3.2: Transport Layer: SSL/TLS Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol

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1 Chapter 2: Security Techniques Background Chapter 3: Security on Network and Transport Layer Network Layer: IPSec Transport Layer: SSL/TLS Chapter 4: Security on the Application Layer Chapter 5: Security Concepts for Networks 3.2: Transport Layer: SSL/TLS Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Page 1

2 Secure Socket Layer (SSL) SSL, initially developed by Netscape, provides authentication, data integrity, and privacy between two applications (not complete hosts as in IPSec) SSL is located on top of TCP/IP and has become a de-facto standard for securitysensitive applications over intranets or the Internet Most widely used as secure transport layer for HTTP traffic, e.g. e-commerce Version 3.1 of SSL is known as TLS Special port numbers are assigned to applications which use SSL, e.g. https = 443, telnets = 992 SSL comprises four mechanisms: SSL Handshake Protocol (authentication, negotiates an encryption algorithm and cryptographic keys) SSL Record Protocol (data encryption and compression) SSL Change Cipher Spec (signal the begin of encryption) SSL Alert Protocol (reaction to error situations) Page 2

3 Handshake Protocol Responsible for secure session establishment between two applications. Session means: Association between a client and a server Can comprise several connections Definition of encryption and compression algorithms for these connections Contains a master secret for all connections (from which keys for the connections are generated) The handshake protocol has the following tasks: 1.) Negotiation of an encryption algorithm 2.) Mutual authentication 3.) Key exchange Page 3

4 Session Establishment client_hello, cipher suites, R A Hello message of Alice, including: A set of possible encryption and compression algorithms (start of negotiation) A random number R A Answer message of Bob, including: certificate, cipher suite, R B Certificate of Bob (authentication, often RSA) Chosen algorithms (end of negotiation, often 3DES) Alice {S} B, hash of K and the handshake messages Bob A random number R B Alice chooses a random number S, computes a master secret K = f(s, R A, R B ) and sends to Bob: S encrypted with Bob s public key A hash (MD5) of K the messages before to proof knowing K and K corresponds to the handshake keyed hash of the handshake messages Bob responds with a hash of the messages before, encrypted with a key generated from K, R A, and R B Page 4

5 Session Keys and Change Cipher Spec K, R A, and R B are used to generate 6 keys: Two keys for encryption Two keys for integrity Two keys as initalization vector The two keys are used to treat both communication directions different, e.g. for encryption: Alice does encryption with her so-called write key and decryption with her read key Bob also has a write and a read key, but his write key is Alice s read key and vice versa Same for integrity At the end of handshake: Together with the last message, Bob sends a change cipher spec Only one byte, signaling that all following messages now are encrypted with the mechanism/keys from the handshake phase Page 5

6 Record Protocol Responsible for encryption and compression of all messages following the change cipher spec as follows: 1. Break down data to be transferred in block of fixed length 2. Compression 3. Append a Message Authentication Code (MAC) computed with the integrity key 4. Encryption using the encryption key 5. Add SSL header which contains: Content Type (e.g. HTTPS) Protocol Version Number Length, Sequence Number Page 6

7 Alert Protocol Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Only needed in case of errors defines error messages and actions to be taken Level 1: Warning No special actions defined Maybe displayed to the user Level 2: Fatal Connection will be closed No more connections are opened within the current session Examples are unexpected message bad record MAC decryption/decompression failure handshake failure Page 7

8 Transport Layer Security (TLS) TLS in basic version is SSLv3.1 with some additions: Addition of Kerberos Cipher Suites Upgrading to TLS Within HTTP/1.1 to change to encryption within an existing TCP connection HTTP Over TLS for separating secure and unsecure traffic Addition of AES Addition of new alert messages Page 8

9 Comparison IPSec and SSL IPSec SSL Network Layer Implemented transparently for the user Can be automated Transport Layer Interaction with the user (e.g. acceptance of certificates) Central management Management by application or user Independent of certain mechanisms (encryption, compression, hash...) Conclusion: it is impossible to state that one mechanism is better than the other they are thought for different scenarios Variety of security mechanisms necessary in the Internet! Page 9

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