1 President Ronald Reagan: The End of the Cold War, Communism in China, & The Iran-Contra Affair
2 There are many pictures and diagrams in this presentation. Yet, you have a set of notes as depicted to the right. Whenever a slide comes up with the title that matches your note taking guide, that is when you copy down the notes. On the presentation, the sentence will be underlined. This is blank on your note sheet. Simply fill in the blanks with the matching lines.
3 E. America Enters World War II (1945-Present) g. Analyze the origins of the Cold War, foreign policy developments, and major events of the administrations from Truman to present
4 2.Changes at Home a. Analyze major domestic issues and responses of the administrations from Truman to present e. Identify the major contemporary social, environmental, and political issues (e.g., immigration, global warming, terrorism), the groups involved, and the controversies engendered by those issues f. Assess increasing global interdependence, the potential for conflict, and the U.S. role in world events in the present and future
5 Reagan, Economics, and Defense Funding -Reagan cut funding to many social programs that provided economic assistance to the middle class and poor. He believed cutting taxes, especially on the rich, would help the economy to become stronger. -Yet, the Cold War was still a focus for the USA. Reagan pumped huge amounts of money into defense spending to ensure the USA remained more powerful than the Soviet Union of Russia, in terms of military might. -He ordered the building of the Strategic Defense Initiative. He claimed it could stop nuclear missiles from hitting the USA, even suggesting it would use lasers to do so. It was nicknamed Star Wars. Democrats argued it was too expensive, unrealistic, and would simply increase hostility with the USSR.
6 COLD WAR RECAP During WW II, the Democracies of the world had originally teamed up with the Communist USSR to defeat Nazi Germany.
7 When World War II was finished, the USA, Britain, and France grew concerned. They wanted the nations of the world to accept Democracy. Yet, it was clear that Stalin wanted Eastern Europe to be dominated by Communism.
8 After World War II, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria became Satellite Nations that were controlled by the USSR.
9 A major concern during the Cold War was that both the USA and the USSR had nuclear weapons. Therefore, if direct fighting between the two nations did break out, the consequences would be devastating for the entire world.
10 Back in the 1940s, President Truman s goal of Containment was simply to keep Communism from spreading any further into the world. This policy failed.
11 Communism expanded to China, North Korea, Cuba, and Vietnam from the 1940s to the 1960s. Vietnam
12 In the 1960s, the Communist dictator of the USSR, Nikita Khrushchev, supported the Communist takeover of Cuba and wanted to put nuclear missiles on the island. This way, the USSR would have close missiles to attack the USA, if nuclear war broke out. President John F. Kennedy found this action unacceptable. He demanded that the USSR not put any nuclear weapons in Cuba. In the end, the USA agreed to allow Cuba to remain Communist and the USSR agreed to not place missiles on the island. The incident was called the Cuban Missile Crisis.
13 After World War II, the Democracies of the world, including the USA, were concerned about Communism spreading in Asia. Eventually, China fell to Communism as did North Korea. Then, Communism spread down to Vietnam. The USA got involved to try and keep South Vietnam from falling to Communism. The war became very unpopular in the USA as it lasted from the 1950s to the 1970s. President Lyndon Johnson and President Richard Nixon had to deal with various military campaigns in Vietnam. The USA s involvement ended while Ford was President. South Vietnam fell to Communism.
14 By 1980, the Soviet Union (USSR) was still a nation and Communist struggles were occurring in various parts of the world. Reagan argued he had to heavily fund defense spending to remain more powerful than the Communist USSR.
15 Many Democrats critiqued Reagan because he cut social programs that gave aid to citizens but used vast amounts of money to increase defense spending, which many argued made the tension between the USSR and the USA escalate. Likewise, they asserted the so called Star Wars endeavor wouldn t even work and was unrealistic.
16 The Rise of Mikhail Gorbachev in the USSR -Since World War II ended, the USA had tension with various leaders of the Soviet Union. Joseph Stalin was a ruthless dictator who killed and persecuted many people. Under his leadership, the USSR built nuclear weapons and entered into an arms race with the USA. -Nikita Khrushchev, the General Secretary of the Communist Party after Stalin, experienced less tension with the USA. Yet, during his time in office, the USA and the USSR experienced the Cuban Missile Crisis and came close to all out nuclear war. -Mikhail Gorbachev was different. As General Secretary of the Communist Party, he stressed that the USSR needed to pursue changes, such as allowing the freedom of speech and press, letting free enterprise be established, and taking steps to establish a Democracy in the USSR. His goal in pursuing these plans was called glasnost, which meant transparency.
