DGA - Method in the Past and for the Future

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1 DGA - Method in the Past and for the Future

2 Page 2 May 2012

3 Doerenburg introduced the differentiation between electrical and thermal failure mode and introduced ratios for fault gases with similar solubility. Halstead developed the theoretical thermodynamic theory. The ratios are temperature dependent. With increasing the hotspot the amount of gases increases in the order: methane-ethane-ethylene The evaluation scheme of the modern Gas-in-Oil Analysis is developed by Rogers, Mueller, Schliesing, Soldner (MSS) Development of In-Line Monitoring Page 3 May 2012

4 Different phenomena in oil take place like: dielectric thermal dynamic Change/Ageing chemical! Gas-in-Oil Analysis (DGA = Dissolved Gas Analysis) Page 4 May 2012

5 The measurement of dissolved gases allow the knowledge on! Type! Complexity! Seriousness of event Page 5 May 2012

6 Sampling Page 6 May 2012

7 Sampling Container! Perfectly cleaned & Dried! Free from dust & moisture! Airtight! Glass or Metal cans, syringes Page 7 May 2012

8 ! Protect sample from direct light! Avoid moisture & dust contamination! Use the sampling containers exclusively for transformer oil sampling Page 8 May 2012

9 1 Handwheel 2 Sealing cap 3 Safety chain 4 Polyamid gasket 5 Nut 6 Drain valve 7 Hose and screw connector 8 Sampling bottle 9 Overflow vessel Page 9 May 2012

10 Page 10 May 2012

11 Requested analysis: Required information concerning oil sample(example) Colour ISO 2049 Appearance IEC Neutralisation value IEC Breakdown voltage IEC Water content IEC Loss factor at 50 Hz IEC Interfacial tension ISO 6295 PCB-content EN Furananalysis (DGA) IEC Gas-in-oil-analysis IEC Please fill in the following data: Manufacturer: Customer: Location: Year of manufacture: Type: Power: Rating: FTNR (Manufacturing No.): WNR (Order No.): Sample No.: Date sample taken.: Type of oil Quantity of oil: Oil temperature in the sample taken: Sample taken from: Oil sample valve Oil drainage device Others A 22/31/40 DIN Tank: Top Middle Bottom conservator Transformer OLTC Bushing OLTC Bushing Others: Reason for sample taking: OLTC tank Date of operation fault: Date of repair : Date of oil treatment/reclaiming Routine checkup: Further informations and previous history: Sample taker: Date Name in block letters Company/ Department Phone Page 11 May 2012 Lab information: Consecutive no.: Date sample received: Date sample analysed: Type of sample container: special features:

12 Extraction of Gases from the Oil Page 12 May 2012

13 DGA. Toepler Pump Page 13 May 2012

14 DGA. Partial Degassing Page 14 May 2012

15 DGA. Headspace at Ambient Temperature Page 15 May 2012

16 DGA. Headspace at 70 C Page 16 May 2012

17 Gaschromatographic Analysis Page 17 May 2012

18 Gaschromatographic Analysis Sample injection Detector Carrier Gas Detector gas Page 18 May 2012

19 Failures which can be identified by DGA! Partial discharges! Electrical discharges! Charcoal coating of contacts! Accelerated cellulosic degradation! Local overheating! Untightness of OLTC tank! Catalytic reactions of materials! Additional information from BHR gas Page 19 May 2012

20 Failures which can not be identified by DGA! Incipient Failures! Long lasting temperatures < 150 C Page 20 May 2012

21 Interpretation Schemes Page 21 May 2012

22 Duvals Triangle Page 22 May 2012

23 Patterns Electrical Discharges Thermal Problem Partial Discharges Page 23 May 2012

24 MSS Scheme Ratio ranges Ratio numbers [C 2 H 2 ] [H 2 ] [C 2 H 4 ] [C 2 H 4 ] [C 2 H 6 ] [CH 4 ] [C 2 H 6 ] [C 3 H 6 ] < to < to < to < ! Diagnosis Number sequences Normal ageing of insultans Discharge of high energy /3 Discharge of low energy /3 Partial discharge with high energy n.i. Partial discharge with low energy n.i. Local overheating up to 300 ºC Local overheating from 300 ºC to 1000 ºC Local overheating over 1000 ºC /3 Local overheating and discharge Local overheating and partial discharge n.i. = not indicative Page 24 May 2012 [CO 2 ] [CO]

25 IEC Scheme Page 25 May 2012

26 In case of quotient information it must be clear, that quotients are only representative, if following values of the fault gases (in ppm) are exceeded: C 2 H 2! 1 H 2! 15 " [CXHY] x=1;2;3! 50 CO! 80 CO 2! 200 Page 26 May 2012

27 DGA Example thermal Problem MSS-Code Fault gas Hydrogen Methane Ethane Ethylene Acetylene Propane Propylene Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 C 2 H 2 C 3 H 8 C 3 H 6 CO CO 2 O 2 N 2 ppm Page 27 May 2012

