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1 Invent. math. 98, (1989) ~nve~ltiones mathematicae ~) Springer-Verlag 1989 Classification of overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds Y. Eliashberg*'** Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA USA Introduction A contact structure on a (2n + l)-dimensional manifold is a codimension 1 tangent distribution which can be defined (at least locally) by a 1-form 7 with 7/x (d~)" nowhere 0. In this paper we will study a special class: overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds. Examples of overtwisted structures were studied by Lutz [11], Gonzalo and Varela [10], Erlandsson [5], and Bennequin [1]. We give here the complete classification of overtwisted structures. For example, it follows from the classification that all known examples of non-standard (but homotopically standard) contact structures on S 3 are equivalent. The paper has the following organization. In Sect. 1 we give basic definitions and formulate main results. In Sect. 2 we prove miscellaneous lemmas needed for the main theorem. In Sect. 3 we prove the main theorem, and in Sect. 4 discuss open questions around the subject. The paper was motivated by a question of J. Gonzalo. I would like to thank him for helpful conversations. I want to thank M. Gromov and W. Thurston for critical discussions and A. Weinstein for his constant help and support. I am also grateful to D. Bennequin, F. Laudenbach and J.-C. Sikorav who read the first variant of the paper and whose criticism helped me to make the text more understandable. I. Basic definitions and the statement of the main theorem 1.1. The induced foliation on a surface in a contact 3-manifold Let M be a 3-dimensional contact manifold with a contact structure ( and S c M be a surface tangent to ( at a set 2; c S. Intersections of ( with tangent planes to S define a one-dimensional distribution on S\S. Its integral curves form * Research partially supported by National Science Foundation grant DMS ** Permanent address: Department of Mathematics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA , USA

2 624 Y. Eliashberg a one-foliation S~ on S with singularities at S. Leaves of the foliation are by construction legendrian curves of ~ (i.e. curves tangent to 4) The sign of a contact structure A contact structure on a 3-manifold M defines an orientation because the sign of the form c~/x d~ does not depend on the sign of ~. If M is connected and already oriented then we call the contact structure positive if the two orientations coincide, and call it negative in the opposite case. Furthermore, we will consider only positive contact structures. The term contact structure will always denote positive contact structure. Negative contact structures could be considered in the same way Contact structures on ~3 We will consider two special contact structures on N3: the standard structure (0 and the standard overtwisted structure (1, which are defined, respectively, in cylindric coordinates (p, qs, z) by equations dz+p2dc)=o and cospd.z+psinpd~b=0. We will also denote by (o the standard contact structure on S 3 formed by complex tangent lines to the boundary of the unit ball in C 2. At the complement of a point p e S 3 these two standard structures Co are equivalent. The contact structure on N3 which is equivalent to Go can also be defined by the equation dz - ydx = 0 in cartesian coordinates (x, y, z). Note that for both structures (~0 and C1 the rays {z = c 1, 0 = cz} perpendicular to the z-axis, are legendrian. The planes of the distributions Co and Ca turn around these rays when they move along them away from the z-axis. The angle of turning is always less than n/2 for C0 and goes to infinity for C1. Denote by A the disc {z = 0, p < n} c N3. The disc A with the germ of the contact structure C1 on it will be called the standard overtwisted disc. The boundary c?a is a legendrian curve for C1 and the structure (1 is tangent to A along 0A. Thus A is not in general position to CI. But for any e > 0 the embedded disc A ~ = {z = ep2, p < n} is close to A, is tangent to C~ only at the origin, and has the induced foliation (see Fig. 1) with only one singular point of focus type and with one limit cycle at the boundary Overtwisted structures A contact structure ~ on a connected 3-manifold M is called overtwisted if there is a contact embedding of the standard overtwisted disc (A, (1) into (M, 4). As follows from 1.2, an overtwisted structure contains an embedded 2-disc ~ such that the induced foliation 9r has the form as in Fig. 1. It is easy to see that the converse is also true. Ira contact manifold contains a disc with the foliation as in Fig. 1, then it is overtwisted.

