INTERNATIONALISATION OF RUSSIAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DIMENSION

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1 INTERNATIONALISATION OF RUSSIAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DIMENSION Elena Frumina Richard West British Council, Moscow March 2012 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 1

2 Preface Global trends towards increasing internationalisation in Higher Education have accelerated over the past few years. More and more Higher Education Institutions are embracing or expanding their international work such as dual degree programmes, academic faculty exchange, student recruitment and joint research. These activities support both the wider economy as well as the development of the institutions themselves, for example through increasing the range and quality of degree programmes offered and enhancing research output. All of these activities involve reaching out into the international arena in some way and partnering with or communicating with institutions, staff, faculty and students in other countries. Despite the growth of and further demand for international links and partnerships, there remain a variety of challenges. One key barrier can be language - English in particular. A university s approach to English, the capacity of its staff, the policies or assessment frameworks it follows can all impact on the whole spectrum of internationalisation issues. For example, publishing research in English means it can be disseminated more widely; the capacity of faculty and staff enables partnership building and collaboration; and English language skills make international opportunities available to students. This is why, as part of its work in building collaboration and partnerships between the UK-Russia Higher education sectors, the British Council has produced this baseline survey of English language teaching within the Higher Education sector in Russia. Work in this area can help overcome one of the obstacles to further collaboration between Russia and the UK. On the basis of the findings, we are developing activities to support this sector, but we also hope that this report acts as a useful source of information for all those involved in this area and also as a stimulus for action. Christian Duncumb Deputy-Director British Council, Moscow Acknowledgements The consultants are grateful to the British Council in Moscow for their invitation to carry out this baseline study. We should like to thank all of those in Russia who contributed, through meetings, discussions or online contributions. We should also like to thank present and past members of the British Council who have assisted, in particular, Michael Bird, Liz Dempsey, John McGovern, Alexander Mishin and Simon Winetroube. Finally, we should especially like to thank Olga Barnashova of the Moscow office for all her efforts to organise the series of visits at a very busy time of the year. Elena Frumina, Moscow Richard West, Manchester March 2012 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 2

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface 2 Acknowledgements 2 Table of abbreviations 5 Executive summary 6 0 Introduction Rationale and background Aim Outputs Respondents Methodology Timeline Structure of the report 9 1 The past: Internationalisation in UK and Russian universities Introduction Numbers of international students Other indicators of university internationalisation 14 2 The past: English language teaching/english for specific purposes in Russian 16 universities Introduction English for specific purposes a global perspective ESP in Russia Russian isolation ESP focus ESP methodology ESP materials Professional development Conclusion: ESP teachers The current situation: Internationalisation in Russian universities Introduction Factors in university internationalisation Geographical distance and space Bologna process and degree recognition The three-tier system Recognition of qualifications University quality and rankings Research Academic quality assurance Infrastructure Bureaucracy Visas and work permits Limited opportunities for practice in companies & enterprises Educational management and marketing Government policy Language The BRIDGE Project Conclusions 37 4 The current situation: teaching English for specific purposes 38 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 3

4 4.0 Introduction English language teaching English as medium of instruction English for academics Conclusions 50 5 Summary & Conclusions Introduction The internationalisation of higher education in Russia The teaching of ESP in HEIs in Russia Conclusions 55 6 Recommendations Introduction Recommendation 1: Academic language framework Recommendation 2: English for academics textbook Conclusions 58 Appendices A World university rankings: UK and Russian universities 59 B Recommendation 1: Academic language framework 63 C Recommendation 2: English for academics textbook 79 D References & documents consulted 81 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 4

