1 Umm AL Qura University GENETIC FACTORS IN COMMON DISEASES Dr Neda M Bogari
2 GENETIC FACTORS IN COMMON DISEASES The common diseases do not usually show a simple pattern of inheritance. The contributing of genetic factors are often multiple, interacting with each other and environmental factors in a complex manner. Its uncommon for either genetic or environmental factors to be entirely responsible for a particular common disease in a single individual. In most instances both genetic and environmental factors are contributory, although sometimes one can appear more important than the other
3 GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COMMON DISEASE A small proportion of common diseases cases have single gene causes The major proportion of the genetic basis of common diseases can be considered to be the result of an inherited predisposition of genetic susceptibility.
4 GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COMMON DISEASE Common diseases result from a complex interaction of the effects of multi different genes (polygenic inheritance), with environmental factors and influences (multifactorail inheritance).
5 TYPES AND MECHANISMS OF GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY Genetic susceptibility of a particular disease can occur through single gene inheritance, e.g. early CHD arising from familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). In an individual with FH gene, the genetic susceptibility is the main determinant of the development of CHD but this can be modified by environmental alteration, e.g. reduction in dietary cholesterol, lack of exercise, and smoking.
6 TYPES AND MECHANISMS OF GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY Inheritance of a single gene susceptibility does not necessarily lead to development of the disease. For some disease exposure to specific environmental factors will be the main determinant in the development of the disease.
7 APPROACHES TO DEMONSTRATE GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COMMON DISEASES Population/migration studies Family studies Twin studies Adoption studies Polymorphism association studies Biochemical studies Animal models
8 POPULATION/ MIGRATION STUDIES Differences in the incidence of a particular disease in different population groups suggest the possibility of genetic factors being important. They could also be explained by differences in environmental factors
9 FAMILY STUDIES Finding a higher frequency of a family history of the disease in relatives than in the general population suggested a genetic susceptibility to the disease. Familial aggregation dose not prove a genetic susceptibility since families share a common environment.
10 FAMILY STUDIES The frequency of the disease in couples, who share the same environment but will usually have a different genetic background, can be used as a control, particularly for possible environmental factors in adult life.
11 Family relationships and proportions of genes in common with a proband Relationship Proportion of genes in common Monozygotic twin 1/1 1st degree relative (parent, dizygotic twin, other sib, child) 2nd degree relative (uncle, aunt, grandparent, nephew, niece, grandchild, half-sib) 3rd degree relative (first cousin, greatgrandparent, great-grandchild) 1/2 1/4 1/8 4th degree relative (second cousin) 1/16
12 TWIN STUDIES If identical twins, monozygotic (MZ) have the same trait this could be thought to prove that the trait is hereditary. This is not necessarily so. Since twins tend to share the same environment it is possible they will be exposed to the same environmental factors.
13 TWIN STUDIES comparing differences in the frequency of the disease between nonidentical twins, dizygotic (DZ) and MZ twins pairs. Both members of a pair of twins are said to be concordant when either both are affected or neither is affected. the term disconcordant is used when only one member of a pair of twins is affected.
14 TWIN STUDIES Both MZ & DZ shared the same environment, but MZ are genetically identical and DZ no more difference than brothers and sisters. If the disease is entirely genetically determined then both members of MZ twins will affected but non of DZ twins will have similar concordance rates. If the disease is entirely caused by environmental factors, then DZ and MZ twins will have similar concordance rates.
15 TWIN STUDIES study differences between MZ twin pairs who have been separated from an early age. If the disease is entirely genetically determined then, if one identical twin affected, the other will also be affected even if they have been brought up in different environments.
16 ADOPTION STUDIES Compare the frequency of the disease in individuals who remain with their biological parents with those who are adopted out of their biological family.
17 POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATION STUDIES DNA polymorphisms allows the possibility of determining whether particular polymorphic variants occur more commonly in individuals affected with a particular disease than in the population in general, or what is known as a polymorphism association
18 BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES Analysis of metabolite or enzyme activity levels in biochemical or metabolic pathways can provide evidence of genetic contribution to some of the common diseases.
19 ANIMAL MODELS Recognition of the same disease which occurs in humans in another species allows the possibility of experimental studies which are often not possible in humans. Transgenic animal models experimentally induced for mutations in single genes involved in the metabolic processes or disease pathways of common diseases will provide vital insights into the genetic contribution to these disorders.