3 Classification of overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds 625 / / 4 \ Fig. I Any contact structure can be "spoiled" and made overtwisted using so-called Lutz twistin9 (see [10] or [1] for definitions and discussions) which is a surgery of the structure (but not of the manifold) along a closed transversal. It is possible to make Lutz twisting without changing the homotopy class of the contact structure as a plane distribution The spaces Distr(M), Cont(M), and Cont~ Let M be an oriented connected 3-manifold. Let us fix a point p em. and an embedded 2-disc A c M centered at the point p. Denote by Distr(M) the space of all tangent 2-plane distributions on M fixed at the point p e M provided with the C~ Denote by Cont(M) the subspace of Distr(M) which consists of (positive) contact structures and by Cont~ the subspace of Cont(M) consisting of all overtwisted structures which have the disc A c M as the standard overtwisted disc. If M is closed then any two contact structures belonging to the same component of Cont(M) are isotopic (see [7]). Any overtwisted structure on M is evidently isotopic to a structure from Cont~ Consider the inclusions i: Cont(M) ~ Distr(M) j: Cont~ ~ Distr(M) R. Lutz proved [11] that the mapping i,:~0(cont(m))~ zo(distr(m))is surjective. D. Bennequin [1] showed that this mapping is not injective in the case M = S 3. Namely, he proved that the standard contact structure fro on S 3 is not overtwisted. Hence it is not equivalent to (and does not belong to the same component of Cont(S3)) any overtwisted structure on S 3 which we can get by Lutz twisting of fro. 1,6. The main results Theorem The inclusion j: Cont~ Distr(M) is a homotopy equivalence.

4 626 Y. Eliashberg In particular, two (positive) overtwisted structures on a closed M are isotopic if they are homotopic as plane distributions. If M is open then follows immediately from the classical theorem of Gromov [8]. A non-trivial result for non-closed manifolds is the extension theorem (see below). Corollary There exists an overtwisted structure ~ on S 3, a ball B c S 3 and a contact embedding ~: (B, () ~ (S 3, 3) such that ~b cannot be extended to a contact dijfeomorphism S 3 ~S 3 and cannot be connected with the inclusion B~S a by a contact isotopy. Proofofl.6.2. Any contact isotopy of a submanifold in a contact manifold can be extended to a contact diffeotopy of the whole manifold. Thus it is enough to prove only the first assertion. Let us take S 3 with the standard structure (o and make the Lutz twisting of (o along a closed transversal inside a smal ball B c S 3, The resulting overtwisted structure ( can be made to belong to the same component of Distr(S 3) as (o. Now take ( and make the same perturbation inside another small ball B' c S3\B. The new contact structure (' is also overtwisted and by there is an isotopic to the identity contact diffeomorphism h: (S a, ()-~(S 3, ('). Let B"=h(B). By the construction there exists a contact diffeomorphism g: (B', (')-, (B, (). Now I claim that the contact diffeomorphism hog: (B', (') ~ (B", (') cannot be extended to a contact diffeomorphism (S 3, (') ~ (S a, ('). Indeed, Lutz untwisting in B" moves (' into ( while untwisting in B' transforms (' into (o. But ( is equivalent to (' and is not equivalent to (o- 2. Miscellaneous lemmas In this section we define notions and prove propositions needed to prove Contact structures near 2-surfaces Simple and almost horizontal foliations. A one-dimensional oriented foliation on S 2 with two singular points of focus type is said to be simple if all its limit cycles are isolated and placed on parallels between the two focuses (see Fig. 2) and if one of its focuses is stable and the other is unstable. We will call the focuses north and south poles respectively. A simple foliation o~- on S 2 is called almost horizontal if there is a transversal to o~ connecting its poles. If an oriented contact structure ~, defined in a neighborhood of a sphere S embedded in a 3-manifold, generates a simple or almost horizontal foliation S~ on S, then we say that the contact structure itself is simple or almost horizontal near S Diffeomorhism ofholonomy. For an almost horizontal foliation o~ on S ~ the holonomy along the leaves defines a diffeomorphism of the transversal and hence (defined up to a conjugacy) a diffeomorphism h(o~): I ~ I of the unit interval 1 = [0, 1]. Given a diffeomorphism h:i ~ 1, we denote by ~(h) the almost horizontal foliation with h(o~(h)) = h.

