YEARS. Note: Candidates seeking admission under Regulation I shall also study B.P.P. (Bachelor s Preparatory Programme) They shall also pay an additional fee (for B.P.P. Course Material) of Rs along with First Year B.A. Tuition Fee. PROOF OF AGE a. Photocopy of SSLC/SSC marks card or Transfer Certificate showing Date of Birth attested by the Gazetted officer. b. An extract from the Admission Register maintained in a school and certified by the Head of the Institution concerned. OR OR c. Birth certificate issued by Municipality or Local Bodies or any Government or Semi Government Institutions. d. Extract from the passport (attested copies) e. Horoscope and Affidavit are not acceptable. OR
3 Regulations II Admission to the First Year of Three Year B.A. Degree Programme is open to candidates who have passed: a. The Two Year Pre-University examination conducted by the Pre-University Education Board in Karnataka State; OR Any other examination considered as equivalent there to; OR b. Candidates from other states who have successfully completed 12 years of schooling (either or or Higher Secondary Examination 12 Years of schooling excluding Nursery education) OR c. Pre University Examination in Vocational Courses conducted by the Department of Vocational Education, Government of Karanataka. Subject Code Subject Title Credits INTER NAL ASSESS MENT EXAMI NATIO N TOTAL Year-I BPA01 English Communication-I BPA02 Constitution of India and Ethics BPA03 Language BPA04 Principles of Public Administration BPA05 Indian Government and Administration BPA06 Police Administration Year II BPA07 English Communication-II BPA08 Environmental Studies BPA09 Administrative Thought
4 BPA10 Fundamentals of Computer Application BPA11 Principles of Management BPA12 Indian Government & Administration Year III BPA13 Labour Welfare Administration in India BPA14 Public Financial Administration BPA15 Administrative Law BPA16 Public Personnel Administration BPA17 Local Governments of Modern states with reference to U.K., U.S.A., France and India BPA18 Modern Administrative Systems
5 Total Credits of the Programme - 74 Evaluation System: The distribution of marks for evaluation in each subject shall be as follows Theory Subjects: Internal assessment 25 marks Term End University Examination 75 marks Minimum percentage for passing : 35% in each component. Course exemption : 35% marks in equivalent examination Subject: PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BLOCK - 1 UNIT - 1 Public Administration - Meaning, Definitions, Nature and Scope. Whether Public Administration is a Science or an Art. UNIT - 2 Significance of Public Administration. Public Administration, Similarities and Dissimilarities. Administration and Private UNIT - 3 Growth of Public Administration and its Sciences. Relationship with other Social UNIT - 4 New Public Administration - Meaning and Features. Development Administration - Meaning and Features.
6 UNIT - 5 New Public Management - Perspective and Public Choice Approach. UNIT-6 Comparative Public Administration. Concept of Good Governance and its Application. BLOCK - 2 UNIT - 7 Organization - Meaning, Types. Principles - Hierarchy, Unity of Command and Span of Control - Meaning, Merits and Demerits. UNIT - 8 Delegation, Co-ordination, Centralization and Decentralization -Meaning, Merits and Demerits,. UNIT - 9 Theories of Organisation - Classical Theory, Scientific Management Theory and Human Relation Theory, UNIT - 10 Chief Executive - Types, Role and Functions. UNIT- 11 Line, Staff and Auxiliary Agencies.
7 UNIT - 12 Departments - Bases. Bureau Type and Board Type Commissions and Public Corporation - Meaning, Features and Control. BLOCK - 3 UNIT - 13 Personnel Administration - Meaning and Importance. Civil Service - Meaning, Features and Functions. Position Classification System. UNIT - 14 Recruitment - Meaning, Process, Types of Recruitment - Their Merits and Demerits, UNIT - 15 Training - Meaning, Objectives, Types and Methods. Promotion - Meaning, Importance and Principles. UNIT 16 Morale - Meaning and Importance, Factors to Promote Morale. Conduct and Discipline - Types of Disciplinary Action. UNIT - 17 Pay and Service Conditions of Public Employees. Employees Association - Types and Objectives. Rights and Duties of Public Servants, Machinary for Redressal of Grievances of Public Employees.