20 DIABETES MELLITUS (DM)
21 CLASSIFICATION OF DM Type 1 or insulin-dependent DM (IDDM) autoimmune, beta-cell destruction, ketonuria. Type 2 or non-insulin-dependent DM (NIDDM) usually older onset associated with obesity MODY (maturity onset diabetes of the young) Gestational diabetes Secondary diabetes
22 CLASSIFICATION OF DM Type 1 or insulin-dependent DM (IDDM) autoimmune, beta-cell destruction, ketonuria. Type 2 or non-insulin-dependent DM (NIDDM) usually older onset associated with obesity MODY (maturity onset diabetes of the young) Gestational diabetes Secondary diabetes
23 what is diabetes... The body unable to handle sugar properly. Insulin from the pancreas is used in the conversion of glucose to energy.
25 Type 1 diabetes Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Peak incidence at years of age. Seasonal variation (lowest in Spring Summer). Increasing incidence. Varying speed of onset.
26 Genetics of Type 1 Diabetes Monozygotic twins % concordance If father has Type 1: 6% risk If mother has Type 1: 1% risk If sibling has Type 1: 8% risk If non-identical twin has Type 1: 10% risk If both parents have Type 1: 30% risk
27 Genetics of Type 2 diabetes If identical twin has Type 2: 100% risk. If one parent has Type 2: 15% risk. If both parents have Type 2: 75% risk. If sibling has Type 2: 10% risk. If non-identical twin has Type 2: 10% risk.
28 Increasing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes Insulin resistance associated with: Obesity Inactivity
29 Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle change Target at risk population Diabetes prevention programme Change life style Health professionals need to set example of proper health diet.
31 MODY: Maturity Onset Diabetes in the Young Autosomal dominant Different phenotypes correspond with different genotypes Hepatic nuclear factor (HNF) 4 alpha Glucokinase (less severe disease) HNF 1 alpha HNF 1 beta
32 Gestational diabetes Genetically heterogeneous Increasing insulin resistance in pregnancy 50% develop Type 2 diabetes later in life Develops 2nd / 3rd trimester More common if overweight and inactive Neonatal problems: macrosomia / respiratory distress / hypoglycaemia
34 Hypertension Twin and family studies indicate that both genes and environmental factors are involved in the determination of blood pressure but the nature of these and their mechanism of interaction are currently obscure.
35 Hypertension Genes may also be important with regard to choice of antihypertensive therapy. For e.g, high blood pressure is associated with a better response to beta blocker in blacks than whites. If one parent is hypertensive, the risk to offspring is 30%. If both parents are hypertensive, the risk to offspring is 40%.
36 CORONARY HEART DISEASE
37 Coronary Heart Disease CHD remains the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in Western industrialised countries, accounting for more deaths than all forms of cancer combined. The role of genes in the causation of atherosclerosis is supported by family studies and concordance rates of 65% for CHD in MD twins.
38 Coronary Heart Disease Patients with genetic hyperlipidemia present with cholesterol levels that are markedly elevated and, in some instance, may have been elevated since childhood. The importance of the recognition of a genetic hyperlipidemia is that it influences therapy and management.
39 Coronary Heart Disease In general, genetic hyperlipidemia do not respond adequately to environmental modulation by diet; drug therapy is often needed to bring down the cholesterol levels. genetic hyperlipidemia should be suspected when there is a positive family history, as defined by the presence of angina, heart attack, or stroke in a first-degree relative before 50 years old.
40 Coronary Heart Disease Genes are particularly implicated in premature atherosclerosis when a first degree relative has a history of either angina or heart attack before 50 years of age. In this group, the family history is the most important indicator that the individual is at increased risk for CHD.
41 Coronary Heart Disease Important genetic disorders causing premature atherosclerosis: Familial hyperlipidemia (FH): is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and is penetrant early in life. The molecular basis for this disorder is different mutations in LDL receptor gene. Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH): occurs with a frequency of approximately 1-2% in the general population. The diagnosis of FCH can be made in the presence of an elevated LDL cholesterol or triglyceride level in the patient and siblings or other first-degree relatives. The pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown.
WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS? CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES DEDBT01954 Lilly Deutschland GmbH Werner-Reimers-Straße 2-4 61352 Bad Homburg Living your life as normal as possible www.lilly-pharma.de www.lilly-diabetes.de
Important points Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a condition resulting in high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood There are several types of diabetes: type 1 (insulin dependent diabetes), type 2 (non-insulin
TWINS AND GENETICS TWINS Heritability: Twin Studies Twin studies are often used to assess genetic effects on variation in a trait Comparing MZ/DZ twins can give evidence for genetic and/or environmental
Diabetes and Heart Disease Diabetes and Heart Disease According to the American Heart Association, diabetes is one of the six major risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Affecting more than 7% of the
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Risk factors are traits and life-style habits that increase a person's chances of having coronary artery and vascular disease. Some risk factors cannot be changed or
Patient Information Genetic Testing for Childhood Hearing Loss Introduction This document describes the most common genetic cause of childhood hearing loss and explains the role of genetic testing. Childhood
Statistics of Type 2 Diabetes Of the 17 million Americans with diabetes, 90 percent to 95 percent have type 2 diabetes. Of these, half are unaware they have the disease. People with type 2 diabetes often
1 University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine and Health Sciences Division of Basic Medical Sciences Discipline of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PBL SEMINAR INSULIN RESISTANCE, POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN
Markham Stouffville Hospital Adult Diabetes Education Frequently Asked Questions What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned
Genomics and Survey Questions Updated March 2007 Compiled by the University of Washington Center for Genomics & Public Health This publication is distributed free of charge and supported by CDC Grant #U10/CCU025038-2.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. To understand diabetes,
National Diabetes Statistics What is diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both.
Diabetes Definition Diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. Causes Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused
Diabetes mellitus Lecture Outline I. Diagnosis II. Epidemiology III. Causes of diabetes IV. Health Problems and Diabetes V. Treating Diabetes VI. Physical activity and diabetes 1 Diabetes Disorder characterized
1 Nutrition Type 2 Diabetes: A Growing Challenge in the Healthcare Setting NAME OF STUDENT 2 Type 2 Diabetes: A Growing Challenge in the Healthcare Setting Introduction and background of type 2 diabetes:
DIABETES MELLITUS DEFINITION It is a common, chronic, metabolic syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia as a cardinal biochemical feature. Resulting from absolute lack of insulin. Abnormal metabolism of
CME Test for AMDA Clinical Practice Guideline Diabetes Mellitus Part I: 1. Which one of the following statements about type 2 diabetes is not accurate? a. Diabetics are at increased risk of experiencing
Family History and Diabetes Practical Genomics for the Public Health Professional Outline Overview of Type 2 Diabetes/Gestational Diabetes Familial/Genetic Nature of Diabetes Interaction of Genes and Environment
Prevention of and the Screening for Diabetes Part I Insulin Resistance By James L. Holly, MD Your Life Your Health The Examiner January 19, 2012 In 2002, SETMA began a relationship with Joslin Diabetes
Web Quest Abstract Students explore the Using Family History to Improve Your Health module on the Genetic Science Learning Center website to complete a web quest. Learning Objectives Chronic diseases such
Connecticut Diabetes Statistics What is Diabetes? State Public Health Actions (1305, SHAPE) Grant March 2015 Page 1 of 16 Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Blood glucose
Is Insulin Effecting Your Weight Loss and Your Health? Teressa Alexander, M.D., FACOG Women s Healthcare Associates www.rushcopley.com/whca 630-978-6886 Obesity is Epidemic in the US 2/3rds of U.S. adults
Insulin Resistance and PCOS: A not uncommon reproductive disorder Joyce L. Ross, MSN, CRNP, CS, FNLA, FPCNA Diplomate Accrediation Council for Clinical Lipidology President Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses
The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 嘉 義 長 庚 醫 院 藥 劑 科 Speaker : 翁 玟 雯 Diabetes Mellitus : A group of diseases characterized
PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCC CUNY 12a FOCUS ON Your Risk for Diabetes Your Risk for Diabetes! Since 1980,Diabetes has increased by 50 %. Diabetes has increased by 70 percent
Diabetes and Obesity in Children Janie Berquist, RN, BSN, MPH, CDE Children s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics Kansas City, MO Diabetes and Obesity in Children What is Diabetes? How are Diabetes and Obesity
6 Genetic testing The difference diagnostics can make The British In Vitro Diagnostics Association Genetic INTRODUCTION testing The Department of Health published Our Inheritance, Our Future - Realising
METABOLIC SYNDROME AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PHARMACISTS TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE Mike Rizo, Pharm D, MBA, ABAAHP THE EVOLUTION OF THE PHARMACIST 1920s 1960s 2000s THE PHARMACIST OF THE FUTURE?
Marrying a relative Is there an increased chance that a child will have genetic problems if its parents are related to each other? The simple answer to this question is Yes, there is an increased chance.