17 Since after WW II, when Joseph Stalin dominated Easter Europe with Communism, the USA and the USSR had a tense relationship. Nikita Khrushchev reduced those tensions as he ruled the USSR in the 1960s. Yet, Khrushchev also experienced the Cuban Missile Crisis against JKF, which hurt the relationship of the two nations. In the 1980s, many viewed Mikhail Gorbachev as the first leader of the USSR that could radically reduce tension with the USA and work with America to pursue peace.
18 Reagan s Direct Opinion of the USSR -President Ronald Reagan was extremely clear that he felt the USSR, in the 1980s, was a threat to the world. -In a speech given in 1983, to the National Association of Evangelicals, Reagan said of the USSR, They preach the supremacy of the state, declare its omnipotence over individual man and predict its eventual domination of all peoples on the Earth I urge you to beware the temptation to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire -Many were concerned that Reagan was increasing the tension of the Cold War. Others felt Reagan was aggressively trying to bring about the fall of the USSR. Despite his bold opinion of the USSR, Reagan felt Gorbachev could be an agent of change for the Soviet Union.
19 The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty -Reagan s massive commitment to defense spending was damaging the USSR s economy as they tried to keep up. Gorbachev wanted to reduce military tension so the USSR could stop trying to keep up with defense spending. -This led to Reagan and Gorbachev to sign the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty). -This banned nuclear and conventional groundlaunched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges, defined as between (300-3,400 miles). It also allowed inspection of nuclear capabilities between the USA and the USSR.
20 Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) in 1987.
21 The Tearing Down of the Berlin Wall -The increased cooperation between the USA and the Soviet Union led to discussions about past actions of the USSR. -In Eastern Germany, the Western Portion of the city of Berlin was a Democracy. Yet, the Eastern portion of the city was Communist. The USSR literally built a wall around the Western portion, cutting it off from Eastern Europe. -Families were literally broken up and many in the East tried to get across the wall to escape the Communism of East Germany. In 1987, Ronald Reagan gave a famous speech demanding that the wall be torn down. Eventually, the pro- Soviet military presence evacuated the area. In 1989, the wall was torn down by citizens of West and East Germany.
22 Even though Berlin was in the Eastern Communist area, half the city remained in control of West Germany and was a Democracy. This agreement was reached after WW II.
23 The Berlin Airlift was an attempt to help the Western Half of Berlin stay Democratic. The USA would do fly overs and drop off supplies to help the area remain a Democracy.
24 Khrushchev built a literal wall around the Western Half of Berlin. Communist Eastern Europeans were forbidden from coming into the Western Half of the City.
25 Eastern Germans building the Berlin Wall
26 By the 1980s, the Berlin Wall had multiple sections and guards watching from towers. If anyone tried to cross it, they could be shot and killed.
27 We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall! -Ronald Reagan, 1987 In 1987, Ronald Reagan demanded the Berlin Wall be torn down. The wall was eventually torn down in 1989.
30 The Breaking Apart of the USSR -Gorbachev s desire to implement some forms of Democracy, the desire to reduce military funding in the USSR to cease trying to keep up with Reagan s defense spending, and the decline of the USSR s economy led to the Soviet Union breaking apart. -The Soviet Union consisted of Russia and the Russian control of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. -Yet, by 1991, these nations had broken away from the core nation, Russia. Russia became a Democracy and the other areas were allowed to form their own national governments. This was the end of the Soviet Union alliance.
31 . From the 1950s to 1991, Russia controlled various areas in the world. This alliance of various areas with Russia formed the Soviet Union.
33 After 1991, Russia became an independent nation and gave up control of the former Soviet Union areas. These areas became individual nations.