5 Classification of overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds 627 Ifff is simple but not almost horizontal, then the holonomy is defined near the poles and the limit cycles The diagram of a simple foliation. A limit cycle of a simple foliation.~- divides the sphere S into two hemispheres: the lower one (containing the south pole) and the upper one. We call the limit cycle positive if it is oriented as the boundary of lower hemisphere and negative in the opposite case. Let us order limit cycles of ~,~ in the direction from the south to the north poles: {1... t~p. The diagram ~(~) of the simple foliation ff consists of p points ql... q~ on a line with the following additional structure: to each point qi, i = 1..., p, is assigned the sign of the limit cycle (i; each interval qiqi + 1, i = l... p, is oriented from ql to q~ + 1 (resp. from qi + ~ to q~) if the cycle #~ is unstable (resp. stable) for the foliation ~ restricted to the band between {i and {i + 1 (see Fig. 3). The following proposition is a corollary of the Poincar6-Bendixson theorem. N N S Fig. 2. Simple and almost horizontal foliations S [] t21 i [al, P3 P2 Pl s Fig. 3. A simple foliation and its diagram

6 628 Y. Eliashberg The topological type of simple foliation o~ is uniquely defined by its diagram ~(~) Connected sums of simple foliations. For two simple foliations o~ on S and ~' on S' we define the connected sum ~ # ~-' on S # S' as follows. Take small discs c S on ~' c S' which contain, respectively, the north pole of o ~ and the south pole of ~-' whose boundaries ~ and ~' are transverse to ~ and ~'. Now attach S'\~' to S\~ along 0~ and and smooth the resulting foliation on S#S'. The procedure defines o~ # ~-' uniquely up to a homeomorphism Extendability of contact structures Lemma Let ~ be a simple contact structure near the boundary S = 6B of a 3-ball B. The extendability of ~ as a contact structure to B depends only on the topological type of the foliation S~. Proof Let 4' be another contact structure near S. Without loss of generality we can think that ~ and ~' have the same poles and limit cycles and that ~ and ~' are spherical near poles (i.e. contactomorphic to round spheres in the standard contact (~3, Co). Let t and t' be closed transversal to ~ which is close to poles of S. Let L be the union of limit cycles of ~ (and ~') and transversals t and t'. Denote by N a small tubular neighborhood of L. There exists a diffeomorphism 9: S\N ~ S\N which moves ~'IN into ~lu. We can extend 9 to a diffeomorphism g': S ~ S which is constant on L and such that the foliation ~ = g'(s~,) is Cl-close to S~ (Cl-closeness near poles depends on how close to the poles the transversals t and t' are chosen). Let B, B ~ B, be a larger ball on which the structure ~ is still defined. Let us show that there exists an embedding 0" S---,/~ which is C~ to the inclusion S ~ B, is the identity on L and outside a small neighborhood of L and such that the foliation (g (S))~ is diffeomorphic to,~. Near each limit cycle { the contact structure ~ is equivalent to the standard overtwisted structure Ca near the circle C = {p = 1, z = 0}. The S in coordinates (p, a, z) is transverse to the planes {z = const} and the semiplanes {p = const} near the circle C. The leaf of the foliation o~ through a given point p = (Po, ao, zo) e S can be defined by an equation z = f(40- If If'(~bo) [ is sufficiently small (and this is true near C) then the equation ptgp = f'(~bo) has the unique solution h(p) near p = ~. The desired embedding 0 is defined near C by the formula 0 (P) = (h(p), (Oo, Zo). Similarly we can construct 0 near transversals t and t'. It is easy to see that 0 induces the foliation ~- on S and is the identity where ~ coincides with S~. To finish the proof, note that the diffeomorphism of foliations 0g ~': S' --* (g ~(S)) can be covered by a contact diffeomorphism of germs of ~' and ~ on S and 0 (S). Because the structure ~10 Is) is already extended to the ball, the same is true for ~'ls The contact structure near the standard overtwisted disc Let B be the ball of radius 5~/4 with the center at the origin in ~3 provided with the contact structure ~1 = {cos p dz + p sin p dq5 = 0}.