8 UNIT - 18 Retirement - Need for Retirement, Types, Forms of Retirement Benefits. Generalists V/s Specialists Controversy. Concept of Neutrality, Anonymity and Commitment of Civil Servants. BLOCK - 4 UNIT 19 Management - Nature and Functions. Tests of Good Management, Levels of Management. Head Quarters and Field Relationship, UNIT 20 Administrative Powers and Sanctions, Sources of Administrative Power, Coercive and Non Coercive Powers, Methods of Action and Inspection. UNIT - 21 Delegated Legislation - Meaning, Types, Reason for its Growth, Merits, Demerits and Safeguards. Administrative Adjudication - Meaning, Reason for its Growth, Merits, Demerits and Safeguards. UNIT - 22 Administrative Accountability and Control - Meaning of the Concepts of Accountability and Control. Need for Control. Types - Internal and External. Techniques of Internal Control Over Administration.
9 UNIT - 23 External Control over Administration - Legislative Control over Administration, Its Techniques and Limitations. UNIT - 24 Executive and Judicial Control over Administration -Techniques and Limitations. Popular Control over Administration - Techniques and Limitations. BOOKS FOR REFERENCE 1. Vishnu Bhagawan Vidya Bushan - Public Administration 2. C.P. Bhambri - Public Administration 3. Dr. Avasthi $ Maheswari - Public Administration 4. M.P. Sharma - Public Administration (Theory Concept) 5. L.D. White - Introduction to the study of Public Administration 6. Willoughby - Principles of Public Administration 7. Fadia$ Fadia - Public Administration 8. Laxmikanth - Public Administration 9. A.R. Tyagi - Principles $ Practice of Public Administration
10 INDIAN GOVERNMENT & ADMINISTRATION BLOCK -1 UNIT - 1 Indian Constitution - Constitutional Development and Salient Features. UNIT - 2 Preamble - Meaning and Importance ^ UNIT - 3 Fundamental Rights and Duties UNIT - 4 Directive Principles of State Policy - Relations 'with Fundamental Rights. UNIT - 5 Indian Federalism and Parliamentary - System of Government. UNIT - 6 Centre State Relations - Legislative, Administrative and Financial. BLOCK - 2 UNIT - 7 Union Executive - President - Election, Powers and Positions. UNIT - 8 Council of Ministers : and Prime Minister - Powers and Functions.
11 UNIT - 9 Union Parliament - Composition, Powers and Functions. UNIT - 10 Central Secretariat - Meaning, Organisation, Role and Functions. Executive Agencies / Organisations. UNIT - 11 Cabinet Secretariat - Organization and Functions. Cabinet Secretary - Role and Functions. PMO -Organisation and Functions. UNIT - 12 Planning Commission - Composition, Functions and Position. National Development Council - Composition, Role and Functions. BLOCK-3 UNIT - 13 State Executive - Governor, Chief Minister and Council of Ministers. UNIT - 14 State Secretariat - Organisation and Functions. Chief Secretary - Role & Functions. UNIT - 15 District Administration - Powers and Functions of D.C and Changing Role of Deputy Commissioner.
12 UNIT - 16 Public Services in India - All India Services Central Services and State Services. System of Recruitment - UPSC and State Public Service Commission. UNIT - 17 Corruption in Administration - Causes and Remedies Lokpal and Lokayukta. UNIT - 18 Election Commission - Organisation, Powers and Functions, Electoral Reforms. BLOCK -4 UNIT - 19 Transparency in Administration and Right to Information Act. UNIT - 20 Administrative Reforms in India - Need for Reforms, Recommendations of ARC (Hanumanthaiah and Veerappa Moily) Problems of Implementation. UNIT - 21 Public Policy in India - Meaning, Agencies Involved in Policy Formulation and Problems of Implementation. UNIT - 22 Human Rights and National Commission for Human Rights.