34 Communism Remains in China -China also reduced its Communist practices somewhat in the 1980s. For instance, China allowed more freedom and put less control on businesses. -Yet, many Chinese citizens wanted more extreme reforms. In 1989, in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, college students led marches against the government. -China s leader, Li Peng, ordered the military to end the protests. The nations of the world watched on CNN as the military attacked the students. After the event, it was clear China was going to remain Communist, despite their small changes.
35 Tiananmen Square Protests Against Communism in 1989.
36 The Students of the Tiananmen Square Protests made a Statue of Liberty to symbolize their demand for Freedom. Li Peng, pictured above, the Premier of China, sent in the military to force the protests to cease.
37 A lone protestor stood in front of a line of tanks, when Li Peng sent in the military. His identity is unknown as is his fate after this incident. Yet, this picture became an iconic image that showed the brutality of the military invasion.
38 The Iran-Contra Affair
39 The Iran-Contra Affair -Iranian terrorists took American hostages in the country of Lebanon in The nation of Iran wanted weapons as a ransom to help with their war in Iraq. In a controversial move, Reagan sold weapons to Iran in agreement for the hostages to be let go. -The USA used the funds from Iran to help fund the Contras of Nicaragua, who were fighting against Communist like takeovers from occurring in Nicaragua. The Boland Amendment said America could not fund revolutionary groups in Central America. The Contras used brutal tactics and many American government leaders did not support them. -In 1992, President Bush had to pardon several members of Reagan s staff for illegally selling weapons and giving the money to guerilla fighters in Central America.
40 THE END
41 Copyright, USHistoryTeachers.com All Rights Reserved.
The End of the Cold War The decline of Communism was not a result of American policies and the Cold War, but more to do with the problems faced by the USSR at home and abroad.. Throughout the 1980s, the
The Cold War (1945 1991) Allies Become Enemies The United States The USSR (Soviet Union) Democracy Type of Government Communism Capitalism Type of Economy Communism Review: Before WWII, how did Americans
Name: Cold War Mr. Baffuto/Mr. LaMar DO NOW Questions 1. Korea Divided at 38th Parallel Hungarian Revolution Crushed Missile Sites Spotted in Cuba The events in these headlines contributed to the 1) development
Confrontation of the Superpowers After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became fierce rivals. Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.) In 1949, the United States and its European allies
Focus Questions: How did Kennedy respond to the continuing challenges of the Cold War? Kennedy Defeats Nixon in 1960 For eight years under President Eisenhower, the nation had generally enjoyed peace and
Guided Reading Activity The Cold War Lesson 1 The Cold War Begins Review Questions DIRECTIONS: Read each main idea and answer the questions below. Refer to your textbook to write the answers. A. Main Idea:
Post-WWII/Cold War Test ANSWER KEY!!! Directions: Read each question carefully and choose the best answer for each. Mark your choice on the bubble sheet. 1. Which is the best description of the Marshall
Name Date DBQ 13: Start of the Cold War (Adapted from Document-Based Assessment for Global History, Walch Education) Historical Context: Between 1945 and 1950, the wartime alliance between the United States
Year 9 History Spring 1: The Cold War 1962-1989 Name: Teacher: Home Learning Task One: Read through the information on the Cuban Missile Crisis and then answer the essay question. The Cuban Missile Crisis,
CLASS SET: DO NOT WRITE ON WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON A SEPARATE WORKSHEET. The Beginnings of the Cold War Background: When the US was attacked in December, 1941 the Soviet Union and the Allied powers formed
President Nixon and the Vietnam War E. America Enters World War II (1945-Present) h. Describe and evaluate the political and social impact of the Vietnam War 2.Changes at Home c. Identify the events and
Hot War Ends- Cold War Begins 1945-1990 2011 Houston Independent School District The Cold War In 1945, one major war ended and another began The Cold War lasted about 45 years. The United States became
Outline Map Cold War World Directions: Locate and label the Soviet Union, United States, Great Britain, Cuba, Turkey, Canada, South Korea, Iran, France, and Australia. Label the countries that were allies
President Johnson and The Vietnam War E. America Enters World War II (1945-Present) g. Analyze the origins of the Cold War, foreign policy developments, and major events of the administrations from Truman
SECTION 1 226KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR Focus Question: How did Kennedy respond to the continuing challenges of the Cold War? As you read, list the Cold War crises Kennedy faced and the effects of each event.
