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1 Name Date Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. Unit 1: Charters of Freedom_reordered 1. Why does the president of the United States have the power to make treaties with foreign governments? A. The president ensures laws are enforced. B. The president is commander in chief. C. The president is head of the Senate. D. The president oversees foreign relations. CORRECT 2. According to the Declaration of Independence, where does a government obtain its power from? A. the three branches of government B. the consent of the governed CORRECT C. wealthy male citizens D. the citizens' natural rights 3. Which of the following best defines an ideal? A. a law that people strive to obey B. a belief that people hold to be true C. a standard that people try to achieve CORRECT D. a principle that people accept as useful 4. Read the passage below from the Declaration of Independence. According to this passage, where do people get their rights? We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, - That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government. A. their Creator CORRECT B. the Governed C. their Government D. the People 5. According to the Declaration of Independence passage above, when do people have the right to abolish their government and institute a new one? A. when the people do not agree with the government's laws B. when the government is no longer protecting the people's rights CORRECT C. when the government is no longer promoting the people's happiness D. when the people do not agree with how the government is organized 6. What is required for an amendment to become part of the U.S. Constitution? A. the approval of the U.S. Supreme Court B. the approval of three fourths of U.S. states CORRECT C. the support of the U.S. President D. the support of 70 percent of U.S. citizens

2 7. Why was the ideal of equality problematic in 1766? A. it did not include any labor rights B. it only targeted wealthy males C. it excluded slaves and women CORRECT D. it created different social classes 8. Supporters of the new Constitution in 1787 were known as A. Patriots. B. Loyalists. C. Moderates. D. Federalists. CORRECT 9. Who was the main author of the Declaration of Independence? A. John Adams B. Benjamin Franklin C. Thomas Jefferson CORRECT D. George Washington 10. John Locke argued that all people have specific natural rights, which is the idea that A. everyone earns certain rights just by being born. CORRECT B. certain rights should not involve the government. C. citizen rights should be revised every few years. D. citizens are entitled to more power than the government. 11. What was the first constitution of the United States? A. the Bill of Rights B. the Northwest Ordinance C. the Articles of Confederation CORRECT D. the Declaration of Independence 12. Study the diagram on amending the Constitution below. Which of these statements belongs in the box with the question mark? A. Amendment is proposed by majority vote of Congress. B. Amendment is proposed by two-thirds vote of the Senate. C. Amendment is proposed by two-thirds vote of each house of Congress. CORRECT D. Amendment is proposed by majority vote of the House of Representatives. 13. Which of these ideals refers to the chance for individuals to pursue their hopes and dreams for a better life?

3 A. liberty B. equality C. democracy D. opportunity CORRECT 14. What was one effect of Shays' Rebellion? A. It demonstrated the strength of the state militias. B. It raised people's fears of a strong federal government. C. It revealed the many problems with interstate commerce. D. It persuaded many leaders to call for a stronger federal government. CORRECT 15. What important issue did the Great Compromise settle? A. regulation of commerce B. election of the president C. representation in Congress CORRECT D. selection of Supreme Court justices 16. Why is the Constitution called a "living document"? A. It has not been changed since it was written. B. It is constantly being rewritten and changed. C. It is the best form of government ever designed. D. It can be amended in order to change with the times. CORRECT 17. What was one argument raised by those who opposed ratification of the Constitution in 1787? A. The Constitution lacked a bill of rights. CORRECT B. The Constitution failed to create a judicial branch. C. The Constitution gave the people too much power. D. The Constitution gave state governments too much power. 18. Which of the following describes the purpose of the Preamble of the Constitution? A. It lists the goals of the federal government. CORRECT B. It defines the powers of the president and his cabinet. C. It explains how the system of checks and balances works. D. It declares that the government gets its power from the states. 19. Which of these newspaper headlines BEST illustrates the federal system of checks and balances? A. "United States Sends Troops to Iraq" B. "Congress Criticized for Immigration Bill" C. "President Vetoes Highway Spending Bill" CORRECT D. "State Court Declares Education Law Unconstitutional" 20. What is the supremacy clause? A. The constitutional clause affirming that the Constitutional and federal laws are the supreme laws of the land. CORRECT B. The constitutional clause stating that states have powers that are not explicitly granted to the national government. C. The constitutional clause that allows Congress to share certain powers with the State governments. D. The constitutional clause that enforces the division of power between the state and federal governments. 21. According to the Constitution, which of the following has the power to declare war? A. Congress CORRECT B. president C. Supreme Court D. state legislatures 22. The elastic clause is a constitutional clause that gives Congress the authority to

4 A. "make all laws necessary and proper" to carry out its powers. CORRECT B. "coin and distribute money" as needed to improve the economy. C. "override a president's veto" with a two-thirds majority vote. D. "declare war" with consent of the president and Supreme Court. 23. Most federal cases are first heard in the lower courts, beginning with the A. U.S. district court. CORRECT B. U.S. Supreme Court. C. U.S. Court of Appeals. D. U.S. Court of federal claims. 24. Which of the following is not part of the United States Charters of Freedom? A. the Constitution B. the Bill of Rights C. the Declaration of Independence D. the Magna Carta CORRECT 25. In a short essay, detail the development of core American ideals and how those ideals affected the founding of the United States and the writing of the Constitution. As you frame your response to the essay question below, keep these pointers in mind: To discuss means to make observations using facts, reasoning, and arguments. To describe means to provide details about something. To explain means to make relationships between things clear or to give reasons for something. Creating a Nation Based on Ideals: The Declaration of Independence established a vision of a new nation based on five core ideals: equality rights liberty opportunity democracy Choose one of these five ideals to focus on in your essay. Then do the following: a. Write a thesis statement explaining why the ideal you chose was important to the creation of the new nation. b. Describe one way that Americans worked toward achieving this ideal during the Revolutionary War Era ( ). c. Explain one way that this ideal is either promoted or protected in the Constitution. d. Explain one way the Constitution has been amended to protect this ideal.

5 Examples of working toward ideals: Colonists defended various ideas in boycotts and protests, such as the Boston Tea Party. The Continental Congress defined the nation s ideals in the Declaration of Independence. Americans fought and died for their ideals. Examples of ways ideals are promoted or protected: The system of checks and balances promotes liberty by curbing the power of government. The Constitution provides for an elected legislature. The Bill of Rights protects basic rights and freedoms. The Bill of Rights reserves for the people rights not listed in the Constitution. Examples of ways the Constitution has been amended: First Amendment protects five freedoms (religion, speech, the press, assembly and the right to petition the government) Second Amendment gives citizens the right to bear arms. Third Amendment states homeowners cannot be forced to give room and board to military Fourth Amendment protects citizens from unreasonable search and seizures Fifth Amendment protects people from being held on a charge. Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery. Fourteenth Amendment confers citizenship on all persons born or naturalized in the United States

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