13 UNIT - 23 Organization and Administration of Judiciary in India -Hierarchy of Judicial System, Judicial Activism, Public Interest Litigation, Legal Aid. UNIT 24 Politicization and Criminalisation of Indian Administration. BOOKS FOR REFERENCES 1. D.D. Basu - Introduction the study of Indian constitution 2. M.V. Pylle - Indias constitution 3. Gai - Indian Govt and Politics 4. J.C. Johari - Indian Political System 5. S.R. Maheswari - Indian Administrations
14 Subject: POLICE ADMINISTRATION Block I Police Administration Unit I: Nature, scope and significance of police administration Unit II: Approaches to Police Administration Unit III: Role of Police in the Contemporary Society. Block II Police in India Unit I: Evolution of Police in India Unit II: Pre-British System of police in India Unit III: Indian Police Act 1861 Unit IV: Central Police Organisations : Their structure and functions - IB-CBI-CRPFRPF- BSF - and CISF Unit V: Report of the National Police Commission ( ) Block III Protection of socity Unit-I :Police objectives Unit II: Protection of the society Through Unit III: Maintenance of peace and order, protection of life property. Unit IV: Functions of the police - Prevention of crime, Patrolling, Surveillance, Intelligence Unit V: Maintenance of law and order - upholding human rights etc. Block IV Police organisation Unit I State level police: Its structure and function Unit II :Other police organizations - CID, Finger Print Bureau, Dog Squad, Unit III :DVAC Block V Accountability of Police Unit I: Issue area: Autonomy and d Accountability of police Unit II :Police neutrality - Corruption police Unit III :Role of Police in society Unit IV: Women police - their need and importance Unit V : Recruitment and training of constables, Sub-Inspectors and Deputy Superintendent of police. BOOKS RECOMMENDED FOR STUDY 1. Saha. B.P., Indian Police 2. Venugopal Rao. S., Criminal Justice, Problems and perspectives in India 3. Report of the National Police Commission, Central Government Publications
15 Administrative Thought Block I: Theorists of Dicotomy Dicotomy Theorists Woodron Wilson Frank Goodnow. Block II:Theorists of Classical Classical Theorists F.W.Taylor, Henry Fayal, Luther Gulick Block III: Theorists of Bureaucratic Bureaucratic Theorists Max Weber, Karl Marx Human Relation Theorists Elton Mayo, M.P. Follet Block IV:Theorists of Behavioural Behavioural Theorists Chester I.Bernard Herbert A. Simon Rensis Likert. Block V: Theorists of Motivation Motivation Theorists Frederick Herzberg Douglas Mc Gregor Abraham Maslow Books: 1. Ravindra Prasad., D.V.S., Prasad & P.Sathya Narayana- Administrative Thinkers, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi, Singh, R.N., - Management Thought and Thinkers, S.Chand & Co., New Delhi, Pugh, D.S.,- Organization Theory. Administrative Thinkers
16 SEMESTER : II Subject Title : Fundamental of Computers Structure of the Course Content BLOCK 1 Introduction to computers Unit 1: classification of computers Unit 2: application of computers in the media industry Unit 3: Operating Systems Unit 4: Networking of computers BLOCK 2 Internet-concepts Unit 1: evolution of internet - internet connection Unit 2: dial-up - leased line - ISDN - ISP Unit 3: world Wide Web - web browsers - web servers Unit 4: -e-groups BLOCK 3 Graphics systems Unit 1: Overviews of Graphics systems Unit 2: I/O devices- Display devices Unit 3: Hard copy devices - Printer - Scanner Unit 4: keyboard- Light pens - joysticks- track ball mouse BLOCK 4 Ms - Office Unit 1: Ms - Office and its applications Unit 2: MS Word Unit 3: MS Excel Unit 4: Power Point BLOCK 5 Two dimensional transformations- Unit 1: Scaling - Translation - rotation Unit 2: Three dimensional transformations Unit 3: Shading Morphing - Animation Unit 4: Virtual reality - Video conferencing concepts
17 Books: 1. Fundamentals of Computers by Singh & Singh 2. The Ultimate Multimedia Handbook by J. Keyes McGraw Hill, New York 3. PC Softwares made simple by Ravikant Taxali, BPB Publications 4. Computer graphics- Donald Hearn and prentice hall of India- 1990