5 TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS ALTE BA BALEAP BC BEC BRIDGE BSc CAE CEFR CoE CPE DAAD EAP EBP ECDL EGAP EGOP EGP ELT EOP ESAP ESOL ESOP ESP FCE HE HEI ICDL IDP IELTS MA MSc NTF NATO OECD OU PhD QAA RESPONSE RF SELMOUS SPEX TESP TNE TOEFL UK US/USA Association of Language Testers of Europe Bachelor of Arts British Association of Lecturers of English for Academic Purposes British Council Business English Certificate (Cambridge ESOL) British Degrees in Russia project (British Council) Bachelor of Science Certificate in Advanced English (Cambridge ESOL) Common European Framework of Reference Council of Europe Certificate of Proficiency in English (Cambridge ESOL) Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (German Academic Exchange Service) English for Academic Purposes English for Business Purposes European Computer Driving Licence English for General Academic Purposes English for General Occupational Purposes English for General Purposes English Language Teaching English for Occupational Purposes English for Specific Academic Purposes English for Speakers of Other Languages English for Specific Occupational Purposes English for Specific/Special Purposes First Certificate in English (Cambridge ESOL) Higher Education Higher Education Institutions International Computer Driving Licence International Development Program (Australia) International English Language Testing System (Cambridge ESOL, IDP & the British Council) Master of Arts Master of Science National Training Foundation, Moscow North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Open University, UK Doctor of Philosophy Quality Assurance Agency, UK Russian Education Support Project on Specialist English Russian Federation Special English Language Materials for Overseas University Students (now BALEAP) St Petersburg Examinations Project (British Council) Teaching English for Specific/Special Purposes Transnational Education Test of English as a Foreign Language (Educational Testing Service, USA) United Kingdom United States of America Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 5

6 USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 6

7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 2001 the British Council carried out a Baseline Study of the teaching of English for Specific Purposes in Russia. This was edited by Ludmilla Kuznetsova and Simon Winetroube, and published in 2002 under the title Specialist English Teaching and Learning The State of the Art in Russia. This present baseline report again surveys the current state of English language teaching in Russia, and so can be seen as an updating of the 2001 report. However, it was carried out against the background of the internationalisation of higher education institutes, in order that recommendations could be made for a new British Council project to enhance ELT in tertiary institutions in Russia. Chapter 1 chronicles the internationalisation of HEIs in the Soviet Union and Russia in the period , and notes the decline in the percentage of international students in universities, as well as the decline in international research and publications. Comparative data are offered from the UK during the same period. Chapter 2 looks at the teaching of English for Specific Purposes in the same period and notes the isolation of Russia from global developments, particularly in the areas of the narrow focus of ESP programmes, the conservative approach to materials design, and the lack of professional development for ESP teachers, despite the success of the British Council s RESPONSE project. Chapter 3 examines the current position of internationalisation and analyses the factors impeding internationalisation in Russian HEIs. There are several such factors, but inadequate levels of English proficiency among academics are identified as an issue underlying a number of factors. Chapter 4 reports the results of the research carried out for this baseline report and compares these with the position revealed in the British Council s 2001 baseline study. While the situation of teachers and teaching has changed little, the context has changed significantly: Russia s accession to the Bologna process has given renewed urgency to internationalisation and English is increasingly recognized as a crucial factor. A key issue in this process is again the weak English proficiency of academics at all levels, which undermines students motivation and ESP teachers efforts, threatens the quality of university programmes and research, inhibits the introduction of international programmes both face-to-face and by distance, limits the dissemination of research and contributes to the low rankings of Russian universities in international league tables. Chapter 5 presents conclusions and summarises the principal findings of the report, indicating where things have changed since 2001 and where they are broadly unchanged. Based on these broad conclusions, Chapter 6 makes two specific recommendations to address this situation: The development of an academic language framework based on international documents to assist HEIs in setting language benchmarks, developing syllabuses and materials, and aligning programmes with international standards. A draft of this academic language framework is presented in the report. Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 7

8 The development of a textbook in English for academics to support university teachers in introducing language courses for academics. This would begin to address one of the major obstacles to internationalisation identified in this report low levels of English among academics. The textbook should be accompanied by an electronic manual documenting the processes involved in textbook development, which could serve as a guide to the development of other ESP textbooks by Russian teachers using modern approaches and techniques. Both of these recommendations have been accepted by the British Council and a start has already been made on implementing them. It is believed that these initiatives could have a considerable impact on university ESP teaching and, more widely, the internationalisation of Russian HEIs. Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 8

