# 1. Introduction. PROPER HOLOMORPHIC MAPPINGS BETWEEN RIGID POLYNOMIAL DOMAINS IN C n+1

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1 Publ. Mat. 45 (2001), PROPER HOLOMORPHIC MAPPINGS BETWEEN RIGID POLYNOMIAL DOMAINS IN C n+1 Bernard Coupet and Nabil Ourimi Abstract We describe the branch locus of proper holomorphic mappings between rigid polynomial domains in C n+1. It appears, in particular, that it is controlled only by the first domain. As an application, we prove that proper holomorphic self-mappings between such domains are biholomorphic. 1. Introduction A domain D C n+1 is called rigid polynomial if D = {(z 0,z) C n+1 : r(z 0,z)=2Re(z 0 )+P (z, z) < 0} for some real polynomial P (z) =P (z, z). We say that D is nondegenerate if its boundary {(z 0,z) C n+1 : 2 Re(z 0 )+P (z) =0} contains no nontrivial complex variety. When P is homogeneous these domains naturally appear as approximation of domains of finite type and may be considered as their homogeneous models. These ones are useful in studies of many problems for more general domains (see for instance [7]). The main result of this paper describes the branch locus of proper holomorphic mappings between rigid polynomial domains in C n+1. Let f : D Ω be a holomorphic mapping between domains in C n+1. We will denote by J f (z 0,z) the Jacobian determinant of f and by V f = {(z 0,z) D : J f (z 0,z)=0} its branch locus. Our principal result is the following Mathematics Subject Classification. 32H35. Key words. Proper holomorphic mappings, rigid polynomial nondegenerate pseudoconvex domains.

2 70 B. Coupet, N. Ourimi Theorem 1. Let D and Ω be rigid polynomial nondegenerate pseudoconvex domains in C n+1. Then there exists a finite number of complex algebraic varieties ˆB 1,..., ˆB N in C n (irreducible) depending only on D such that the branch locus of any proper holomorphic mapping f : D Ω satisfies: V f 1 k N {(z 0,z) D : z ˆB k }. Note that the integer N is bounded by the degree of the polynomial P. In the bounded strongly pseudoconvex case, the branch locus is empty [17], and in the real analytic case, one gives a nice description using semi-analytic stratification of the boundary (as it was observed in [9], this argument works in the smooth case as well if the set of weakly pseudoconvex boundary point admits a nice stratification). On the other hand, Rudin [18], Bedford [5], Forstnerič [15], Barletta- Bedford [4], proved that the structure of the branch locus of a proper holomorphic mapping relies on properties of its automorphism group via factorization type theorems. As an immediate application of Theorem 1, one has the following corollary. Corollary 1. Let D be a rigid polynomial nondegenerate pseudoconvex domain in C n+1. Then every proper holomorphic self-mapping f : D D is a biholomorphism. For the case n = 1, this result was proved in [13] and [11]. Now, we recall some definitions and results that we will need for the proof of Theorem 1. A mapping in C n+1 is algebraic if there exists an irreducible algebraic set of dimension n +1inC n+1 C n+1 which contains the graph of the map. Thus, this map may be extended to a possibly multiple valued map defined on the complement of an algebraic set in C n+1. Webster [19] proved that a locally biholomorphic mapping taking an algebraic nondegenerate hypersurface into another one is algebraic. Let f : D Ω be a proper holomorphic mapping satisfying the assumption of Theorem 1. According to Coupet-Pinchuk [14], f is algebraic. Furthermore, if the cluster set of a boundary point a D contains a point b Ω, then f extends holomorphically to a neighborhood of a. Therefore, there exists an algebraic set Ŝ D such that f extends holomorphically to a neighborhood of any point from D\Ŝ and for all p Ŝ, lim z p f(z) = +. Then we get the following stratification of the boundary: D = S h Ŝ