7 Classification of overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds 629 N [ ~{a-) s Fig. 4 Denote by ~ the foliation (0B)~, induced by fl on 0B (see Fig. 4). It has exactly two limit cycles at the intersection of c~b with the cylinder { O = ~z}. In fact, for any convex surface of revolution around the z-axis which is contained in the cylinder of radius < 27z and contains the overtwisted disc A inside itself, the induced foliation on it is homeomorphic to Jr. Hence for any contact embedding h of the overtwisted disc A into the contact manifold M, the image h(a) has an arbitrarily small neighborhood bounded by a sphere with the induced foliation homeomorphic to ~ The existence of a family of transversals Let ~ be an oriented contact structure in an oriented manifold M. An oriented transversal # to ~ is said to be positive or negative according to the sign of the orientation of M defined by ~ and f. Lemma Let K be a compact space, M be an oriented 3-manifold, it, t e K, be a family of oriented contact structures on M, and 4at: I ~ M, t e K, be a family of embeddings. Then C~ to (a t, t ~ K, there exists a.family of embeddings c~, with ~P ~ lot = (~t]ol, t e K, which consists of any of the following: (a) positive transversals, (b) negative transversals, (c) legendrian (i.e. tangent to contact structures) curves. Proof Any family of legendrian curves can be Ca-approximated by a family of positive as well as negative transversals (see, for example, [l]), with the same endpoints. Hence it is enough to prove the existence of the legendrian C~ - mation. First consider the case when M = ~3 and 4, = fo for all t ek. The structure ~o can be defined in cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) by the l-form dz - ydx. Denote by lr and p projections (x, y, z) w-~ (x, y) and (x, y, z) ~ z, respectively. The desired legendrian family ~: I ~ ~3, tek will be constructed by the following procedure which we call the legendrization. First take a family of wave fronts 7t, t e K, which C~ the projections ~ o q~t (see Fig. 5). Denote by k,(u),

8 630 Y. Eliashberg zi '1[ t Z Fig. 5 t ~ K, u ~ I, the slope of the tangent line to ~t at the point 7t(u). The family of legendrian curves ~t: I ~ ~3, t ~ K, with fronts 7, t e K, C~ q~t, t ~ K, if and only if the family of functions kt: I~ ~ is C~ to p o ~b t, t ~ K. It is clear that this property can be satisfied for all t ~ K, if the number of cusps of fronts ~t, t ~ K, is sufficiently large. If ~b t, t e K, was already legendrian near c3i then we can make ~t coincide with 4) t near c~l for all t ~ K. Consider now the case of general M. Denote by B the unit ball in ~3 with the standard contact structure ~o. There exists a finite number of points 0 = U 0 < U 1 <... < U, = 1 and a family h~, t~k,i = 1... n, of contact embeddings B--*M such that hi(b)~cbt([ui_l, Ui] ), t~k, i=1... n. Consequently applying the legendrization procedure to (otlev... u,~, t~k, for i= 1... n we will get the desired approximation Construction of a contact structure near the 2-skeleton of a general simplicial complex A compact simplicial complex P c ~3 will be called general if no two faces or a face and an edge with a mutual vertex are contained in one plane. For a general simplicial complex P we denote by ~(P) the minimal angle between non-incident 1- or 2-simplices which have a mutual vertex. Denote by d(p) the maximal diameter of a simplex of P and by 6(P) the minimal distance between two 0-, 1- or 2-simplices without mutual vertices. Proposition There exists a sequence of general subdivisions Pi of P such that d(pi) ~ 0 while 6(Pi)/d(P i) and 7(Pi) are bounded below by a positive e > O. Proof Consider a fine cubic subdivision of P and triangulate this subdivision without creating new vertices. Now take a pattern 3 x 3 3 of this subdivision, move its 64 vertices into general position and extend the perturbation periodically to the entire subdivision. It is clear that the described procedure allows us to obtain an arbitrarily fine subdivision with an fi priori bounded number of shapes of