9 0 INTRODUCTION 0.1 Rationale and background As part of its global commitment to the internationalisation of higher education, the British Council has for many years supported the effectiveness and sustainability of partnerships and the HE sector by improving the quality of English language training. To be able to identify the relevant and most necessary interventions in the area, the British Council, Moscow has commissioned this baseline research study to identify further initiatives in Russia. 0.2 Aim The principal aim of the report is to describe and analyse the current situation with English language teaching in higher education in Russia and suggest recommendations for possible ways forward to improve the standards of English among students and staff. The report takes a broad approach and surveys the current state of internationalisation in higher education in Russia, and identifies the factors that facilitate or impede internationalisation. One of these factors is English language proficiency, and so the research focuses on three key areas: English language teaching at non-linguistic faculties (i.e. students not majoring in English): curricula, materials and resources, staffing, number of hours, entrance and exit levels of students, perceived needs, and assessment. English as a medium of instruction: as above, plus scope and potential for future development. English for academics: current level and needs, current training models This report includes recommendations for areas where intervention is most necessary in general, and specific recommendations for where the British Council can add more value Respondents The report seeks to gather the views of various stakeholders: policy makers at university level, academics and teachers at English language departments, and other departments teaching other subjects through the medium of English, as well as students. 0.4 Methodology The methodology included in-depth visits to a number of universities across Russia and a wider pool of universities reached by questionnaires. In addition, it was found necessary to carry out desk research, in particular to gain an understanding of the broader educational context of Russian universities, and comparative studies of UK universities in order to provide an international yardstick to assess the extent of internationalisation in Russian institutions of higher education. 0.5 Structure of the report This report is divided into three broad sections which could loosely be described as the past, the present and the future: 1 These recommendations are presented in chapter 6, and set out in more detail in Appendices B and C. Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 9

10 Chapters 1 & 2 The past: internationalisation of universities The past: English language teaching in Russian universities Chapters 3 & 4 The current situation: internationalisation in Russian universities The current situation: English language teaching in Russian universities Chapters 5 & 6 The future: conclusions The future: recommendations Appendices Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 10

11 1 THE PAST: INTERNATIONALISATION IN UK AND RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES Introduction This Baseline Study of English language teaching in Russian universities was carried out within the broader context of the internationalisation of higher education in Russia. It is therefore appropriate to briefly examine this context and how it has evolved in recent decades a period in which Russia has gone through dramatic political and economic changes which inevitably impacted all aspects of academic context. Universities in the Soviet Union and, later, Russia, have always been international, but the nature and degree of internationalisation have changed as the political and economic circumstances changed. Internationalisation in general, and the recruitment of overseas students in particular, is said to offer several positive impacts 2 : Internationalisation of the staff and student body An increase in the quality and range of degree programmes The development of internationally focused programmes Enhancing research output by attracting high-quality international researchers Improved efficiency and international competitiveness Attracting revenue through student fees and other expenditure in the wider economy All of these impacts are relevant in the context of Russian higher education, and in this chapter various aspects of internationalisation during the period will be examined. During this period, the situations in both Russia and the UK have changed dramatically: while both countries have ceased to provide government funding for large numbers of overseas students, the UK has been significantly more successful in attracting privately-funded students, as well as internationalising the staff, teaching and research of its universities. 1.1 Numbers of international students The main (but not only) indicator of internationalisation is the number of overseas students registering for programmes in national universities. Each year over 2 million students seek an education in a country other than their own, and the annual growth is estimated at around six per cent 3. The following table attempts to summarise the broad trends in the internationalisation in UK and Russian universities in terms of the numbers of incoming international students. During the period , the UK moved from fifth place in the world to second, while the USSR/Russia moved from third to eighth 4. 2 British Council, Vision 2020 (2004: 11); the same report also attempts to quantify the value of various impacts to the UK economy (2004: 11) 3 British Council, Vision 2020 (2004: 32) 4 King et al 2010: 10 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 11

