BASS & STOGDILL'S Handbook of Leadership

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1 BASS & STOGDILL'S Handbook of Leadership THEORY, RESEARCH, AND MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS Third Edition by Bernard M. Bass?] Y THE FREE PRESS New York London Toronto Sydney

2 Preface to the Third Edition PARTI Introduction to Concepts and Theories of Leadership 1. Concepts of Leadership 3 The Beginnings The Meaning of Leadership Leadership and Headship An Evolving, Expanding Conceptualization Summary and 2. Typologies and Taxonomies of Leadership 21 Examples of Classifications Commonalities in Taxonomies Summary and 3. An Introduction to Theories and Models of Leadership 37 Personal and Situational Theories Interaction and Social Learning Theories Theories and Models of Interactive Processes Perceptual and Cognitive Theories Hybrid Explanations Methods and Measurements Summary and PART II Personal Attributes of Leaders ^\4. Traits of Leadership: Methods Results Summary and 5. Traits of Leadership: A Followup 78 Improvements in Methods and Measurements Comparison of the Reviews of 1948 and 1970 Factor Analysis of the Traits of Leadership Summary and xi 6. Leadership and Activity Level 89 Energy and Assertiveness Talking and Leading Time and Effort Summary and 7. Task Competence and Leadership 97 The Meaning and Effects of Competence Competence and Leadership Summary and 8. Interpersonal Competence and Leadership 110 Basic Interpersonal Skills Social Insight, Empathy, and Leadership Summary and 9. Authoritarianism, Power Orientation, Machiavellianism, and Leadership 124 The Authoritarian Personality Authoritarianism and Leadership Power, Interpersonal Competence, and Leadership Machiavellianism Summary and 10. Values, Needs, and Well-being of Leaders 140 Values Achievement Motivation and Task Orientation Risk Taking Concepts of the Self Health, Well-being, and Leadership Leaders' Organizational Values, and Orientation Satisfaction with the Leadership Role Summary and 11. Accorded Status, Esteem, and Leadership 166 Meaning of Status and Esteem Status Esteem Summary and Vl2. Charismatic, Charismalike, and Inspirational Leadership 184 The Concept of Charismatic Leadership The Charismatic Relationship The Charismatic Leader in Complex Organizations: A Conceptual Examination Empirical Studies of

3 Charismatic Effects Inspirational Leadership Transformational Leadership: Charisma, Inspiration, and Intellectual Stimulation Summary and PART III Power and Legitimacy 13. Power and Leadership 225 Definitions of Social Power Sources of Power Power and Emergence as a Leader The Bases of Power Comparisons of the Bases of Power Summary and 14. Leadership and the Distribution of Power 252 Importance of Differences in Power Distribution of Power in Communities and Organizations The Power of the Group Power, Leadership, and Structure Industrial Democracy Power Sharing at the Immediate Work-Group Level Summary and 15. Conflict and Legitimacy in the Leadership Role 274 I Sources^of Conflict Incongruities in Status, Esteem, and Ability Within-Role Conflict Resolving Conflict Managing Conflict. Legitimation and Conflict Summary and 16. Authority, Responsibility, and Leadership 305 Authority Responsibility Studies of Organizational Authority, Responsibility, and Delegation Summary and PART IV The Transactional Exchange 17. Leadership as Contingent Reinforcement 319 Leadership as a Social Exchange Reinforcement Leadership and Followership Reinforcement and the Emergence of Leaders The Dynamics of the Exchange Relationship Summary and '. Leader-Follower Interactive Effects 339 Contributions of Leadership to the Transactional Relationship Followers' Impact on Leaders Mutual Influence of Leaders and Followers Summary and 19. Moderators of the Use and Effects of Contingent-Reinforcement Leadership 362 Limits to Contingent Reinforcement Constraints on the Use and Impact of Feedback Constraints on the Performance-Appraisal Interview Implicit Theories of Leadership as Moderators Summary and PART V Leadership and Management 20. The Work of Leaders and Managers 383 What Leaders and Managers Do Methods of Studying What Managers Do Time Spent and Work Done by Managers Mintzberg's Managerial Roles Characteristics of the Managerial Processes Moderators of the Manager's Work, Function, and Roles Effective Managerial Activities and Role Taking Summary and 21. Autocratic and Authoritarian versus Democratic and Egalitarian Leadership 415 The Two Opposing Approaches Authoritarian and Democratic Leadership Effects of Authoritarian and Democratic Leadership Antecedent Conditions That Moderate the Effects Large-scale, Longterm Comparisons of Autocratic and Democratic Systems Interpretive Problems and Issues Summary and 22. Directive versus Participative Leadership 436 The Continuum Antecedents of Direction and Participation General Effects of Directive and Participative Leaders Contingent Effects of Directive and Participative Leadership A Deduced