3 Proper Holomorphic Mappings 71 where S h is the set of points p in D such that f extends holomorphically in a neighborhood of p. Note that this result of Coupet-Pinchuk does not assume the pseudoconvexity of the domains. 2. Behavior of the mapping and its branch locus on the boundary For an irreducible component W of V f, we define E W := W D. Lemma 1. (1) W extends across the boundary of D as a pure n-dimensional polynomial variety in C n+1. (2) There exists an open dense subset O W E W such that for each p O W : (i) E W is a polynomial submanifold in a neighborhood of p of dimension 2n 1. (ii) f is holomorphic in a neighborhood p. Proof: (1) Since W is an irreducible algebraic set in D of dimension n, there exists an irreducible polynomial h in C n+1 such that W = {Z = (z 0,z) D : h(z) =0}. If W does not extend across D, the defining function r will be negative on Ŵ = {Z Cn+1 : h(z) =0}. According to [12] (see Proposition 2, p. 76), there exists an analytic cover π : Ŵ C n. Let g 1,...,g k be the branches of π 1 which are locally defined and holomorphic on C n \σ, with σ C n an analytic set of dimension at most n 1. Consider the function ˆr(w) = sup{r g 1 (w),...,r g k (w)}. Since π is an analytic cover, ˆr extends as a plurisubharmonic on C n. Then it is constant; since it is negative. This contradicts the fact that the domain D is nondegenerate. (2-i) We may assume that h is not identically zero on W. Thus, h is a defining function of W. Let for example h z 1 (p) 0 for some point p W. Applying the maximum principle to W, then there exists an open h dense subset O W of E W such that for any q O W, z 1 (q) 0. For a fixed q O W, there exists a neighborhood U in C n+1 of q such that h z 1 vanishes nowhere on U. Then W = {z U : h(z) =0} is a polynomial submanifold of U. Since W extends across the boundary of D as a variety, a useful consequence of this fact is that W has dimension 2n 1. Otherwise, the Hausdorff dimension of W will be less or equal to 2n 2. Then W \ W D will be connected (see [12, p. 347]). This implies that W cannot be separated by D and contradicts (i).

4 72 B. Coupet, N. Ourimi (2-ii) Since f is algebraic, all its components f j are also algebraic. Then there exist n + 1 polynomial equations P j (z,w) = 0 satisfied by w j = f j (z). Let be P j (z,f j (z)) = a mj j (z)f j (z) mj + + a 1 j(z)f j (z)+a 0 j(z), where m j N and a k j are holomorphic polynomials for all k {0,...,m j} and for all j {1,...,n+1}. We may assume that for all j, a mj j 0on W. Since D = S h Ŝ, for all p Ŝ there exists j {1,...,n +1} such that a mj j (p) = 0. Then the polynomial function a = 1 j n+1 amj j vanishes identically on Ŝ. Now, we prove that Sh O W is a dense subset in O W. Suppose by contradiction that Ŝ O W has an interior point. The uniqueness theorem implies that a 0onC n+1. This implies that a mj j 0 for a certain j {1,...,n+1}: a contradiction. This completes the proof of the lemma. The Levi determinant of D is defined by: Λ r : C n+1 R via [ ] 0 rzj det. r zj r zjz j The set of weakly pseudoconvex points in D is ω( D)={(z 0,z) C n+1 : 2 Re(z 0 )= P (z) and Λ r (z 0,z)=0}. Since D is a rigid polynomial domain, Λ r (z 0,z) depends only on z. We write Λ r (z 0,z)asΛ r (z 0,z)=L(z) =L α1 1...Lαs s (z), where the L j denote the irreducible components of the polynomial L and α j N for j = 1,...,s. If p is a boundary point of D, we define the member τ(p), the vanishing order of Λ r, to be the smallest nonnegative integer m such that there is a tangential differential operator T of order m on D such that T Λ r (p) 0. It can easily be checked that τ(p) is independent of the choice of the defining function r. Note that the set {p D : τ(p) = 0} is the set of strongly pseudoconvex boundary points. The function τ is uppersemicontinuous. In our case, it is bounded by the degree of the polynomial P. We need the following important statement. Lemma 2. Let f : D Ω be a proper holomorphic mapping as in Theorem 1. Then for all p S h, τ(p) τ(f(p)) and the inequality holds if and only if f is branched at p.

