Leadership Styles. Men are marked out from the moment of birth to rule or be ruled. Aristotle

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1 In the beginning... An Introduction LTR August 20, 2010 GREAT MAN Theory Great Men just happened TIME The Development of Leadership Theory Leaders are Born Men are marked out from the moment of birth to rule or be ruled. Aristotle The Great Man Theory The history of the world is but the biography of great men. GREAT MAN Theory Great Men just happened The Development of Leadership Theory TRAIT Theory: Effective leaders have superior qualities Personal characteristics of the leader Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle 1841 n Heroes and Hero Worship TIME

2 Trait Theory Effective leaders have common characteristics which distinguish them from their followers Physical Traits: size, appearance, energy Personality Traits: confidence, dominance Ability Traits:, verbal ability These common traits can be isolated through the study of effective leaders thers can possibly develop these traits and become leaders Recognized Essential Traits Drive (achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative) Leadership Motivation Honesty and Integrity Self-confidence (including emotional stability) Cognitive Ability Knowledge of the Business Kirkpatrick and Locke, Leadership: Do Traits Matter? in The Leader s Companion, p.135. In the beginning... But later, people began to realize... The Leadership Elements Leader The Development of Leadership Theory GREAT MAN Theory Great Men just happened TRAIT Theory: Effective leaders have superior qualities Personal characteristics of the leader BEHAVIRAL Theory Activity of the leader Followers Situation TIME

3 Behavioral Theory Leadership Behavior became the primary focus. Two primary leadership behaviors: Consideration: friendship, mutual trust, warmth, supportiveness, etc. Initiating Structure: directing subordinates, setting goals and policies, planning, clarifying roles, etc. Concern for People Consideration The Managerial Grid HIGH 91,9 CUNTRY CLUB 8 MANAGEMENT LW IMPVERISHED MANAGEMENT 11,1 Blake & Mouton 5,5 MIDDLE-of-the-RAD MANAGEMENT AUTHRITY CMPLIANCE 9, Concern for Production Initiating Structure HIGH Research on the Style Approach Strengths: Major shift away from Trait Theory and on to what leaders actually do! Substantiated in leadership studies Focused on two primary leadership behaviors: Task behaviors (Directive) Relationship behaviors (Supportive) GREAT MAN Theory Great Men just happened TIME The Development of Leadership Theory TRAIT Theory: Effective leaders have superior qualities Personal characteristics of the leader BEHAVIRAL Theory Activity of the leader CNTINGENCY Theory Situational Factors, Styles Contingency Theory Leadership Effectiveness is contingent upon: Followers Situational Factors Contingency Theory Leader Followers Situation 3

4 Situational Leadership Leadership Style is a function of: 1. The Situation 2. The Maturity of Followers The leader can be trained to vary his/her styles What is a Style? Whenever you attempt to influence the actions of someone else in an organizational setting you are engaging in an act of leadership. Your behavior is a means through which you express your leadership intent. Leadership style is the pattern of influence behavior you use with others, over time, as perceived by them. Contingency or Situational Theory: CNTINGENCY SITUATINAL Emphasis Leader Effectiveness Major Proponent of Theory Leaders are NT Flexible: Leaders are Flexible: Leaders are much more They employ flexibility consistent (and consequently less in leader behaviors. flexible) in their behaviors. The Leader is changed, or The Situation is changed: Effectiveness is determined by selecting the right kind of leader for the situation, or changing the situation to fit the leader s style. Leader Match F.E. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, Leader s style changes: Effective leaders correctly base their behavior on follower maturity Leader Development Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, Management of rganizational Behavior, What Style did Jesus Use? Paul s Use of Styles Two Types of Influence Behaviors 19 For though I am free from all men, I have made myself a slave to all, so that I may win more. 20 To the Jews I became as a Jew, so that I might win Jews; to those who are under the Law, as under the Law though not being myself under the Law, so that I might win those who are under the Law; 21 to those who are without law, as without law, though not being without the law of God but under the law of Christ, so that I might win those who are without law. 22 To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak; I have become all things to all men, so that I may by all means save some. 23 I do all things for the sake of the gospel, so that I may become a fellow partaker of it. Directing or shaping followers activities in term of task, goal, or overall vision Directing Structuring Focusing Providing socioemotional support and building relationships with their followers Supporting Collaborating Inspiring 4

5 Task vs. Relationship Task Behavior ne-way communication Spells out follower s role (structuring) Tells followers what to do and how to do it Closely supervises performance Relationship Behavior Two-way communication Provides support and encouragement Facilitates interaction, collaboration Involves followers in decision making Hersey and Blanchard, Situational Leadership, The Leader s Companion, pp Situational Leadership Leader Followers Situation Situational LeadershipII HIGH Supportive Behavior LW Directive Behavior HIGH D2 D1 Developed Developing Development Level Task Knowledge Transferable Skills Confidence Motivation 5

6 Situational LeadershipII HIGH SUPPRTING Variable S3 Supportive Behavior S4 DELEGATING CACHING S2 S1 D2 Some Variable D1 Development Levels D2 D1 Doesn t quite know what is expected LW Directive Behavior HIGH D2 D1 Developed Developing Excited/ Interested in going through the SF Development Levels Leader defines roles and responsibilities Leader tells followers what needs to be done, when it needs to be done, and how it should be done Leader makes the decisions Possible Problems: can seem dictatorial can seem non-compassionate But, Directive interactions do not have to be delivered harshly! CACHING Some D2 May be scared by degree of authenticity required May be resistant D1 Doesn t quite know what is expected Excited/ Interested in going through the SF CACHING Development Levels Leader maintains control over WHAT and HW but is open to suggestions Group member must feel heard Leader focuses on helping follower develop Followers need: more understanding better skills encouragement SUPPRTING /Moderate Variable Willing to enter, but scared or Doesn t like the CACHING Some D2 May be scared by degree of authenticity required May be resistant D1 Doesn t quite know what is expected Excited/ Interested in going through the SF 6

