PACKAGING AND SHELF LIFE: CASE

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1 PACKAGING AND SHELF LIFE: CASE STUDIES AND FOCUS ON BAKERY PRODUCTS FABIO LICCIARDELLO GRUPPO SCIENTIFICO ITALIANO DI CONFEZIONAMENTO ALIMENTARE ITALIAN SCIENTIFIC GROUP OF FOOD PACKAGING

2 GSICA, acronym for Gruppo Scientifico Italiano di Confezionamento Alimentare (Italian Scientific Group of Food Packaging), is a cultural association which collects researchers in the Food Packaging field, motivated by the wish to share their own experience. Mission To encourage the growth and diffusion of a food packaging scientific culture; To skilfully represent the Italian research in international contexts; To allow a fruitful exchange between public and private research; To create aggregation among whoever faces scientific problems in the field of food packaging; To contribute to the progress of knowledge in this specific area of applied research. The press medium of the association is Food Packages ( Food Packages is the first Italian magazine dealing exclusively with the science, technologies and design of food packaging.

3 Shelf Life Modeling and Prediction New Technologies for Shelf Life Extension Shelf Life Testing

4

5 Food Packaging functions Logistics Container Silent seller Transfer info Food Packaging FUNCTIONAL Sustainability Ease of use convenience Shelf life extension

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7 The period of time from the production and packaging of product to the point at which the product first becomes unacceptable under defined environmental conditions. FOOD PACKAGING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DONG SUN LEE, KIT L. YAM, LUCIANO PIERGIOVANNI CRC PRESS

8 Modes of deterioration: Bacterial/mold growth Hydrolytic/oxydative rancidity Moisture loss Color and flavor loss Nutrient loss Texture changes (loss of crispiness, softening ) Staling Quality indexes and critical limits Measurable - Subjective vs objective indexes Reproducible Relevant - representative of the deterioration mode or consumer acceptability

9 Tool for assessing the performances of packaging systems and for packaging optimization Selection of materials, reduction of materials use etc. Role of packaging and shelf life extension on the sustainability of productions Shelf life extension (+1 day) would save 2.2bn by reducing food waste

10 The shelf life of packaged bread is a mixed case, since some of the detrimental events are driven by environmental factors, some others depend on the product formulation and processing conditions

11 Role of packaging in food chain sustainability Packages are often not optimized for the specific product OVERPACKAGING Progress in materials science continuously offers new solutions with lower thickness but higher performances in terms of barrier and mechanical properties.

12 Role of packaging in food chain sustainability The difficulty for small and medium food industries to carry out reliable shelf life studies results in a prudential evaluation of the best-before end.

13 Case study The optimisation of packaging for industrial bread

14 Bread quality is affected by flour nature (soft vs durum wheat) milling techniques Bread-making process yeast type, water content of dough and the use of enzymes and other additives

15 Durum wheat Inferior bread-making performances in terms of loaf volume and crumb grain characteristics Slow staling and longer shelf life, due to the high waterbinding capacity of durum wheat flour

16 The effects of changes in the packaging can be evaluated through shelf life studies Staling Microbial spoilage: Penicillium spp.

17 How to slow down staling? Enzymes Emulsifiers Fatty acids Flours with higher water-binding capacity

18 Shelf life study of bread Headspace gas composition Monitoring for mold contamination Texture analysis Color of crumb Alcaline water retention capacity Moisture of crumb and crust

19 Is it possible to adopt materials with lower thickness, which would guarantee the shelf life standards?

20 30% CO2 70% N2 Sprayed Ethanol Two-piece package Thermoformed bottom Soldered lid

21 Bottom film with reduced thickness

22 % CO2 CO 2 (%) variation in the packages during storage 35 B1 B2 B3 Pack1 Pack2 Pack tempo (giorni) Pack1= film 275 micron Pack2= film 225 micron Pack3= film 230 micron

23 Microbiological monitoring % mold incidence % yeast incidence Pack1 0 5 Pack2 2 5 Pack Mold incidence was within the normal ranges for pack 1 and 2, always correlated with defects in the seal or material abrasion

24 Pack1= film 275 micron Pack2= film 225 micron Pack3= film 230 micron r= red g= green b= blue

25 Pack1= film 275 micron Pack2= film 225 micron Pack3= film 230 micron h= hue s= saturation v= lightness

26 N Max compression strength A1=B1 1 B2 2 3 B Time (days) Pack1= film 275 micron Pack2= film 225 micron Pack3= film 230 micron

27 S*F1*A2/A1 (N) Chewiness A1=B1 1 B22 B Time (days) Pack1= film 275 micron Pack2= film 225 micron Pack3= film 230 micron

28 AWRC Pack1= film 275 micron B1 Pack2= film 225 micron Pack3= film 230 micron

29 Lid film with reduced thickness

30 CO2 % - Lid with reduced thickness GAS COMPOSITION Control control 125 micron Test Control control 125 micron Test test 33 micron time (months)