18 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT BLOCK 1: MANAGEMENT AN OVERVIEW UNIT 1: Nature And Scope Of Management UNIT 2: Management Process Functions and Principles UNIT 3: Evolution of Management Thought UNIT 4: Social Responsibility and Ethics. BLOCK 2: PLANNING & DECISION - MAKING UNIT 1: Planning- Introduction UNIT 2: Methods and Types of plans UNIT 3: Policies and Procedures UNIT 4: Forecasting and Decision -making BLOCK 3: ORGANISING UNIT 1: Nature and process of Organising. UNIT 2: Theories of Oranisation & Orgnasiation Charts. UNIT 3: Types of Organisation structure. UNIT 4: Delegation and Decentralisation. BLOCK 4: STAFFING & DIRECTING UNIT 1: Nature and scope of staffing UNIT 2: Recruitment, selection and Training UNIT 3: Nature and Scope of Directing UNIT 4: Supervision, Leadership & Motivation. BLOCK 5: CONTROL & COORDINATION UNIT 1: Nature and Process of Controlling UNIT 2: Techniques of Managerial control UNIT 3: Coordination- The Essence of Management UNIT 4: Techniques of Management BOOKS RECOMMENDED Management Process - Rustom Davar Principles of Management - L.M. Prasad Business Management - Dinkar & Pagare Essentials of Management - Koontz & O Donnell Principles of Management - Sherlekar
19 SUBJECT: LABOUR WELFARE ADMINISTRATION IN INDIA Block 1 UNIT 1 : Evolution of Labour Welfare Administration in India UNIT 2 : Concept of Labour UNIT 3 : Labour Welfare UNIT 4 : Theories of labour Block 2 UNIT 1 : Methods of Recruitment of Labour in India UNIT 2 : Workers Education and Training UNIT 3 : Absenteeism - Labour Turnover UNIT 4 : Significance of working conditions Block 3 UNIT 1 : Social Security : Labour Legislations in India UNIT 2 : Child Labour - Women Labour UNIT 3 : Agricultural Labours Plantation Labourer UNIT 4 : Industrial Housing. Block 4 UNIT 1: Wages and Bonus UNIT 2 : Trade Unions and Collective Bargaining UNIT 3 : Industrial Disputes, Strike and Lockout UNIT 4 : Lockout Lay off and Retrenchment Block 5 UNIT 1 : Workers Participative Management UNIT 2 : Natural Labour Organizations UNIT 3 : International Labour Organisations UNIT 4 : Labour Welfare and Social security. BOOKS RECOMMENDED FOR STUDY 1. Sharma : A.M. Aspects of Labour Welfare and Social Security 2. Mehrota, :Labour Problems in India.
20 SUBJECT : PUBLIC FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION IN INDIA PUBLIC FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK - 1 UNIT - 1 Public Financial Administration - Meaning, Nature, Objectives, Principles, Scope and Importance. Relation Between Public Finance and Financial Administration. UNIT - 2 Public and Private Finance - Differences and Similarities. Agencies Involved in Financial Administration in India The_ Principles of Maximum Social Advantages, Values and Limitations. UNIT - 3 Public Revenue - Nature and Importance. Sources of Public Revenue. Taxes - Nature and Kinds. Direct and Indirect Taxes - Merits and Defects. UNIT - 4 Tax and its Characteristics, Types of Taxes - Progressive, Proportional, Regressive, Degressive, Adveloram Taxes - Merits and Defects. Effects of Taxation on Production and Distribution (Public Revenue). UNIT - 5 Canons of Taxation - Justice in Taxation - Ability Theory of Taxation - Subjective and Objective Approaches.
21 UNIT - 6 Characteristics of a Good Tax System Public Expenditure -Nature and Importance of Public Expenditure. Causes for the Growth of Public Expenditure. BLOCK - 2 UNIT - 7 Canons of Public Expenditure - Effects of Public Expenditure on Production and Distribution - Nature and Importance of Public Debt, Policy of Public Borrowing. UNIT - 8 Forms of Public Debt - Internal and External - Repayment of Public Debt - Concept of Repudiation. UNIT - 9 Taxable Capacity - Factors Determining Taxable Capacity. Tax Sources and Non Tax Sources and Problems. UNIT - 10 Federal Finance - Principle of Federal Finance. Distribution of Financial Resources between Union and States. UNIT - 11 Central Taxes and State Taxes - Finance Commission in India -Composition and Function, Recommendations of Latest Finance Commission
22 UNIT - 12 Ministry of Finance - Organisation, Powers and Functions. BLOCK - 3 UNIT - 13 Budget - Meaning, Nature and Importance. Principles of Sound Budget. UNIT - 14 Forms of Budget - Traditional Budget, Performance Budget and Zero Based Budget. UNIT - 15 Budgetary Procedure - Preparation and Enactment of Budget. UNIT -16 Implementation of Budget and Legislative Control over Public Expenditure. UNIT - 17 Financial Committees of Parliament - Public Accounts Committees - Estimates Committees and Committees on Public Undertakings - Composition. Powers and Functions. UNIT -18 Fiscal Policy - Deficit Financing - Meaning and Role.