9 Classification of overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds 631 simplices and of stars of vertices and hence with an fi priori lower bound for ~ and 6/d. Proposition Let ~ be a two-dimensional foliation on the closure lj of a bounded domain U c ~s. Let K be a compact space and L be its closed subset. Let (t, t ~ K, be a family of 2-plane distributions on tj transversal to Y. Suppose that ~t is contact near a closed A c U for all t ~ K and is contact everywhere for t ~ L. Suppose that for any leaf V of ~ and any leaf ( of the foliation V~,, t 6 K, we have ~zl(~,a c~()=0. Then there exists a family ~'t, t6k, of contact structures on tj such that ~'t coincides with (t on A for all t ~ K and coincides with ~ everywhere for t ~ L. Recall that all contact structures we consider are supposed to be positive. Proof For t 6 K let Gt be the one-dimensional tangent to ~, foliation on U formed by all leaves of foliations V~<, when V runs through all leaves of ~. In ~3 with the standard structure (0, defined by the one-form dz- ydx, we denote by 5# the legendrian foliation by lines parallel to the y-axis. Let us take a covering US ~ u[ = L? continuously depending on t~k and such that U[, i = 1... N, consists of whole leaves of G~ and there exists a (continuously depending on t ~ K) embedding hi: UI~ 3 with (hl)*5 ~ = Gtlu.,. In coordinates induced by the embedding hi the distribution ~tltjt can be defined by a 1-form Pt(x, y, z) dx + Qt(x, y, z) dz. When a point (x, y, z) moves along a leaf K of G~ the point (P~(x, y, z), Q~(x, y, z)) draws a curve?' in ~2. The contactness of ~ means that for any t e K and any leaf ~ of G t the curve fi is nowhere tangent to rays from the origin. Because of the condition ~(f, A c~ f) = 0, the distribution (t is allowed to be perturbed at least near one end of any intervals of {\A. Hence the required property of ~ can be easily satisfied and we will get the desired family (~ of contact structures by consequent perturbations of ~, on U~ for i N. A 2-plane distribution ~ on a compact A = ~3 defines the Gauss mapping Gr A---~S 2. The number ]!~11 = maxx~a Ildg(x)ll will be called the norm of the distribution 4. Note Suppose that for A, B, e > 0 the norm of plane distribution tangent to J~from is less than A, the minimal angle between 4, and ~ is greater than e, and the diameter of U is less than B. Then the above construction allows us to construct ~'~, t~k, to satisfy the inequality I1~',11 5 I1~,11 + D where C and D depend only on A, B and e. Lemma Let K be a compact space and L its closed subset. Let it, t ~ K, be a family of distributions defined near a compact B c ~a which are contact near closed A ~ B for t ~ K and are contact everywhere for t ~ L. Then there exists a general simplicial complex P ~ B and a family of distributions ~'e, t e K, with the following properties: (1) ~'t is C~ to it, tek; (2) ('t coincides with it on A for t e K and everywhere for tel; (3) there exists e > 0 depending only on ct(p) and 6(P)/d(P) such that ~'t, t~k, is contact in e" d(p)-neighborhood of the 2-skeleton of P; (4) U ~'r[[ _-< C [t it [[ + D, t e K, for universal constants C and D.