Name: Cold War Unit Test 1. During the Cold War, the two Superpowers were: A. China and Japan B. Soviet Union and United States C. Korea and Vietnam D. Britain and Germany 2. Following World War II, the
UPDATED GCSE Guidance and Support for Teachers History Unit 2 F & H Tier Papers For first teaching from September 2015 Contents Page Guidance for Teaching Unit 2: The Cold War 1945-1991 3 Cold War Timeline
The Berlin Wall THE BERLIN WALL PRE-READING QUESTIONS 1. Look at a world map and find Berlin, Germany. Do you know what happened to Berlin after World War II? 2. Do you know who controlled Berlin right
Unit 6. The Cold War (1945-1991) Learning Target 23 Summarize how atomic weapons have changed the nature of war, altered the balance of power and started the nuclear age. Following World War II, the United
Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) Ended WWII by dropping atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. His policy of containment was the strategy of the US throughout the Cold War. Aid: The Truman Doctrine committed
1. 2 Which statement best describes most Eastern European countries immediately after World War II? 1. They adopted democratic reforms in their political 3. They became dependent on aid provided by the
Name Class Date Section 1 MAIN IDEA President Kennedy continued the Cold War policy of resisting the spread of communism by offering help to other nations and threatening to use force if necessary. Key
20 th Century International Relations Contents 1 Imperialism and the Alliance System part 1 7 slides, 2 Flash activities, 2 worksheets What are alliances? Why were alliances formed? What different national
Chapter 6 Essay Notes Post-War Mr. R. Smith Canada not war-like nation, yet over 1 million men and women had joined the Canadian military Canada s s WWII role was magnificent, well out of proportion to
Chapter 21 Section 2 The Early Cold War Years Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Chapter Objectives Section 2: The Early Cold War Years Describe the American view of the Soviet Union
Europe and North America Section 2 Main Idea Content Statement: Superpower Rivalries As the Cold War continued, the world s two superpowers the Soviet Union and the United States competed for power and
Ford, Carter, & Reagan Administrations SWBAT Explain Ford & Carter s domestic and foreign policies Do Now: How was a shadow cast on Nixon s presidency? How did Ford become President? While Watergate was
Reagan-Herby Round 2 Reagan s 2 nd Term Foreign Policy Détente: Cold War begins to thaw Mikhail Gorbachev Reagan and Gorbachev Agree to a Summit Geneva, Switzerland (1985) Reykjavik, Iceland (1986) Mr.
Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. World History Turmoil between the World Wars Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 1. Referring to the maps above, which of the following statements best describes the result
Nine Weeks:4 th Nine Weeks Historical Thinking and Skills THE COLD WAR (1945-1991) GLOBALIZATION (1991-PRESENT) History Geography Wayne Local Schools World History Economics and Financial Literacy TOPIC:
Post World War II Communism and the Cold War Post World War II What is the COLD WAR? Longest Era of American History: 1946-1990 Clash of ideology that never led to a direct war between the United States
WHII.13a-b VS. A War of Words fought with words and ideas rather than bloodshed and deadly weapons After WWII TWO new superpowers arise the United States and the USSR Beginning of the Cold War 1945-1948
The Cold War Unfolds Chapter 15 Section 1 Superpowers After WWII, the USA and the USSR emerged as superpowers nations stronger than other powerful nations Each created a military alliance made up of nations
Chapter 21 Section 1 Origins of the Cold War Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. Chapter Objectives Section 1: Origins of the Cold
St. Michael-Albertville High School Teacher: Derek Johnson World History II (Master) September 2014 CEQ: Enlightenment 1. Outline how new ideas Enlightenmet 1. Create a chart listing Enlightenment affected
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS HOW FAR IS CUBA FROM THE COAST OF FLORIDA? 90 MILES AFTER THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR, WHAT COUNTRY S CORPORATIONS CONTROLLED MUCH OF THE COMMERCE OF CUBA? THE UNITED STATES BACKGROUND
America Today- Reagan, Bush, Clinton Quiz 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. President Reagan 1. Conservatives criticized the New Deal and
1 2 3 4 5 6 The Reagan Revolution and a Changing World 1981 1992 Reagan s Domestic Revolution What was revolutionary about Ronald Reagan s presidency? The Climax of the Cold War How and why did the Cold