23 BLOCK - 4 UNIT - 19 Functions and Role of Reserve Bank of India. UNIT - 20 Accounting and Auditing - Nature and Importance, Types of Auditing and Accounting Separation of Auditing from Accounting. UNIT-21 Comptroller and Auditor General of India - Appointment, Service Condition and Role. UNIT - 22 Machinery for Financial Administration and Agencies involved in Budget Formulation Relation between Planning Commission and Finance Commission. UNIT - 23 Financial Management in Municipal Board. UNIT - 24 Financial Management in Panchayatraj Institution.
24 BOOKS FOR REFERENCES 1. Hugh Dalton - Principles of Public Finance 2. Hicks - Public Finance 3. S.H. Barghava - India Public Finance, 4. G.L. Lai - Financial Administration in India. 5. B.P. Tyagi - Public Finance.
25 SUBJECT: Administrative Law Block 1: UNIT 1: Meaning, nature and scope of Administrative Law UNIT 2 : Constitutional Law UNIT 3 : Administrative Law UNIT 4 : Growth of Administrative Law Block 2: UNIT 1 : Executive law UNIT 2 : Administrative Law UNIT 3 : Classification of Administrative Actions UNIT 4 : Administrative Discretion Block 3: UNIT 1 : Intoduction to Legislature and Administrative Law UNIT 2 : Legislature and Administrative Law UNIT 3 : Delegated Legislation UNIT 4 : Control over Delegated Legislation Block 4: UNIT 1 : Judiciary and Administrative Law UNIT 2 : Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Functions UNIT 3 : Administrative Tribunals UNIT 4 : Judicial remedies Block 5: UNIT 1 : Government Control over Public Authorities UNIT 2 : Statutory Inquiries UNIT 3 : Ombudsman UNIT 4 : Lok Pal and Lok Ayukta Books: 1. Durga Das Basu Administrative Law, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, Takwani, C.K. Lecturers on Administrative Law, Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, Kesari, U.P.D., - Lecturers on Administrative Law
26 SUBJECT : PUBLIC PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION Block 1: UNIT 1 : Meaning, Functions and Importance of Public Personnel Administration UNIT 2 : Tenure System, Spoil System and Merit System UNIT 3 : Bureaucracy, Max Weber and Bureaucracy- UNIT 4 : Civil Service Meaning and definition Block 2: UNIT 1 : Position Classification Meaning - Position Versus Rank UNIT 2 : Classification of services in Britain and India UNIT 3 : Civil Services in India, Meaning of recruitment and types UNIT 4 : Meaning of recruitment and types of recruitment Block 3: UNIT 1 : Promotion Meaning and types of Promotion UNIT 2 : Methods of Performance appraisal and Remuneration and Service Conditions UNIT 3 : Methods of Job evaluation - UNIT 4 : Role of Pay Commission and other service conditions. Block 4: UNIT 1 : Conduct, Disciplines and Meaning UNIT 2 : Prestige and Morale and types of Morale factors UNIT 3 : Retirement,Objective of Retirement and Advantages of Retirement System UNIT 4 : Retirement - Objective of Retirement and advantages of Retirement System. Block 5: UNIT 1 : Compensation and Method of compensation UNIT 2 : various allowances to the employees UNIT 3 : Growth of employees association in various countries UNIT 4 : Integrity in Administration, Generalists Versus Specialists. BOOKS RECOMMENDED FOR STUDY 1. Sharma, M.P. (1998) Public Administration Theory and Practice, Kitab Mahal, Allahabad. 2. Avasthi-Maheswari, (1998) Public Administration, Lakshmi Narayan Agarwal, Agra. 3. Tyagi. A.R. (1987) Public Administration. 4. Vishnu Bhagawan and Vidhya Bhushan, (1994) PublicAdministration, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi 5. S.L. Goel : Public Personnel Administration
27 LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF MODERN STATES WITH REFERENCE TO U.K., U.S.A., FRANCE AND INDIA. BLOCK - 1 UNIT - 1 Local Government - Meaning, Nature, Importance, Values Limitations. Distinction between Central and Local Government. and UNIT - 2 Evolution of Local Governments in India. Balawantroy Mehta, Ashok Mehta, G.V.K Rao and L.M. Singhvi Committees. UNIT - 3 Panchayatraj Institutions and 73 rd Constitutional Amendment Act of UNIT - 4 Grama panchayat - Composition, Organisation, Powers and Functions. UNIT - 5 Taluk Panchayats and Zilla Panchayats - Composition, Organisation, Powers and Functions. UNIT - 6 Urban Local Governments in India and 74 th ' Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992.