12 Decade UK Russia 1960s 1970s In 1963 there were approximately 20,000 overseas students in UK HE institutions. Many of these were supported by UK government scholarships and technical assistance programmes aimed at students from recently-independent countries of the British Commonwealth. The British Council had a network of offices in major university cities but they had no international organisation for recruiting international students. The numbers of international students rose from 34,000 in 1973 to 88,000 in There were still extensive technical assistance schemes providing UK government funding for training in UK HE institutions. Higher fees for international students were introduced in Universities and colleges began to develop dedicated advisory and support services, such as English language units, which were established in most UK universities in the 1970s, with their own association, SELMOUS (now BALEAP). The total number of foreign students in the USSR in the period was 500,000 from 150 countries. 75% were from Africa, Asia and Latin America, and the rest were mostly from Eastern Europe. At the beginning of this period (1950), 5900 foreign students came to the USSR. By 1990 this figure had increased 20-fold to 126,500 students per year. The Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education in Russia and each of the Soviet republics had special departments to oversee the work of foreign students. In 1964 the All-Union Council was established to represent all organisations involved with the education of foreign students 5. This increase in numbers was driven by the generous Soviet government financial support for international students, mostly from Eastern European countries and the developing nations of Africa, Asia and South America. 1980s In 1980, the UK attracted 56,000 foreign students, number five in the world 6. `Full cost fees were introduced for overseas students and visa procedures became more rigorous. Technical assistance programmes declined, and all major universities (and, more subtly) the At the beginning of the decade, in 1980, the USSR attracted 62,942 foreign students, third in the world after the USA and France 7. The USSR was the leading supplier of international education: 10.8% of all exchange students studied in the country by the end of the 1990s. 8 5 Arefyev 2007: King et al 2010: 10 7 King et al 2010: 10 8 Lazarev page 1 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 12

13 1990s 2000s British Council developed active marketing operations overseas. Overseas students fees emerged as a significant strand of university funding. International student numbers increased significantly and competition between universities, and between English-speaking countries, intensified, especially in SE Asian markets. Tony Blair introduced the Prime Minister s initiative in 1999 and gave UK government support to a global marketing campaign for international students. Organised government and institutional support for full-cost overseas students at UK universities became increasingly important. By the end of the decade, in the academic year , the number of overseas students had risen to 224,660, mostly studying without UK government funding. In this decade international student numbers in the UK nearly doubled from 230,000 in to 405,000 in (around 10% of the total student population), with an estimated annual value of around?4b. In the early years of the decade, the UK began to lose market share, but `stronger and more strategic marketing by the British Council overseas, increased efforts on the part of individual institutions, By the end of the decade, foreign students studied at 660 educational and research institutions in 120 cities. 23,500 studied in Moscow alone, the biggest supplier being Moscow People s Friendship University with 4500 foreign students 9. In 1990 the total number of foreign students in the USSR was 180,000 (including 18,500 military students, 30,000 students at special communist party, trade union and komsomol schools) 10, but the recruitment of foreign students diminished rapidly with the collapse of the USSR and the numbers fell dramatically. The state strategy of university internationalisation and centralised funding came to an end, and, as Russian universities ceased to rely on state funding of their international activities, they gained a certain economic independence, including the `right to recruit foreign students in order to make up for the deficit in state funding 11. A new system of individual contracts started to emerge and the first students funded in this way arrived in Russia in In 1999 the Russian Ministry of Education issued an order to establish a network of regional and inter-university centres of international cooperation and academic mobility. The register was established in 2000 and the first centres were established in the South of Russia, in Tatarstan, North-West Russia and the Far East 16. It is estimated that only 3.8% of all international students study in Russia 9 Arefyev 2007: Arefyev 2007: Lazarev pages Arefyev 2007: 60 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 13

14 and co-ordination by partners as part of the Prime Minister s initiative, reversed this trend 13. The majority of overseas students are funded from outside the UK mostly privately 14. Although the British Council s 2004 report Vision 2020 predicted further growth in demand for UK university education, concerns arose both from increasing international competition, particularly from `Asian Tiger and European Union countries offering courses in English, and immigration issues began to threaten student numbers. The domination of recruitment from China and India caused concern about over-reliance on too few markets, and there was some disquiet about the influence of major overseas donors. The quality of the student experience, rather than just good marketing and promotion, became increasingly accepted as the key to competitive success, and the strong showing of UK universities in international rankings tables assisted in recruitment 15. today 17. In 2004, Russia attracted 75,000 foreign students, eighth in the world, just ahead of New Zealand 18. By there were 89,900 foreign students in Russia, 94.7% of them studying at state universities. At the close of the decade the number of foreign students had doubled to around 100,000 in 656 universities (both state and non-state), but the majority came from former Soviet republics: in , 69.6% were from Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belorussia, 24.9% from other former republics and only 5.6% from other countries 19. The majority of these students now pay tuition fees, so that foreign students potentially represent an important source of nonstate funding for many Russian higher education institutions to survive under conditions of financial constraint. However, at present international students in Russia yield only about US$150 million annually 20. In an effort to attract more foreign students, in 2006 the Ministry launched a project to create internet information resources in eight languages about Russian education Larionova & Meshkova (eds), pages British Council, Vision 2020 page 7 14 British Council, Vision 2020, 2004: 8 15 See Appendix A. 17 Lazarev page 1 18 King et al 2010: Arefyev 2007: 64) 20 Smolentseva A (2004), `International students in Russia, Value MD, accessed 23/02/2011, and Arefyev 2007: Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 14