31 Strength (N) - Lid with reduced thickness Texture analysis controllo Control 125 Test micron test 33 micron controllo Control 125 Test micron test 33 micron time (months)

32 Effectiveness of comparative shelf life test for the selection and optimisation of packaging materials. The adoption of an alternative bottom film with lower thickness allows a reduction of 12% of plastic material. Changing both bottom and lid with lower-thickness films, it is possible to save up to 17,5% plastic material, with important economic and environmental advantages

33 Conventional system: Bottom film: 275 micron; 1.07 /m 2 Lid film: 125 micron; 0.63 /m 2 Tot /m 2 Alternative system: Bottom film: 225 micron; 0.97 /m 2 Lid film: 33 micron; 0.40 /m 2 Tot /m 2 Saving of 19%

34 Stock reduction with alternative lid: About -4 pallet/month Saving on Environmental Contribution (CONAI, National Packaging Consortium) (110 /ton) About 172/month

35 Tool for assessing the performances of packaging systems and for packaging optimization Selection of materials, reduction of materials use etc. Role of packaging and shelf life extension on the sustainability of productions Shelf life extension (+1 day) would save 2.2bn by reducing food waste

36 by 2050: Global population reach 9 billion Demand for food growth by 77% Over the same period food production will be under threat from climate change, competing land uses, erosion and diminishing supplies of clean water.

37 Food wastes generated in households range between 10 and 20% Switzerland 20-25% Austria 6-12% United Kingdom 18.4% Bakery 31-32% Meat and fish % Sweeden % (meat) Denmark 10-20% USA Finland 4.5% Meat 12.8% Grain 16.1% Silvenius et al., 2014 Packang Technology and Science, 27,

38 Role of packaging on food chain sustainability Packaging-related food waste is due to Packaging sizes Difficulty to empty the package Best before date Packaging solutions that minimize the generation of wastes at household and/or distribution and retail level, lead to the lowest environmental impact of the entire product-packaging chain Silvenius et al., 2014 Packaging Technology and Science, 27,

39 Role of packaging on food chain sustainability The significance of packaging production and postconsumer life on environmental impact is low and represents 1-10% of the total environmental impact generated by the food chains. * Packaging and products are strongly interlinked, since the basic function of packaging is to protect and distrubute its content. Nevertheless, studies on the environmental impact of packaging are often made on the packaging alone, not considering the product and the role of packaging. Silvenius et al. (2014) Packaging Technology and Science, 27,

40 PRIN (Research Project of National Interest) Long Life, High Sustainability To combine the shelf life extension due to a formulation, processing or packaging innovation, with the possible increase of global sustainability of a food product from farm to fork. 9 Italian Universities

41 The role of packaging innovation in the reduction of food loss and waste It can be environmentally reasonable to increase the impact of packaging, when new packaging design helps to reduce food losses. However, the waste handling systems of food and packaging are important to consider if packaging are developed in order to reduce the environmental impact of the food-packaging system.

42 The role of packaging innovation in the reduction of food loss and waste The Global Warming Potential (carbon footprint) of many food products (F GWP ) is 20, 100 and 200 fold higher than the GWP of the corresponding Packaging (P GWP ) F. Wikstrom, H. Williams (2010) Packaging Technology and Science, 23,

43 The role of packaging innovation in the reduction of food loss and waste E.g. Single-serve packages Increase the packaging material use (energy, resources, waste disposal ) Reduce waste by meeting the needs of single and two person households

44 The role of packaging innovation in the reduction of food loss and waste Packaging Functions

45 The concept of active packaging founds itself on an advanced meaning of the function of protection. New types of materials and articles designed to actively maintain or improve the condition of the food (active food contact materials and articles) are not inert by their design, unlike traditional materials and articles intended to come into contact with food.

46 Experimental data indicate that Ag/TiO 2 -P considerably extends the shelf life and microbiological safety of bread.

47 CONCLUSION Reduction of packaging volumes Ready-to-spend findings Lower incidence of the package cost and lower environmental contribution Higher profit for the producer and/or reduction of retail price Reduction of packaging stocks Advantage in terms of production sustainability

48 CONCLUSION Reduction of packaging volumes Long-term effects Factor of competitiveness

49 CONCLUSION Strong bond between food producer and packaging Tendency to overpackaging by small and medium producers. Prudential approach to shelf life determination Innovations in packaging could represent a tool for reducing the Environmental Impact of food productions, through the reduction of food loss and waste

50

51 COMING SOON SLIM 2015 Villa Medici Giulini, Briosco (Milan) October 21-23, 2015 Nanomaterials and new technologies, packaging post-consumer life, biotechnologies for SL extension, shelf life testing and modeling, sustainability of food productions Thanks for your kind attention

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