28 BLOCK -2 UNIT - 7 Municipal Corporation - Composition, Organisation, Powers and Functions. UNIT - 8 Municipal Council - Composition, Organisation and Functions. UNIT - 9 Special Purpose Urban Authorities - Improvement Trust Board, Housing Board and Others. UNIT - 10 Personnel of Rural Local Governments. UNIT - 11 Personnel of Urban Local Governments. UNIT - 12 Finances of Rural Local Governments. BLOCK - 3 UNIT - 13 Finances of Urban Local Governments. UNIT - 14 Control over Local Government. UNIT - 15 Rural Development Schemes and Programmes in India.
29 UNIT - 16 Urban Development Schemes and Programmes in India. UNIT - 17 Districts Rural Development Agency (D.R.D.A) UNIT -18 Evaluations and Future of Local Governments in India, BLOCK - 4 UNIT - 19 Local Governments in U.K - Features Types, Composition, Powers and Functions. UNIT - 20 Sources of Revenue. Control Over Local Government in U.K. UNIT - 21 French Local Government - Features, Types Composition, Powers and Functions UNIT - 22 Sources of Revenue. Control over Local Government in France. UNIT - 23 Local Governments in U.S.A - Features Types, Composition, Powers and Functions.
30 UNIT - 24 Sources of Revenue. Control over Local Government in U.S.A. BOOKS FOR REFERENCE 1. Ogg & Zink - American local government 2. Brain's Chapman - Introduction to French local government 3. R.M. Jackson - Machinery of local government in U.K. 4. B.C. Roy - Local government of modern state. 5. Dr. Muttalib & Dr. Akbar Alikhan - Theory of local government.
31 Subject: Modern Administrative Systems BLOCK 1: Nature of Government Unit 1: Introduction Unit 2: Constitution and its classifications Unit 3: Written and Unwritten and Flexible and Rigid Unit 4: Parliamentary and Non-Parliamentary form of Government BLOCK 2: Constitution Unit 1: Salient features of the constitution Unit 2: Powers and Position of the Monarch, Prime Minister Unit 2: Council of Ministers, Parliament Unit 4: Process of Law making, Judiciary and rules BLOCK 3: Federal System Unit 1: Introduction Unit 2: President and American Cabinet Unit32: Congress Committee System Unit 4: Law making and Supreme Court BLOCK 4: features of the Constitution Unit 1: Introduction Unit 2: President of the Republic, Prime Minister Unit 3: Parliament law making Procedure and Judiciary Unit 4: Administrative Law Party System BLOCK 5: Swiss Unit 1: Main features of the Constitution Unit 2: Federal Council and Federal Assembly Unit 3: Federal Tribunal Unit 4: Direct Democracy- Party System Reference Books: 1. Kapoor, A.C.,- Modern Constitutions,S.Chand and Co, New Delhi, Mahajan, V.D., - Modern Governments, New Delhi, Vishoo Bhagwan and Vidya Bhusan World Constitutions, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 4. Ridley and Blondel- public Administration in France. 5. Blondel, S.,- Comparative Governments. 6. Johari,J.C.,- Comparative Government and Politics.