1 IPv6 create awareness for the upcoming internet transition Frits Nolet, Joost Tholhuijsen Independent consultants Founding boardmembers
2 What, who, why and how IPv6? What is the present internet protocol? IP version 4 (IPv4) How many bits for IP addresses has IPv4? 32 bits How many IP addresses can exist with that? ~4.3 billion ( 4.3 x 10 9 ) How many usable addresses remain? ~3.7 billion Who is responsible for distributing IP addresses? IANA -> RIR -> LIR (ISP)
3 Regional Internet Registries
4 What, who, why and how IPv6? How many addresses has IANA distributed (Late 2010)? ~3.6 billion How many addresses are left? ~120 million How many are distributed per year? >200 million So when was IANA running out of IPv4 addresses? Feb 3rd, 2011
5 What, who, why and how IPv6? Which RIR was the first to run out of IPv4 addresses? APNIC (Asia) When was APNIC running out of IPv4 addresses? Apr 15th, 2011
6 What, who, why and how IPv6? When is RIPE (Europe, Middle East and Russia) expected to run out of IPv4 addresses? Late, 2011 or early 2012?
7 Probability estimate of RIR Exhaustion dates source: Geoff Huston,
8 What, who, why and how IPv6? So what is the time? five minutes to twelve! What is the solution? IP version 6 (IPv6) Why? 128 bits: When do you need to act? Now!
9 History of IPv US DoD Advanced Research Project Agency 1969 ARPANET 4 hosts 56kbps NCP 1972 Gov and Edu use of ARPAnet Vint Cerf, Robert Kahn develop TCP/IP 1979 IP version 4 in RFC760 IPv ARPANET moves to TCP/IP 1983 ARPANAT -> MILNET 1984 Size grows to >1000 hosts DNS 1986 Backbone NSFnet 56kbps 1988 Backbone speed 1.5 Mbps 1990 Commercial use of internet
10 Distributed IPv4 numbers/year from 1990 Source: bgpexpert.com
11 More users and the Internet of Things
12 History of IPv Awareness of lack of IPv4 addresses 1995 First IPv6 standard by Steve Deering (Xerox) and Robert Hinden (Ipsilon) RFC Final IPv6 standard by Steve Deering (Cisco) and Robert Hinden (Nokia) RFC 2460
13 So what about IPv5? IPv1" IPv3" (IPv5) IPv7 (voorloper NCP) ARPANET hosts beginnen met het gebruik van het Network Control Protocol (NCP) IPv2" Transmission Control Protocol volgt NCP op Overgang van NCP naar TCP/IP op 1 januari 1983 IPv4 Experimenteel streaming protocol Standaardisatie 128 bits netwerk protocol IPv
14 IPv6 design objectives Much more addresses Faster More simple configuration Safer Mobility Simple migration
16 Early steps Bone: Testbed for deployment of IPv Euro6IX: Internet Exchanges Backbone Net: European large scale international pilot Diss: EU knowledge xfer to developing regions Deploy: EU project for WW training & support to ISP s and industry Most operating systems have IPv6 enabled ISP s are enabling IPv6 in backbones ISP s are requesting blocks of IPv6 addresses Few ISP s are offering access to consumers Few websites are on IPv6 IPv6 traffic on AMS-IX still very low Companies are not willing to invest
17 IPv6 distribution (small to medium ISP s) Source: bgpexpert.com
20 Hitting the wall finding the hard edge Geof Huston, Ripe59
21 IPv6 Transition plan v2.0
22 IPv6 Transition plan v2.1
23 Is this feasable? Deploy IPv6 across some 1.7 billion users, with more than a billion hosts.
24 Is this feasable? Deploy IPv6 across some 1.7 billion users, with more than a billion hosts, hundreds of millions of routers, firewalls and middleware units.
25 Is this feasable? Deploy IPv6 across some 1.7 billion users, with more than a billion hosts, hundreds of millions of routers, firewalls and middleware units, audit billions of lines of configuration codes and filters, and audit hundreds of millions of ancillary support systems.
26 Is this feasable? Deploy IPv6 across some 1.7 billion users, with more than a billion hosts, hundreds of millions of routers, firewalls and middleware units, audit billions of lines of configuration codes and filters, and audit hundreds of millions of ancillary support systems -- all within the next 360 days.