10 632 Y. Eliashberg Proof We can choose a general simplicial complex P = B and its subcomplex Q = A such that for all t e K the distribution it is still defined on P and contact on Q. We can suppose moreover that each simplex of P\Q has at most one face belonging to Q. Let N = max,~ II ~, II + 1, fi = 6(P), d = d(p), o~ = ~(P), k = 6/d. According to we can make d arbitrarily small without changing e and k. Denote by 7(Jz I, ~zz) the angle between two planes or lines ~1 and rt 2 in N3. Consider a covering ~J~ K~ of K such that for each i = 1... p and for any t, t' ~ K~ and x c P, 0~ o;(r ~t,(x)) < l-g" (*) Because of the extension character of the assertion of 2.3.4, we can suppose that (,) holds for all t, t' ~ K. Let us call a 1- or 2-simplex a of P\ Q special if ;~(a, ~t(x)) < for some t e K, x e a. If d is sufficiently small for example, d <, then for any non-special simplex a, any point x belonging to a 3-simplex incident to a and any t e K we have y(ff, ~t(x)) > g. (**) Near each simplex a of P\Q of dimension < 2 consider a foliation ~ by planes whict, are perpendicular to ~t(x) for some t e K, x e a, parallel to a if dim a = 1 and perpendicular to a if dim a = 2. Given foliations ~,, we will construct using the required perturbation ~'t of ~t, tek, in three steps. First we change it in a neighborhood of all special simplexes and all vertices which do not belong to special simplexes. The hypotheses of are satisfied because special simplexes are isolated and any simplex has at most one face belonging to Q. Consequently we now extend the perturbation to a neighborhood of non-special 1- and 2-simplexes. It is easy to see that hypotheses of will be fulfilled in the ed-neighborhood of a nonspecial simplex a if K. c~ K.2~ e< 2-sin ~ for dima=l and if e<~-sm ~ for dima=2. Note that by we can control the increase of the norm of 3,, t ~ K, through the described three perturbations. Thus there exists a constant C such that in each step the norm of the resulting family of distributions is < CN. Choosing d sufficiently small we can make perturbed distributions C o -close enough to r t e K, to satisfy inequalities (.) and (**). So we can apply previous arguments at each step as well as at the beginning Two simple lemmas In this section we formulate two simple assertions.

11 Classification of overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds 633 Lemma Let a be a 3-simplex of diameter d. Then for any 2 > 0 there exists an embedded ball B ~ a such that its boundary 8B is contained in 2-neighborhood of (3a and the normal curvatures of t?b are everywhere > 82/(422 + d2). Lemma Let S ~ Ea be an embedded 2-sphere with all normal curvatures > K > 0 and let ~ be a contact structure near S with II~ll < K. Then ~ is almost horizontal near S. 3. Proof of The extension theorem Theorem follows immediately from the following: Theorem Let M be a compact 3-manifold and let A, A ~ M, be a closed subset such that M\A is connected. Let K be a compact space and L, L c K, a closed subspace. Let ~, t ek, be a family of 2-plane distributions which are contact everywhere for tel and are contact near A for t ek. Suppose there exists an embedded 2-disc A c M\A such that ~ is contact near A and (A, (t) is equivalent to the standard overtwisted disc (A, Go)for all t e K. Then there exists a family ~'t, t ~ K, of contact structures on M such that ~'t coincides with ~t near A for t e K and coincides with d t everywhere for tel. Moreover ~',, t e K can be connected with ~,, t c K by a fixed on A K ~ M x L homotopy through families of distributions. The proof of is contained in the next three sections The contactization with holes Lemma Under the hypotheses of there exist disjoint 3-balls B 1... B u c M\(A u A) and a family of distributions ~t, tek, on M such that (1) ~'t coincides with ~ on A u A for te K and everywhere for tel; (2) ~t, tek, is contact on M\u Int B~; (3) ~'t, tek, is almost horizontal near OB i, i = 1... N; (4) ~t is C~ to ~t, t ek. (5) (Bi, ~t) for tel and i = 1... N is isomorphic to a convex ball in (~3, (o). Proof Because this is an extension problem, it is enough to consider the case when M is a compact domain in ~3. Now we can apply and find a family ~',, t e K, defined on a general simplicial complex P containing M with the following properties: a) (t coincides with ~t on a subcomplex Q D A u A for tek and coincides with it everywhere for t e L; b) there exists an e > 0 which does not depend on d = d(p) and such that ~t, t e K, is contact in e. d-neighborhood of the 2-skeleton of P; 8e c) il~',ll < d(4~2 + 1)' t~k.