NATIONAL DIABETES INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE Am I at Risk for type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower the Risk of Getting Diabetes U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health
Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes: A New Understanding of Cause and Treatment Bruce Latham, M.D. Endocrine Specialists Greenville Health System Objectives for this presentation - Understand the thrifty genotype
Patient Support Guide to genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome Testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is available from Quest Diagnostics. Quest Diagnostics Patient Support Guide to Genetic
Cardiovascular disease physiology Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011 Content Introduction The number 1 killer in America Some statistics Recommendations The disease process
Heart Disease A disabling yet preventable condition Number 3 January 2 NATIONAL ACADEMY ON AN AGING SOCIETY Almost 18 million people 7 percent of all Americans have heart disease. More than half of the
Session # : 46 Day/Time: Friday, May 1, 2015, 1:00 4:00 pm Title: Genetics and Hearing Loss: Clinical and Molecular Characteristics Presenter: Kathleen S. Arnos, PhD, Gallaudet University This presentation
1333 Plaza Blvd, Suite E, Central Point, OR 97502 * www.mountainviewvet.net Diabetes Mellitus (in cats) Diabetes, sugar Affected Animals: Most diabetic cats are older than 10 years of age when they are
Burden of Obesity, Diabetes and Heart Disease in New Hampshire, 2013 Update Background Overweight and obesity have greatly increased among all age groups and regardless of income and education. Contributing
DIABETES AND INSULIN RESISTANCE KARI KOHRS RD LDN CDE UICMC NUTRITION & WELLNESS CENTER DIABETES PREVALANCE Third leading cause of death-- United States 18 million diagnosed Growing at the rate of 3 new
Diabetes Introduction The attached paper is adapted from the initial background paper on Diabetes presented to the Capital and Coast District Health Board Community and Public Health Advisory Committee
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Part XII By James L. Holly, MD Your Life Your Health The Examiner September 15, 2005 As we approach the end of our extended series on cardiovascular disease risk factors,
S What is Heart Failure? 1,2,3 Heart failure, sometimes called congestive heart failure, develops over many years and results when the heart muscle struggles to supply the required oxygen-rich blood to
SIXTY-SIXTH WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY A66/8 Provisional agenda item 13.1 15 March 2013 Draft comprehensive global monitoring framework and targets for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases
Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 The cardiometabolic risk syndrome is increasingly recognized
Other Noninfectious Diseases Chapter 31 Lesson 3 Diabetes Diabetes- a chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death by disease
Diabetes and Stroke Understanding the connection between diabetes and the increased risk of stroke Make the Connection Almost 26 million people in the U.S. roughly 8 percent of the population have diabetes.
Diabetes for CNAs This course has been awarded two (2.0) contact hours. This course expires on January 31, 2017. Copyright 2005 by RN.com. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of these materials
Diabetes Brief What is Diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in which the level of blood glucose, or blood sugar, is above normal. The disease occurs when the body
Understanding Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a condition where there is too much glucose (a type of sugar) in your blood. Your blood glucose level is regulated with the help of insulin, a hormone
Department Of Biochemistry Subject: Diabetes Mellitus Supervisor: Dr.Hazim Allawi & Dr.Omar Akram Prepared by : Shahad Ismael. 2 nd stage. Diabetes mellitus : Type 1 & Type 2 What is diabestes mellitus?