5 Proper Holomorphic Mappings 73 Proof: Let p S h. Then f extends holomorphically to a neighborhood of p. By the Hopf lemma, (ρ f)(p) 0. Then ρ f is a local defining function of D in a neighborhood of p, and by the chain rule we have: Λ ρ f (p) = J f (p) 2 Λ ρ (f(p)). Hence, we are able to deduce the lemma (see [10]). Remark 1. Note that the lemma above still remains true, if the domains are not pseudoconvex. The proof is as in [16]. It uses some results of Baouendi-Rothschild [1] and Baouendi-Jacobwitz-Treves [3] to show that the transversal component f 0 of f satisfies f0 z 0 (p) 0 for all p S h. Proposition 1. The closure V f does not intersect the set D\ω( D) of strongly pseudoconvex points in D. Proof: As in the proof of Lemma 2, we have: Λ ρ f (z) = J f (z) 2 Λ ρ (f(z)), z S h so O W ω( D), which implies that E W ω( D). 3. Stratification of the weakly pseudoconvex set Here, we give a real analytic stratification of the weakly pseudoconvex set. For bounded pseudoconvex domains with real analytic boundary, Bedford [6] obtained a similar stratification. Lemma 3. There exists an algebraic stratification of ω( D) as follows: ω( D)={(z 0,z) D : z A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 } with the following properties. (a) A 4 is an algebraic set of dimension 2n 3. (b) A 1, A 2 and A 3 are either empty or algebraic manifolds; A 2 and A 3 have dimension 2n 2 and A 1 has dimension 2n 1. (c) A 2 and A 3 are CR manifolds with dim C HA 2 = n 1 and dim C HA 3 = n 2. (d) τ is constant on every component of {(z 0,z) D : z A 1 }. Proof: Let A = {z C n : L(z) =0} and let Â1 be the union of all components of A with dimension 2n 1 (if there are any). We consider A 1 = Reg(Â1) = k {L k = 0 and L j 0 for j k}.

6 74 B. Coupet, N. Ourimi Next we let Â2 be the union of all 2n 2-dimensional components of A\A 1. We see that we may write Reg(Â2) =A 2 A 3 Â3 where A 2 and A 3 are an open subsets of Â2 with dim C HA 2 = n 1 dim C HA 3 = n 2 and dim R Â 3 2n 3. Now, let A 4 = A\(A 1 A 2 A 3 ) then, we have the desired stratification. To show (d), we consider the complex tangential derivative along the boundary of D, i.e., T j = 1 P, 1 j n. z j 2 z j z 0 For example, we prove that τ α 1 on C 1 = D {L 1 = 0 and L k 0, k 1}. Let (z 0,z) C 1, we have Tj m Λ r (z 0,z)=Tj m L(z) = m L zj m (z) ( ) m L = α 1...(α 1 m +1) L α1 m 1.L α2 2 z...lαs s (z). j Since L 1 is irreducible, D(L 1 )(z) 0. Then there exists j such that Tj ml(z) = 0 for all m<α 1 and T α1 j L(z) 0. This finishes the proof of the lemma. Proof of Theorem 1: The analytic set A 2 contains finitely many components which we will denote by B 1,B 2,...,B N. Since dim R B j = dim R HB j, then for each j, B j is an n 1-dimensional complex manifold. We denote by Γ j = {(z 0,z) D : z A j } for j =1,...,4. By considering dimension and CR dimension, we see that Γ 3 O W and Γ 4 O W are nowhere dense in O W. Next, we prove that Γ 1 O W cannot contain an open subset of O W. By contradiction, let suppose p O W Γ 1. We may choose a sequence {q k } k Γ 1 {J f 0} such that q k p. The mapping f is a local diffeomorphism in a neighborhood of all points q k and the function τ is constant on Γ 1. Then, we have for all k (1) τ(p) =τ(q k )=τ(f(q k )).