12 634 Y. Eliashberg Let ~1... an be the sequence of all 3-simplices of P\Q. By for each i = 1... N there exists a ball B i c ~r i whose boundary ~B~ is contained in the ed-neighborhood of 0a and has all normal curvatures greater than 8e Now, applying 2.4.2, w see that ~'t, t ~ K, is almost horizontal near 0B~ d(4e 2 + 1)' fori= 1... N Making one hole We now want to connect balls B1,..., M with only one hole. B N from to get contact structures on Lemma Let ~t, t ~ K, be the family constructed in 3.2. l. Denote by ~.~ the foliation (~Bi) L induced by ~t on OB i (t ~ K, i = 1..., N). Let ~ be the foliation on the boundary of a small neighborhood of the standard overtwisted disc A (see 2.16) and let B be the 3-ball. Then there exists a family of embeddings ht: B ~ M\ A, t E K, such that for all t ~ K, ht(b ) ~ ~)~= 1 Bi u A and the foliation G t = (ht(ob)) L induced by ~t on the sphere ht(~b ) is homeomorphic to the connected sum Jt ~ #( #.u= 1 ~);for t ~ L the embedding h t defines a contact isomorphism of(b, (1) and (h,(b), it). Proof Let M 1 = M\(~ Int B~ w A). Let Bo, B o ~ A, be the ball in M~ such that the foliation (c3b0) L is homeomorphic to off. Let M'I = M~Int B o. Let us orient N ~tlm'~ if it is possible or somehow orient ~, near ~)~=o 0B~ if ~IM,~ is not orientable. Let us connect the north pole of 0(( with the south pole of ~ by an embedded curve {o c M'I and then consequently for i = 1... N - 1 connect the north pole of Y~ with the south pole of ~ + 1 by embedded disjoint curves {~ c M'I. If ~ [M'~ is unorientable, we should take care that the orientation of ~',[.U~,~B. could be extendable on ~'tl0~,~b.~e.,. In view of we can make all f~, i=0... N, transverse to the contact structure ~'t, t ~ K. Taking the connected sum of balls B~, i = 0... N, along transversals (i, i = 1... N, we will get the desired family of embedded balls h,(b)~ M\A, tek. The structure ~tih,(b) for t~l can be easily arranged to be standard because of the special choice of balls B 1... B u. Note Because of the foliation # ~= ~ ~ t, t ~ K, is almost horizontal, it can be defined up to a homeomorphism by the family of holonomy diffeomorphisms ~,: I--*I, t~k. Hence the family of foliations G~, t~k, is homeomorphic to ~#J~(r t~k. For tel the diffeomorphism ~, has no interior fixed points but for t~k\l it can have isolated interior fixed points The model Let /3:[0, 1] ~(- zc/4, re/4) be a function with isolated zeros and with /3(0), /3(1) < 0. Let 7a be a curve in the plane with coordinates (p, z) as shown in Fig. 6 and Sac ~3 be the surface of revolution of 7p around the z-axis. Let (1 be the standard overtwisted contact structure in t~ 3 (see 1.3). In cylindric coordinates

13 Classification of overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds 635 (p, qs, z) it is defined by the equation cos p dz - psin p dq~ = 0. Denote by Yt~ the foliation (Sp)c, induced on S, by ~1 (see Fig. 7). If/~ has no zeros then Yt'p is homeomorphic to ~. Proposition Let ft: I--* I, t e K, be a family of diffeomorphisms with isolated fixed points inside, fixed at 0I and satisfyin9 the condition f(x) > x near I. Let y,(x) = ~/4 (f~(x) - x) for tsk, xel. 9,(0), 9,(1) < O for all tek. Then the family ~ot, t ~ K, is topologically equivalent to the family ~Xf # ~ (ft), t ~ K. Z 2, -2 Fig. 6 S Fig. 7