TYPE 2 DIABETES IN THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DR. Trinh Thi Kim Hue CONTENTS Definition Diagnosis Treatment Comorbidities and Complications Comorbidities and Complications Screening for T2D References DEFINITION
The Influence of Infant Health on Adult Chronic Disease Womb to Tomb Dr Clare MacVicar Introduction Many diseases in adulthood are related to growth patterns during early life Maternal nutrition important
Diagnosis, classification and prevention of diabetes Section 1 1 of 4 Curriculum Module II 1 Diagnosis, classification and presentation of diabetes Slide 2 of 48 Polyurea Definition of diabetes Slide 3
Influence of Sex on Genetics Chapter Six Humans 23 Autosomes Chromosomal abnormalities very severe Often fatal All have at least one X Deletion of X chromosome is fatal Males = heterogametic sex XY Females
DIABETES A chronic, debilitating and often deadly disease Diabetes is a chronic condition that arises when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin
The Diabetes Epidemic O 2118 Wilshire Blvd. Ste. 723 O Santa Monica, California 90403 O www.susandopart.com O email@example.com What to look for and how you can help your clients O 310-828-4476 Trends
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Brief What is Coronary Heart Disease? Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease 1, is the most common heart condition in the United States. It occurs
Diabetes Fact Sheet 1 ODPCP OHIO DIABETES PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROGRAM D O 1 Diabetes mellitus, or diabetes, is a disease in which a person has a high level of glucose (a type of sugar) in their blood.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin resistance syndrome in Children Anil R Kumar MD Pediatric Endocrinology MCV/VCU, Richmond VA Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) has increased in children
Beating insulin resistance through lifestyle changes This information is relevant to people at risk for type 2 diabetes, those who already have type 2 diabetes, pre- diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome
Double Diabetes: Definition, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prediction and Prevention. Professor Paolo Pozzilli University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome Institute of Cell & Molecular Science, Queen Mary, University of
Talking diabetes No.42 what is diabetes? Diabetes is the name given to a group of different conditions in which there is too much glucose in the blood. The pancreas either cannot make insulin or the insulin
STROKE AND HEART DISEASE IS THERE A LINK BEYOND RISK FACTORS? D AN IE L T. L AC K L AN D DISCLOSURES Member of NHLBI Risk Assessment Workgroup RISK ASSESSMENT Count major risk factors For patients with
Causes of Diabetes National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse What is diabetes? Diabetes is a complex group of diseases with a variety of causes. People with diabetes have high blood glucose, also called
Diabetes: The Numbers Changing the Way Diabetes is Treated. What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose (blood sugar) Diabetes can lead to serious health
Georgia Department of Human Resources BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR NON-STATE AGENCY CHILD Responsible Party Telephone Number Date Name of Child Date of Birth Time of Birth Sex Resident County Placement County
PROVIDER POLICIES & PROCEDURES BRCA GENETIC TESTING The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to providers enrolled in the Connecticut Medical Assistance Program (CMAP) on the requirements for
1007029 CM1053CS Alzheimer s disease and diabetes Nearly 21 million Americans in the United States have diabetes, a disease that makes the body less able to convert sugar to energy. More than 6 million
HOW TO CARE FOR A PATIENT WITH DIABETES INTRODUCTION Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the United States, and diabetes is a disease that affects the way the body handles blood sugar. Approximately
Appendix A Health Summary NHS East and North Clinical Commissioning Group January 213 NHS East and North CCG Royston area has been shaded North East The five constituent districts of NHS East and North
An Interview with Gerald Reaven: Syndrome X : The Risks of Insulin Resistance Gerald Reaven, M.D., is Professor Emeritus (Active) of Medicine at Stanford University. He has served as director of the Division
Type 1 Diabetes W ( Juvenile Diabetes) hat is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile-onset diabetes, is one of the three main forms of diabetes affecting millions of people worldwide.
TH E TABLE OF CONTENTS The Cost of Diabesity... 3 Employer Solutions... 4 Provide a Worksite Weight Loss Program Tailored for Diabetes... 4 Provide Healthy Food Options at the Workplace... 4 Make it Easy
Knowsley Public Health Annual Report Statistical Compendium 2014/15 READER INFORMATION Title Department Author Reviewers Contributors Date of Release June 2015 'Knowsley Public Health Annual Report: Statistical
EMA/467911/2014 Summary of the risk management plan (RMP) for Xultophy (insulin degludec / liraglutide) This is a summary of the risk management plan (RMP) for Xultophy, which details the measures to be
THE ROLE OF TUMOUR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA (TNFa) IN OBESITY Alison Mary Morris, B.Sc (Hons) A thesis submitted to Adelaide University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Physiology Adelaide
Diabetes mellitus 1 pharmacology عبد هللا الزعبي 1 P a g e 4 Shatha Khalil Shahwan Diabetes mellitus The goals of the treatment of diabetes 1. Treating symptoms 2. Treating and Preventing acute complications
What is diabetes? Diabetes is a condition which occurs as a result of problems with the production and supply of insulin in the body. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, a form of sugar. We
What are the PH interventions the NHS should adopt? South West Clinical Senate 15 th January, 2015 Debbie Stark, PHE Healthcare Public Health Consultant Kevin Elliston: PHE Consultant in Health Improvement
Diabetes 101: A Brief Overview of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association What Happens When We Eat? After eating, most food is turned into glucose, the body s main source of energy. 1 Normal Blood
Diabetes Gojka Roglic What is diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology, characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism
Newly Diagnosed T2DM in Patient with Prior MI 1 Our case involves a gentleman with acute myocardial infarction who is newly discovered to have type 2 diabetes. 2 One question is whether anti-hyperglycemic
Understanding Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Maritime Hereditary Cancer Service General Information Cancer is very common. About one in three (33%) people are diagnosed with some form of cancer during