7 Proper Holomorphic Mappings 75 On the other hand, by Lemma 2, (2) τ(p) >τ(f(p)). Since τ is uppersemicontinuous, then (1) and (2) together give a contradiction. We mention that the same argument has appeared in [6]. We conclude that Γ 2 O W contains an open subset of Γ 2. Thus it contains an open subset of {(z 0,z) D : z B j } for some j. Fork =1,...,N, let ˆB j be the complex variety in C n such that Reg ˆB k = B k. Applying the maximum principle, we conclude that W {(z 0,z) D : z ˆB j }, and by irreducibility, W = {(z 0,z) D : z ˆB j }. This completes the proof of Theorem 1. Remark 2. (i) Using the same argument of Bedford [6] (appeared also in [16]), we can prove that the branching multiplicity of the mapping f is bounded by a constant independent of f. (ii) For a holomorphic function H between algebraic hypersurface M and M (M is essentially finite at p 0 ), Baouendi-Rothschlid [2] showed that the multiplicity of its components is bounded by a constant depending only on M and M and the points p 0 and H(p 0 ). 4. Proper self-mappings Here, we give the proof of Corollary 1. Since D is simply connected, it suffices to prove that V f is empty. The variety V f has a finite number of connected components independent of the mapping f, then there exists an integer k such that V f k = V f k+1. We may assume k = 1, that is V f = Vf 2. Since V f 2 = V f f 1 (V f ), it follows that V f f(v f ), where f(v f ) is a complex analytic variety of D by a theorem of Remmert. Hence, we have V f = f(v f ) because V f has finitely many components. Assume that V f is not empty. According to Lemma 1, there exists a boundary point p V f D, such that f extends holomorphically in a neighborhood of p. Note that for all kf k (p) V f, since V f = f(v f )as shown above. The sequence of numbers τ(f k (p)) is strictly decreasing and τ(p) is a finite integer, then there exists an integer k 0 such that τ(f k0 (p)) = 0, which implies that f k0 (p) is a strongly pseudoconvex boundary point, contradicting the fact that f k0 (p) V f D. This proves that V f = and completes the proof of Corollary 1. We would like to thank the referee for his useful remarks on this material.

8 76 B. Coupet, N. Ourimi References [1] M. S. Baouendi and L. P. Rothschild, Geometric properties of mappings between hypersurfaces in complex space, J. Differential Geom. 31(2) (1990), [2] M. S. Baouendi and L. P. Rothschild, Mappings of real algebraic hypersurfaces, J. Amer. Math. Soc. 8(4) (1995), [3] M. S. Baouendi, H. Jacobowitz and F. Trèves, On the analyticity of CR mappings, Ann. of Math. (2) 122(2) (1985), [4] E. Barletta and E. Bedford, Existence of proper mappings from domains in C 2, Indiana Univ. Math. J. 39(2) (1990), [5] E. Bedford, Proper holomorphic mappings from strongly pseudoconvex domains, Duke Math. J. 49(2) (1982), [6] E. Bedford, Proper holomorphic mappings from domains with real analytic boundary, Amer. J. Math. 106(3) (1984), [7] E. Bedford and S. I. Pinchuk, Convex domains with noncompact groups of automorphisms, Mat. Sb. 185(5) (1994), [8] E. Bedford and S. Bell, Proper self-maps of weakly pseudoconvex domains, Math. Ann. 261(1) (1982), [9] S. Bell, Local boundary behavior of proper holomorphic mappings, in Complex analysis of several variables (Madison, Wis., 1982), Proc. Sympos. Pure Math. 41, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, R.I., 1984, pp [10] D. Burns, Jr. and S. Shnider, Geometry of hypersurfaces and mapping theorems in C n, Comment. Math. Helv. 54(2) (1979), [11] A. Chaouech, Auto-applications holomorphes propres des domaines polynomiaux rigides de C 2, Publ. Mat. 40(1) (1996), [12] E. M. Chirka, Complex analytic sets, Mathematics and its Applications (Soviet Series) 46, Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Dordrecht, [13] B. Coupet, Y. Pan and A. Sukhov, On proper holomorphic mappings from domains with T-action, Nagoya Math. J. 154 (1999), [14] B. Coupet and S. Pinchuk, Holomorphic equivalence problem for weighted homogeneous rigid domains in C n+1, in collection of papers dedicated to B. V. Shabat, Nauka, Moscow (1997), [15] F. Forstnerič, Proper holomorphic maps from balls, Duke Math. J. 53(2) (1986), [16] X. Huang and Y. Pan, Proper holomorphic mappings between real analytic domains in C n, Duke Math. J. 82(2) (1996),

9 Proper Holomorphic Mappings 77 [17] S. I. Pinchuk, Holomorphic inequivalence of certain classes of domains in C n, Mat. Sb. (N.S.) 111(153)(1) (1980), 67 94, 159. [18] W. Rudin, Proper holomorphic maps and finite reflection groups, Indiana Univ. Math. J. 31(5) (1982), [19] S. M. Webster, On the mapping problem for algebraic real hypersurfaces, Invent. Math. 43(1) (1977), C.M.I. 39 rue Joliot-Curie Marseille Cedex 13 France address: address: Primera versió rebuda el 6 d abril de 1999, darrera versió rebuda el 30 d octubre de 2000.

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