4 IX Model for Achieving Decision Quality or Subordinate Acceptance Summary and 23. Task- versus Relations-Oriented Leadership 473 Meanings Antecedents Contributing to Task Orientation and Relations Orientation General Consequences of Relations-Oriented and Task-Oriented Leadership Blake and. Mouton's Grid Theory Situational Contingencies Affecting Outcomes The Hersey- Blanchard Situational Leadership Model Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Summary and 24. Consideration, Initiating Structure, and Related Factors for Describing the Behavior of Leaders 511 A Behavioral Approach Psychometric Properties Alternative and Additional Scales Behavioral Descriptions of the Ideal Leaders' Antecedents and Correlates of Consideration and Initiation of Structure General Effects on Productivity, Satisfaction, and Othjr Criteria Contingencies in the Effects of Consideration and Initiation Causal Effects Summary and 25. Laissez-faire Leadership versus Motivation to Manage 544 Relations among Leadership Styles Laissez-faire Leadership Motivation to Lead and to Manage Summary and PART VI Situational Moderators 26. Leadership, Environment, and Organization 563 Leadership Situations Leadership and the External Environment Organizations and Leadership Leadership and Organizational Constraints Leadership and Organizational Culture Summary and 27. Leaders and Their Immediate Groups Importance of the Group The Group's Development Effects of Groups on Their Leaders Impact of the Leader on the Group's Drive and Cohesiveness Impact of the Leader on the Assembly Bonus Effect Summary and 28. Leadership, Task, and Technology The Leader's Competence and the Requirements of Tasks Important Dimensions of Tasks Path-Goal Theory: The Explanation of Task Effects on Leadership Summary and 29. Stress and Leadership The Nature of Stress A Model of Group Responses to Stress Leadership Under' Stress Successful but Not Necessarily Effective Leadership Stress and Effectiveness as a Leader Transformational Leadership and Dealing with Stress Summary and 30. Space, Networks, Leadership, and Its Substitutes Importance of Spatial and Social Arrangements Leadership and Physical Space Leadership and Psychological Space Leadership and Psychosocial Distance Networks Leadership in Experimental Communication Networks Substitutes for Leadership Summary and 31. Persistence, Transfer, and Succession of Leadership Persistence Transfer of Leadership Succession Summary and PART VII Diverse Groups 32. Women and Leadership The Rise in Women Leaders and Managers Constraints on Opportunities for Leadership Male-Female Differences in Leadership Potential Male-Female

5 X Contents V Differences in Leadership Style Success and Effectiveness of Women Leaders Moderating Effects of Subordinates, Task, and Situation Career Advancement of Women Leaders and Managers Summary and 33. Leadership, Blacks, Hispanics, and Other Minorities Blacks and Leadership Performance of Blacks and Whites as Leaders Other Minorities and Leadership Summary and 34. Leadership in Different Countries and Cultures The Importance and Pace of Internationalization Issues of Consequence Origins of Leaders Culture, Country, and Attributes of Leadership Differences in Leadership Across Cultures Styles of Leadership Leadership in the Multinational Firm Summary and Methods of Leadership Training On-thejob Leadership Training and Development Purposes and Content of Leadership Training Programmatic Applications Factors That Affect Training Outcomes Summary and 36. Assessment and Forecasting of Leaders' and 738 Managers' Performance Judgmental Approaches Mechanical Methods Judgments Integrated with Mechanical Methods Assessment Centers Summary and 37. Leadership Issues for the 760 Twenty-first Century Considerations in Looking Ahead Methodological Issues Substantive Issues Summary and Glossary References Author Index Subject Index PART VIII Improving Leadership and Leadership Research 35. Development, Education, and Training for Leadership and Management 807 Development Issues Educational Issues Career Issues Value of Training

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