7 SUPPRTING Leader and Follower solve problems together (most opposite from Directing) Leader asks open-ended questions, then LISTENS Leader gives praise, encouragement Important elements: mutual trust, respect leader is authentic, shares about himself/herself provides rationale for change Development Levels DELEGATING SUPPRTING Totally committed to the! /Moderate Variable Willing to enter, but scared or Doesn t like the CACHING Some D2 May be scared by degree of authenticity required May be resistant D1 Doesn t quite know what is expected Excited/ Interested in going through the SF DELEGATING Leader transfers to group member the responsibility and authority for goal and task accomplishment Group member must feel a sense of obligation Leader must establish a way to stay informed Be careful: Cannot just be leader dumping things that he/she does not want to do C A Directing Coaching Delegating Supporting Coaching Delegating Supporting Directing Task Behavior Relationship Behavior Leader Behavior ne-to-ne Context Group Context rganizational Context Directing Structuring Focusing Supporting Collaborating Inspiring ne to ne Context 1. Setting goals/objectives 2. Planning work in advance 3. Defining timelines 4. Specifying priorities 5. Determining methods of evaluation 6. Defining roles and decision making prerogatives 7. Showing and telling how 7

8 ne to ne Context SUPPRTING 1. Listening 2. Praising and encouraging 3. Asking for input 4. Sharing information about Spiritual Formation Program s approach 5. Sharing information about self 6. Facilitating the problem solving of others Group Context STRUCTURING 1. Establishing ground rules for meetings 2. Coordinating various tasks that group members are working on 3. Summarizing group members discussions 4. Attributing meaning to group ideas/events 5. Explaining group purpose 6. Describing values underlying group purpose and ways of functioning 7. Explaining why the group performs the way it does Group Context CLLABRATING 1. Expressing and modeling the feelings present in the group 2. ffering and seeking nonjudgmental feedback in group 3. Building on and sharing ideas during group meetings 4. Expressing and encouraging interpersonal vulnerability when appropriate 5. Encouraging and modeling calculated risk taking 6. Encouraging and helping the group celebrate group success 7. Checking for group consensus rganizational Context FCUSING 1. Defining organizational purpose in relation to a service to DTS students and those they later influence 2. Advocating a clear set of organizational values and consistently acting on them 3. Challenging the status quo by advocating a change for the better 4. Revisiting SF&L/DTS organizational vision to guide day to day decisions 5. Scanning the seminary environment for information to specify future trends 6. Speaking of student growth as a by product of dreaming and risk taking 7. Structuring the organization to increase individual autonomy rganizational Context INSPIRING 1. Using metaphors or analogies to express ideas and emotion 2. Creating organizational ceremonies and rituals that reward tenacity and strength of heart 3. Seeing opportunity where others see trouble by encouraging risk taking and experimentation 4. Advocating diversity by encouraging open opinions and reflective discussion 5. Using innovative approaches to remove barriers for leader/group performance 6. Presenting self as fallible, sharing, and impassioned 7. Judging self by the likelihood of those being led becoming healthier, more autonomous, and more likely to become servant leaders Six Daniel Goleman 8

9 Personal Self- Awareness Self- Management Motivation Definition the ability to recognize and understand your own moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their effect on others the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods the propensity to suspend judgment to think before acting a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence Hallmarks self-confidence realistic self-assessment self-deprecating sense of humor trustworthiness and integrity comfort with ambiguity openness to change strong drive to achieve optimism, even in the face of failure organizational commitment Empathy Social Skill Social Definition the ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people... skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions proficiency in managing relationships and building networks... an ability to find common ground and build rapport Hallmarks expertise in building and retaining talented people cross-cultural sensitivity willingness to serve other people well effectiveness in leading change persuasiveness expertise in building and leading teams CMMANDING AUTHRITATIVE Demands immediate compliance Soothes fears by giving clear direction Mobilizes people toward vision Moves people toward shared dreams verall impact on Negative Daniel climate Goleman, Primal Leadership Do what I tell you. Drive to achieve, initiative, self-control In a crisis, to kick start a turnaround, or with problem employees; in an emergency Come with me. Self-confidence, empathy, change catalyst When changes require a new vision, or when a clear direction is needed verall impact on Most strongly positive Daniel climate Goleman, Primal Leadership verall impact on climate Daniel Goleman, Primal Leadership AFFILIATIVE Creates harmony and builds emotional bonds connecting people to each other People come first. Empathy, building relationships, communication To heal rifts in a team or to motivate people during stressful circumstances Positive verall impact on Positive Daniel climate Goleman, Primal Leadership DEMCRATIC Forges consensus and commitment through participation What do you think. Collaboration, team leadership, communication To build buy-in or consensus, or to get input from valuable employees 9

10 PACESETTING CACHING Sets high standards for performance Meets challenging and exciting goals Develops people for the future Connects personal desires to organizational goals Do as I do, now. verall impact on Negative Daniel climate Goleman, Primal Leadership Conscientiousness, drive to achieve, initiative To get quick results from a highly motivated and competent team Try this. verall impact on Positive climate Daniel Goleman, Primal Leadership Developing others, empathy, self-awareness To help an employee improve performance or develop long-term strengths Impact of Commanding Visionary Affiliative Democratic Pacesetting Coaching Flexibility Responsibility Standards Rewards Clarity verall Impact The End Negative #1 #2 #3 Negative #4 Daniel Goleman, Primal Leadership 10

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