14 636 Y. Eliashberg According to , it is enough to show that ~'~, and ~#g(f,), coinciding families of diagrams. It is straightforward to check this. t~k, have 3.5. End of proof of In view of and there exists a family of distributions ~'t, tek, and a family of embeddings ht: B ~ M\A, tek, such that ~t is C~ to it, tek; ~t coincides with ~, on A for t e K and coincides with ~t everywhere for t~ L; ~', is contact outside of ht(b ) c M\ A, t e K; and the foliation (ht(~b)) L, t e K, is homeomorphic to ~'~#~(~p) where ~bt: I--+I is a diffeomorphism with finite number of fixed points. By the family H#~,~(~bt), tek, is topologically equivalent to the family ~,, t6k, for a family of functions fit: [ - 1, 1] ~ ( - ~/4, ~/4), tek, with finite number of zeros. But the structure ~1 which induces the foliation He~ on the sphere Sp, is extended to the ball bounded by S,,, t~k. Hence by we conclude that the family ~'t, t e K, of contact structures near ht(ob ) which induces the family of foliations (h~(~b)) L are extendable to ht(ob ) as a family ~, tek, of contact structures. The extension can be made to guarantee the existence of the required homotopy between families ~, t e K, and ('t, t e K. Note that in view of 3.3.1, (h,(b), ~) is isomorphic for tel to the standard overtwisted ball (B, (~). But our construction provides the same property for (ht(b), ~'t), tel. Hence we can choose ~t = ~'t for tel. 4. Discussion In this section I discuss some related notions and open questions around the subject of the paper CR structure, compatible with a contact structure Denote by Conv(M) the space of strictly pseudoconvex CR-structures on M. A strictly pseudoconvex CR structure on M generates the canonical positive contact structure on the oriented manifold M, by the distribution of complex tangent lines. This defines the projection p: Cony(M) ~ Cont(M). It was proved in [2] that p is a homotopy equivalence. In particular, any contact structure on 3-manifolds can be complexified in the above sense h-tillable and s-tillable contact manifolds A (positive) contact structure ~ on an oriented 3-manifold M is called holomorphically tillable (or h-tillable) if there exists a two-dimensional complex manifold W with pseudoconvex boundary M such that the CR structure on its boundary defines the original contact structure 3.

15 Classification of overtwisted contact structures on 3-manifolds 637 A (positive) contact structure on an oriented 3-manifold M is called symplectically tillable (or s-tillable) if there exists a four-dimensional symplectic manifold W which has M as its oriented boundary such that the symplectic form is nondegenerate on the contact distribution. Denote by Conth(M) and ConV(M) the spaces of h-tillable and s-tillable contact structures respectively. By a theorem of H. Grauert (see [6]), we have Conth(M) ~ Cont'(M) and by a theorem of M. Gromov and the author (see [9] and [3]) the intersection ContS(M) ~ Cont~ is empty. I proved recently (see [3]) that the only h-tillable contact structure on S 3 is the standard one. In [4] I showed that this is not true in higher dimensions Open questions Question It is true that Cont'(M) = Conth(M)? Question Is it true that Cont(M) = Cont~ u ConP(M)? In particular, if a contact structure violates Bennequin's inequality (see [1] and [3]), is it necessarily overtwisted? Question Which 3-manifolds admit s- or h-tillable contact structures? References 1. Bennequin, D.: Entrelacements et 6quations de Pfaff. Asterisque , (1983) 2. Eliashberg, Y.: The complexification of contact structures on 3-manifold. Usp. Math. nauk. 6, (40) (1985) 3. Eliashberg, Y.: Filling by holomorphic discs and its applications. Proc. Symp. Pure Math. (to appear) 4. Eliashberg, Y.: On symplectic manifolds bounded by the standard contact sphere and exotic contact structures on spheres of dimension > 3. J. 'Differ. Geom. (to appear) 5. Erlandsson, T.: Geometry of contact transformations in dimension 3. Doctoral dissertation, Uppsala (1981) 6. Gunning, R.C., Rossi, H.: Analytic functions of several complex variables. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall 1985, IX.C.4 7. Gray, J.W.: Some global properties of contact structures. Ann. Math. 69, (1959) 8. Gromov, M.: Stable mappings of foliations into manifolds. Izv. Acad. Naur SSSR, Ser. mat. 33, (1969) 9. Gromov, M.: Pseudo holomorphic curves in symplectic manifolds. Invent. Math. 82, (1985) 10. Gonzalo, J., Varela, F.: ModUles globaux des varietes de contact. Actes du Schnepfenried (1982) 11. Lutz, R.: Structures de contact sur les fibr6s principaux en cercles de dimension 3. Ann. Inst. Fourier 3, 1-15 (1977) Oblatum 16-X-1988 & 18-V-1989

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