30 Why do people think IPv6 is not needed? The lost A-classes CIDR NAT Ostrich policy they ll think of something
31 IPv4: the lost A-classes IANA IPv4 Address space registry Source: bgpexpert.com/ianaglobalpool.php (Feb 2011)
32 Network Address Translation (NAT) Private IPv4 address ranges: /8, /12, /16 NAPT: Network Address and Port Translation (Cone-Restricted NAT)
33 NAT applications Home DSL router WiFi hotspots Internet connection sharing Some mobile operators GPRS/UMTS Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) Large Scale NAT (LSN) NAT444 Portnumber 16 bits = ~64000 connections
34 Typical number of connections/application
35 Number of connections/user According to some observations, about 500 sessions are average numbers of concurrent sessions per users That means about 128 users may share a global IPv4 Some people even think only 8 users per 1 single global IPv4 address may be a good ratio to use ISP NAT Anyway, CGN is not a long term solution
36 IPv4 & IPv6 - The Bottom Line We re running out of IPv4 address space IPv6 must be adopted for continued Internet growth IPv6 is not backwards compatible with IPv4 We must maintain IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously for many years IPv6 deployment has begun. 36
37 More about IPv6
38 IPv6 characteristics Much more addresses 128 bits instead of 32 bits Faster Fixed header length Safer IPsec is mandatory in IPv6 feature sets Mobility Mobile IP for fixed IP address when roaming Simpler configuration Greater choice of address configuration (e.g. auto configuration)
39 IPv4 : IPv6 = golfbal : zon
40 IPv6 similarities and differences The next generation layer 3 IP protocol Layer 1,2, 4 and up do not change Cannot communicate directly with IPv4 Coexists with IPv4 (dual stack) on same network Migration strategies required
42 Global Unicast Addresses RFC global routing prefix subnet interface ID public topology (45 bits) site topology (16 bits) interface identifier (64 bits) only 1/8th of total space (binary 001 prefix) used initially global routing prefix is hierarchically structured, using CIDR-type allocation and routing (at least for now!) initial policy is for every subscriber site (e.g., corporate site, campus, residence, etc.) to be assigned a /48 prefix => 16 bits of subnet space (65k subnets) still discussion about /56 prefix with 8 bits subnet space (256) for residential, or even /64 without subnets
43 Internet registry hierarchy
44 Global Unicast IPv6 address distribution PA Provider Aggregated PI Provider Independent
45 IPv6 Address Anatomy
46 IPv6 readiness of ICT elements Server and Workstation IOS s Windows XP SP2, Server 2000, 2003 Windows Vista Windows 7, Server 2008 Unix Linux FreeBSD (4.0 Kame project 2006) Apple Mac OSX (10.3) Service Providers Hosting Access Networking devices Cisco routers (IOS 12) HP Networking, Printers, Storage Juniper, Brocade, F5, A10 Application software Explicit use of IP address in calls Usage of IP address for logging IP version specific expressions
47 Action Plans What does the transition to IPv6 mean for: Access Providers? Hosting Providers? Content Providers? Enterprise Customers? Equipment Vendors? Government Organizations? 47
48 Call to Action: Acces Providers Your customers want access to the entire Internet, and this means IPv4 and IPv6 websites. Offering full access requires running IPv4/IPv6 transition services and is a significant engineering project. Multiple transition technologies are available, and each provider needs to make its own architectural decisions (free = 6rd, XS4all = native dual stack, xxx = DS-lite etc.) 48
49 Call to Action: Hosting Providers Relevant elements server IOS data center infrastructure: Load balancers Routers Switches Firewalls IDS/IPS Connection to AMS-IX 49
50 Call to Action: Content Providers Content must be reachable to newer Internet customers Content served only via IPv4 will be accessed by IPv6 customers via transition solutions run by access providers Plan on serving content via IPv6 in addition to IPv4 as soon as possible. 50
51 Call to Action: Enterprises Mail, web, and application servers must be reachable via IPv6 in addition to IPv4 Open a dialogue with your Internet Service Provider about providing IPv6 services Each organization must decide on timelines, and investment level will vary 51
52 Call to Action: Equipment Vendors There was probably limited demand for IPv6 in the past Demand for IPv6 support will become mandatory very, very quickly Introduce IPv6 support into your product cycle as soon as possible. 52
53 Call to Action: Governments Coordinate with industry to support and promote awareness and educational activities Adopt regulatory and economic incentives to encourage IPv6 adoption Require IPv6 compatibility in procurement procedures Officially adopt IPv6 within your government agencies 53
54 IPv6 Adoption Needs IPv6 address space IPv6 connectivity (native or tunneled) Operating systems, software, and network management tool upgrades Router, firewall, and other hardware upgrades IT staff and customer service training 54
55 8 juni 2011: World IPv6 day De grote sites zetten IPv6 aan 24 uur lang (00:00 GMT tot 00:00 GMT) Deelnemers: Google, Facebook, Yahoo!, Akamai, Limelight, Cisco, Juniper, Huawei, BlueCat, Mozilla, Fortinet, Comcast, Time Warner, Rackspace, Buienradar, Doel: problemen aan het licht brengen Configuraties bezoekers Bugs in routers, firewalls, besturingssystemen, browsers, etc. info:
56 Wat doet de? Helderheid verschaffen website poster Initiatieven IPv6ready.NL Applicatie Software Test Hardware requirements Begeleiding projecten adresplan aanbevelingen
57 Stipv6 Initiatief 1: IPv6 Ready.nl Check op IPv6 bereikbaarheid Alexa Top-100 websites Uitbreiding met lijsten: Provincies Gemeenten Branches
58 Stipv6 Initiatief 2: ISP IPv6 geschiktheid op Internetten.nl Consumenten ISP s vermelding op Mate van IPv6 geschiktheid in zes (toeval) gradaties: 1. Een RFC1918 adres van provider 2. Een niet-vast publiek-adres van provider 3. Een vast publiek adres 4. Een IPv6 tunnel van provider 5. Native dual stack 6. Native dual stack inclusief router
59 Stipv6 Initiatief 3: IP-versie afhankelijkheid applicatiesoftware In samenwerking met Software Improvement Group: Eerste steekproef (125 applicaties): 8% applicaties zal niet volledig functioneren als het uitsluitend via IPv6 moet werken Afhankelijkheid door: Gebruik van IP-adres voor logging of reputatie IPv4 specifieke functie-aanroepen in code Rond 8 juni publiceert Stipv6 een white-paper Volgende stap: software scans voor automatisch zoeken IP-versie afhankelijkheden
60 Stipv6 Initiatief 4: ISP IPv6 geschiktheid apparatuur IPv6 Ready.org: Silver (deprecated): 170 checks Gold: 450 checks Certificatie uitgebreid maar niet algemeen gebruikt: tijdsduur en kosten Stipv6 werkt samen met aanbieders apparatuur en ISP s om door juiste selectie gevraagde functionaliteit de juiste RFC s te implementeren
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