15 1.2 Other indicators of university internationalisation However, internationalisation should not be seen merely as a matter of recruiting foreign students: This view is explicitly supported by the British Council, which believes also that the level and mode of student recruitment to the UK is unsustainable in the longer term institutions must move from equating international strategy with student recruitment alone to a much wider internalisation (sic = internationalisation?) agenda where there is a balance in overseas activity between recruitment, partnerships, research and capacity building 22. In Russia, the government has recently begun to invest in increasing the outward mobility of academic staff: in 2006, 17 Russian HEIs received government funding of 10 billion roubles (plus 3 million through co-financing by the HEIs themselves) and five per cent of this funding (equal to around 25 million US dollars) was assigned for the development of mobility. In 2007, another 40 Russian HEIs received funding of some 74.5 million dollars for the development of the academic mobility of the teaching staff 23. Another development that will have a positive effect on academic internationisation is the Skolkovo Innovation centre, a large-scale project commissioned by the Russian Government with the participation of leading international universities and business companies. Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skolkovo Tech), a start-up research university, is part of the Skolkovo ecosystem along with project Clusters, Technopark, Open University and Innovation City. Academic and research programmes at Skolkovo Tech will cut across traditional disciplinary boundaries and address contemporary scientific and technological challenges in five priority areas: information science, energy science, biomedical science, aerospace and civilian nuclear science 24. As well as academic mobility of students and staff, international education in Russia today is based on international educational programmes (including joint diplomas), and institutional partnerships fuelled by networks and alliances 25. The levels of internationalisation in all of these areas are closely linked to the Bologna process, and these will be mentioned briefly here. The current situation will then be examined in more depth in chapter 3. Bologna process The Bologna Agreement between the members of the Council of Europe was signed in 1999, but Russia was not a signatory until Before this date, international cooperation and mobility was facilitated primarily through inter-governmental agreements and the external support programmes of international organisations such as the British Council, 22 Bone D (2008), Internationalisation of HE: A Ten-Year View, page 1 [The British Council source seems to be the 2008 report What Does the Future Hold? China Country Report: The Outlook for International Student Mobility] Although there is no documented language policy for Skolkovo, it is clear that the language of instruction will be English. 25 Lazarev page 2 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 15

16 DAAD, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, various US organisations, the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, etc (see Larionova & Meshkova 2007). In addition, some Bologna-related pilot projects were initiated in Russia, for example, a project addressing the issues of methodology for developing and applying the European credit system. The results of the pilot conducted by the Peoples Friendship University were approved and recommended for implementation by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in International research During the period under review, Russia s total research output fell, even in areas such as the physical sciences and engineering in which it had once been a leading player. Not only did the numbers of research publications fall in absolute terms, but Russian HEIs were slow to move towards internationalisation of research programmes on the same scale as universities in the rest of the world. There would seem to be many reasons for this, but attitudes and practices from the Soviet era are still perceived as impeding internationalisation: Anna Smolentseva, a senior research fellow at Moscow State University s Institute for Educational studies, says that measures have been introduced to help build world-class institutions, including a scheme to designate some as `national research universities meriting extra funding and autonomy. But, she adds: `In Russia, practices of academic freedom, peer review and transparency in decisionmaking and competitions are still insufficient, and such a cultural component might become an obstacle in a search for excellence Russian National Report on Bologna Process accessed 30/04/2011; for more on the implementation of the Bologna Process in Russia, see Telegina & Schwengel Baty 2010, quoting an article by Smolentseva in International Higher Education, 2010 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 16