28 MSS-Code Manufacturing year 1970 Fault gas ppm 360 MVA Carbon deposits on PLTC Contacts Hydrogen 537 Methane Ethane Ethylene Acetylene Propane Propylene Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 C 2 H 2 C 3 H 8 C 3 H 6 CO CO 2 O 2 N Page 28 May 2012

29 Gas-in-Oil Analysis Turn-to-Turn Fa MSS-Code Fault gas Hydrogen Methane Ethane Ethylene Acetylene Propane Propylene Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 C 2 H 2 C 3 H 8 C 3 H 6 CO CO 2 O 2 N 2 ppm Page 29 May 2012

30 DGA Thermal Problem with Partial Discharges MSS-Code Manufacturing year 1991 Fault gas ppm 234 MVA, 330 kv Defective welding joint Hydrogen 1060 Methane Ethane Ethylene Acetylene Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 C 2 H 2 CO CO Page 30 May 2012

31 DGA Catalytical Effects MSS-Code?3??0 Manufacturing year 1977 Fault gas ppm Closed type Color 0,5 / Acidity 0,01 Hydrogen 488 Methane Ethane Ethylene Acetylene Propane Propylene Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 C 2 H 2 C 3 H 8 C 3 H 6 CO CO 2 O 2 N 2 1 < 1 < 1 < 1 < 1 < Page 31 May 2012

32 DGA Untight OLTC MSS-Code Fault gas Hydrogen Methane Ethane Ethylene Acetylene Propane Propylene Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 C 2 H 2 C 3 H 8 C 3 H 6 CO CO 2 O 2 N 2 ppm Page 32 May 2012

33 DGA Diagnostic Importance in Service Ratios Gas increase rates Absolute Values Trend Page 33 May 2012

34 Absolute Values IEC (VDE ) C 2 H 2 H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 4 C 2 H 6 CO CO 2 All transformers 50 " " " " " " No OLTC 2 " 20 Communicating OLTC 60 " 280 Page 34 May 2012

35 Ratios a) Eliminates the effect of the oil volume b) Eliminates some effects of sampling c) Especially interesting is the ratio formation for fault gases which exhibit similar solubilities, but their development is temperature dependent e. g. the thermodynamic considerations of Halstead. Page 35 May 2012

36 Thermodynamcal considerations of Halstead Page 36 May 2012

37 Gas Increase Rates information on seriousness of failure C 2 H 2 H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 4 C 2 H 6 CO CO 2 All transformers 0,01 0,36 0,33 0,40 0,25 2,9 27! 90% gas increase source: Cigre TF11 in ppm/day Gas increase rates are temperature and volume dependent Page 37 May 2012

38 Trend Analysis Development of the Fault Gases After Two Months of On-Line Monitoring ppm CO ppm H 2, CO,CH 4, C2H 4, C 2 H6, top oil ( C) Carbon Dioxide Hydrogen Methane Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene top oil temp C Sampling date Page 38 May 2012

39 Trend Analysis top oil ( C) Ratio C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6, CH 4 /H 2 Top C2H CH top oil ( C) Sampling date Top oil Temperature ( C) Ratio C 2 H 4 /C 2 H 6, CH 4 /H 2 3 C2H4/C2H6 CH4/H ! Trendanalysis is important not only with absolute values, Page 39 May but also with the ratios Sampling date

40 On-Line Monitoring # Early failure recognition # Diagnosis is only possible with the sofisticated types where IEC ratios can be built Cigre TF 15 DGA did a comparison between On-Line monitoring systems and Off-Line analyses. The brochure is on the way. Evaluated are: " Precision " Longterm stability " Repeatability In case of " Routine concentrations, d.h. 5 * Detection Limit " Low Concentrations, d. h. 2-5*Detection Limit Page 40 May 2012

41 Recommendation of Cigre A2.27 for On-LineMonitoring # Necessary in case a problem has been identified # Often, however, difficult to maintain # Interfaces can lead to problems # Able to deliver important information in a short time # Does not automatically lead to higher reliability Page 41 May 2012

42 What can be measured on-line:! Temperature! Current, Voltage! OLTC! Oil level! Gas-in-Öl Analysis! Humidity in oil! Bushings! Acoustic Signals! Magnetic Circuit! Coolers Page 42 May 2012

43 More Data does not mean automatically more Information Data Explosion 1) (Total Exabytes) ) Exa = 1016 = 10 Mil of Billions Page 43 May 2012

44 Transformer Failure Rate $ Failure rate Failure at Comissioning Failure because of aging Constant failure rate Aging / years % Page 44 May 2012

45 Future Developments # Further development of the On-Line analysis with decision criteria # Gas-in-oil analysis in OLTC # Gas-in-oil analysis in alternative insulation fluids and high temperature insulating materials Page 45 May 2012

46 Thank you for your attention!

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