Yeast bread outline. Yeast. Functions of other yeast bread ingredients Yeast bread cookery Spoilage of baked goods. Compressed Dry active

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1 Yeast breads

2 Food Guide Pyramid

3 Yeast bread outline Yeast Compressed Dry active Functions of other yeast bread ingredients Yeast bread cookery Spoilage of baked goods Microbial Staling Prevention and unstaling

4 Yeast A one celled microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae Compressed Moist, living cells Very perishable Dry active Dried to a granular form Very shelf stable

5 Compressed and dry active Dry active Compressed Images courtesy of

6 Basic yeast reactions Yeast + sugar CO 2 + alcohol

7 Yeast function depends on Food Needs a minimum of 1% sugar Home -- add sugar to yeast during initial hydration Commercial -- alpha-amylase added to bread flour. This releases D-glucose from starch to feed the yeast. Note: Too much sugar will dehydrate the yeast, causing it to stop working

8 Yeast function depends on Water Needed to hydrate yeast and start the fermentation Proper temperature Ideal fermentation temperature is o F If temperature is a little too high (~100 o F), you will get a sour dough, i.e., the bread rises too fast and too much carbon dioxide and alcohol are produced Temps > o F kill the yeast

9 Yeast wake-up temperature This is different than the fermentation temperature and applies only to active dry yeast You need to wake-up this type of yeast by hydration with warm water This should be done at o F

10 Yeast bread ingredient functions Flour Bread flour is high in protein because you want lots of gluten development Can also use all purpose or whole wheat flour (partially) Whole wheat may limit loaf volume by puncturing gas sacs in dough

11 Yeast bread ingredient functions Liquid Water may be used, but more commonly milk is the liquid in breads Note: Milk contains a protein that makes the dough very sticky and hard to work. This normally will limit loaf volume. To avoid this problem, scald the milk to denature the protein But remember to cool the milk before combining with the yeast or it will be killed

12 Specific functions of milk in breads Hydration of protein and starches Dissolves sugars and salts Higher L-lysine content tends to offset the low L-lysine content of wheat flour Improves texture and loaf volume and delays staling Provides good crust browning

13 Yeast bread ingredient functions Salt Flavor Also, and more importantly in this application, salt moderates (slows) the action of yeast and allows the yeast to produce carbon dioxide at a more desirable rate This produces a fine textured bread with small to medium air cell sizes

14 Yeast bread ingredient functions Sugar Yeast food Flavor Tenderizer Maillard browning Fat Tenderizer Increases loaf volume

15 Yeast bread ingredient functions Enzymes Fungal alpha-amylase is added to produce D-glucose from wheat starch to feed the yeast during fermentation These heat-stable amylases also have a role in delaying bread staling Lightning Quiz

16 Ingredient combining techniques Straight dough method Mix all ingredients together, let rise Sponge method Mix ingredients, reserving part of the flour Let rise to form a sponge Then add the rest of the flour These two methods produce breads with somewhat different flavors and textures

17 Mixing techniques Kneading is done to develop gluten Can be done by Hand Mixer (Kitchen-Aid, Hobart)

18 Hand kneading Kneading Image courtesy of working.html

19 Heavy duty mixer Image courtesy of KitchenAid.com/specs/SpecsCountertop. cgi?model=ksm50

20 Fermentation or proofing Let double in volume Ideal proofing temperature is o F Images courtesy of

21 Fermentation or proofing Punch down Disadvantages Some loss of carbon dioxide Advantages Introduces oxygen needed for the next rise Makes shaping the loaf easier Redistributes carbon dioxide for the final rise

22 Punching down Image courtesy of

23 Scale and shape Scaling is the process of dividing the dough into loaf size pieces Shape dough Image courtesy of

24 Fermentation or proofing Proof again to double in volume Bake

25 Bread baking The loaf rises more during baking This increase in volume is called oven spring Oven spring is due to An increase in the volume of trapped carbon dioxide during baking Before the yeast dies it produces carbon dioxide very rapidly up to about o F

26 Oven spring Raw dough o F Baked bread This increase in volume is known as oven spring.

27 Bread baking General rule The larger the loaf, the lower the baking temperature Loaf o F Roll o F The reasoning here is the same as for the loaf cake/cupcake case and involves balancing the baked good cooking all the way through and yet being nicely browned on the surface

28 Bread spoilage Mold A low moisture type of growth Commercially, mold inhibitors are added, i.e., calcium propionate Rope Caused by a fungus Observed as a yellow, sticky substance running through the loaf Inhibitors will prevent this

29 Bread spoilage Staling A huge economic problem for the baking industry In spite of intense study of this problem for many, many years, we still don t fully understand the processes leading to the changes observed as staling, or how to stop them

30 Staling characteristics Staling is not just loss of water! Some minor changes occur in the gluten fraction of bread There is a redistribution of water from the crumb to the crust Starch retrogradation occurs Bread firming is due primarily to retrogradation of amylopectin, not amylose

31 Staling retardants Monoglycerides Fat Milk Eggs Sugar Note that these are rich ingredients

32 Storage to prevent staling Best long term - freeze Short term - room temperature is OK (however, mold growth may be more of a problem for longer term storage at room temperature) Don t store at refrigerator temperatures! Lightning Quiz

33 Storage to prevent staling refrigerator Staling rate freezer room temperature Temperature

34 Unstaling of stale bread Warm (toast) the bread (60-70 o C), serve warm, and use immediately This unstaling reflects the reversibility of amylopectin retrogradation The retrogradation of amylose is completed by the time the loaf has cooled to room temperature and is not reversible Thus, amylose could not be involved in the temporary unstaling of bread by heating

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