17 2 THE PAST: ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING/ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES IN UK AND RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES Introduction In 2002, the British Council in Moscow carried out a baseline study of ESP teaching in Russian universities for what became the RESPONSE project 28. We will refer to and update the findings of this baseline study in chapter 4. In this chapter we will offer some broader contextualisation in order to try to explain some of the special characteristics of English language teaching in institutions of higher education in Russia. 2.1 English for Specific Purposes a global perspective At the start of the British Council s 2002 baseline study, the editors refer to a survey of trends in global ESP 29 and it may be worth summarising that survey here. The survey chronicled two strands the economic-political factors behind the development of ESP and the linguistic and methodological evolution of ESP: Decade Political & economic developments Linguistic & methodological developments 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s `Bloody origins : Teaching English for military purposes during World War II, e.g. to integrate refugee Polish air force pilots into the British Royal Air Force following the invasion of Poland in `Brave new world : English replaced German as the dominant language of international science and technology and so there was a need to teach English as the main international language of communication for science and technology (EST). `Winds of change : The newlyindependent countries of the British Commonwealth needed rapid training for a wide range of personnel to run their economies, industries and public services. English for Academic Purposes (EAP) emerged as the dominant branch of ESP. `Globalisation : The development of the oil economies led to a globalisation of industry and the investment of oil Grammar-translation: English in general, and specialist English in particular (what later became known as ESP), were largely taught through the translation and grammatical analysis of English texts. Textual approach: ESP is taught through the intensive study of specialist texts from the target discipline. The approach also involved `register analysis : detailed research into specialist vocabulary or terminology and dominant grammatical features. Discourse analysis: ESP teaching was based on the prominent discourse functions found in specialist texts: definition, description, classification, contrast, etc. Increasingly, this approach was applied to the teaching of all four skills reading, writing, listening and speaking. Needs analysis: It was recognised that different students were preparing for different contexts and therefore had 28 Winetroube S & L Kuznetsova (2002), Specialist English Teaching and Learning the State of the Art in Russia: A Baseline Study Report, Moscow: The British Council/Publishing House Petropolis 29 Winetroube & Kuzxnetsova (2002: 16). The survey of trends was by Richard West (1999) Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 17

18 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s wealth in new industries and educational institutions, especially in OPEC countries. Business English and lower-level EAP were the dominant fields of ESP. `The opening door : The end of the cold war brought an increase in trade and commerce, especially with China. English became the lingua franca for German companies producing cars in China or pipelines across Europe, for example. `Business as usual : The trends of the 1980s and 1990s continued, with business English (EBP) eclipsing all other areas of ESP. `Disintegration and integration : International peace-keeping missions and the expansion of the NATO alliance brought new projects in military English. The road to accession to the European Union brought a need for English for international negotiations and documentation for civil servants, administrators and lawmakers. `Globalisation : English has become a global language, with communication in English between non-native speakers exceeding that with native speakers. As a significant dimension of this globalisation, English `is used increasingly as the medium of education in universities across the world 30. As a consequence, EAP regains its position as a leading branch of ESP. different needs. So, for example, the language needs of an airline pilot would be very different from those of a medical student. Focus on new teaching approaches: ESP teaching methodology developed as teachers recognised the need to teach English for communication, as well as the roles played by motivation and the teaching methodologies of the students own disciplines. Genre analysis: Research into the generic structure of common written and spoken texts showed students how typical forms of communication are structured, and gives a context for grammar teaching. Appropriate methodology: Concentration on the development of teaching approaches which are suitable for local teachers rather than native speakers or expatriates. [See Holliday (1994), who does not specifically mention Russia, but his discussion of Poland may be relevant.] Technology: Technology comes to dominate all forms of ELT, with computerassisted language learning, e-learning, m- learning, etc. The internet makes it possible to devise specialist ESP materials based on current authentic texts selected and downloaded to meet the specific needs of students studying English for a narrow academic or professional area. 2.2 ESP in Russia Russian isolation What is notable about this brief survey is the extent to which Russian ESP remained on the sidelines of mainstream global trends. The USSR and Russia were often major players in the economic and political developments, but in most cases these did not impact on language teaching here. In the same way, ESP teaching was not influenced by the same linguistic and methodological developments during the period surveyed ESP teaching began in the 30 Graddol 2006: 74 Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 18

19 1950s but was (and, in some cases, still is) stuck in the 1950s. This was noted in the 2002 Baseline Study: There is a long and proud tradition of teaching English at institutions of higher learning in Russia, but the English language needs of the university student in the Soviet Union were limited and so for a long period Russian ESP developed in a somewhat isolated tradition 31. This isolation showed itself and continues to show itself in several ways: focus, methodology, materials and professional development. One notable example would be genre analysis an academic approach that originated in Russia in the 1920s with the work of Vladimir Propp in the analysis of folk literature, but, while this approach was applied to ESP in many western universities in the 1990s, it does not seem to have impacted on Russian ESP teaching in the past 20 years ESP focus From the beginning, ESP in Russia has had a narrow, often very narrow, focus, i.e. specific courses were developed for particular academic or professional fields. In many cases this was possible and desirable because ESP teachers were employed in specialist institutions or attached to particular faculties or departments. As the 2002 Baseline Study noted: `In the university English course, the EGP and ESP balance is shifted towards the latter 32. In the west, there was an opposite movement towards `broad or `wide-angle ESP, i.e. language courses designed for a wide spectrum of academic or professional disciplines, sometimes called English for General Academic Purposes (EGAP) or English for General Occupational Purposes (EGOP). In a recent article, Huckin (2003) attributes this to the influence of Hutchinson & Waters (1980) 33, but it may have much to do with the ways in which ESP is organised in universities: in the UK, for example, most ESP is delivered by a central unit which must service all departments in all faculties, whereas in Russia there are often separate ESP teams servicing each faculty, often geographically dispersed across a city or campus. It is easy to see how the Russian situation encourages a highly-specific focus to ESP teaching ESP Methodology The 2002 Baseline Study concluded that `The collected statistics indicate that the grammar translation method still clearly dominates in the ESP classroom The survey reveals that communicative methods are gradually gaining ground in the ESP classroom, their popularity, however, being perceptibly lower than that of the older techniques. A similar picture is offered by Zabotkina (2002): 31 Wintetroube & Kuznetsova (eds) (2002: 21) 32 Winetroube & Kuznetsova (eds) (2002: 34) 33 Hutchinson & Waters 1985: 178 (1980), ESP at the Crossroads. Reprinted in Swales, J. Episodes in ESP, Pergamon, Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 19

20 The main emphasis has been on reading and translation of specialized texts in the particular field of studies (chemistry, mathematics, geography, etc), the main focus being a specialized competence relevant to their disciplines. The system has proved a failure as far as communication is concerned. Our students have excellent knowledge of grammar and special vocabulary, but they cannot communicate with their peers from other countries or with the foreign guest professors 34. The authors of the 2002 Baseline Study went on to offer an explanation for this in the widespread practice of devising in-house materials known as `metodichkas based on authentic specialist texts Our hypothesis is that when ESP is being taught, teachers find an appropriate text, but, more often than not, they have neither the time nor the expertise to supplement it with communicative tasks and/or exercises. They choose the least demanding method grammar translation 35. This methodology means that there is a corresponding neglect of needs-based approaches: a `lack of practice in developing language skills with a focus on ESP, namely speaking, writing and presentation skills in typical job-related situations ESP Materials The 2002 Baseline Study also showed that, while modern, international textbooks were increasingly available and were actually the largest single source of materials, they were still in the minority (37%). The majority of materials were still local coursebooks and inhouse materials consisting of booklets (metodichka) or the teacher s personal, photocopied materials. These seem to be popular largely because of their narrow focus: Asked to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of materials, students gave the highest rating to teachers personal resource packs, course books published abroad coming second in their list, perhaps, because materials specially selected by their teachers seem to them to be more relevant to their future professional needs Professional development Russian language teachers have traditionally received very good, very thorough initial training, but very little in-service training, especially in the area of ESP teaching. In part this was because the centralized system of regular in-service training in universities had broken down: 34 Zabotkina 2002: Winetroube & Kuznetsova (eds) (2002: ); for an alternative `least demanding approach, see Scott et al (1984) 36 Ceremissina & Petrashova (2002), Current trends in ESP teaching in Russia 37 Winetroube & Kuznetsova (2002: 60 emphasis added) Internationalisation of Russian Higher Education: the English language dimension Page 20

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