Y11 GCSE History Revision Must-know facts http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00wfsk2 PAPER 1 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR TWO 10 MUST KNOW FACTS 1. Hitler s aims included rearming Germany, recovering its lost lands,
GLENWOOD HIGH SCHOOL HISTORY DEPARTMENT TERM 2-2014 GRADE 9 WEEK START CONTENT MARKS COMPLETE 1 & 2 07/04/14 Increasing tension between the Allies after WW II: USSR (communism) vs USA (capitalism) 18/04/14
World The History: Americans Patterns of Interaction Grade 11 McDougal Grade 10 Littell McDougal Littell NAME Unit 8 Chapter Test Main Ideas 1) What unexpected turn of events occurred in postwar Vietnam
Containment Topic: Containment (The Cold, Korean, and Vietnam War) (middle/high school US history) by Lodge Containment A Cold War story The 20th century US and Western Europe face off against the Soviet
Rebuilding Europe and Japan after WWII Following World War II, much of Europe and Japan were in ruins. Fifty million people had lost their lives, millions were homeless, and seventy percent of the transportation
World History II Cold War Presentation For this assignment you will be assigned five Cold War events. Your presentation must include the following information for each event: 1. Describe the event 2. Explain
Assignment Discovery Online Curriculum Lesson title: The Role of NATO Grade level: 9-12, with adaptation for younger students Subject area: United States History, World History Duration: Two class periods
The President as Commander in Chief The Constitution gives the power of declaring war solely to Congress, while the president serves as commander in chief of the U.S. military. What does commander in chief
SECTION 1 THE COLD WAR BEGINS Focus Question: How did U.S. leaders respond to the threat of Soviet expansion in Europe? A. As you read, contrast the conflicting goals of the United States and the Soviet
Reading Essentials and Study Guide The Cold War Lesson 3 Cold War Conflicts ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does conflict influence political relationships? Reading HELPDESK Content Vocabulary proxy war a war in
General Certificate of Secondary Education June 2014 History (Specification B) 90451 Unit 1: International Relations: Conflict and Peace in the 20th Century Friday 16 May 2014 9.00 am to 10.45 am For this
Unit Title/Theme Number of Weeks Major Topics/Concepts Standards Indicators In addition to the specific standards and indicators listed for each unit, the Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First
Knowledge Article: World Geography The Berlin Airlift Competing Influences Although allies during World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union had different visions of how the world should be shaped following
THE COLD WAR, 1945-1991 Cold War: The state of ongoing diplomatic tension and high level of military preparedness and mobilization that persisted for decades after 1945 despite the lack of actual military
Lesson Plan # 1 Intro to the Cold War Introduction: This lesson will introduce the Cold War and the underlying struggle between the American West and the Soviet East. The essential question is: Who were
Origins of the Cold War Yalta February, 1945 A. The Big Three met -- Franklin Roosevelt Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Elections in Poland became the big issue The U.S. wants the Poles to be able to choose
Activity trail teachers notes Key stage 3 & 4 Cold War Trail The information in italics does not appear on the students print out. 1. Germany divided: East and West Make your way to the back of the exhibition
A Second World War Strayer: Ways of the World Chapter 21 World War II was even more global than World War I independent origins in Asia and Europe dissatisfied states in both continents wanted to rearrange
Aftermath of World War II Term/Person/Event Definition Processing World Bank Created by US and 43 other nations to provide development and reconstruction loans Why is this an important term to remember
President Richard Nixon: New Federalism and Realpolitik E. America Enters World War II (1945- Present) h. Describe and evaluate the political and social impact of the Vietnam War 2.Changes at Home c. Identify
Chapter 2: The Historical Evolution of International Politics MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The feudal system in Europe was different from the Roman Empire because a. there were many political authorities under feudalism
WORLD HISTORY FINAL EXAM REVIEW PACKET Directions: This review is a homework assignment that I will collect on the day of the final exam in June. DO NOT LOSE THIS KEEP IT IN THE LEFT POCKET OF YOUR TWO-POCKET
COLD WAR Vietnam War France had controlled Vietnam since the 1860 s. It was known as French Indochina and included Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. During WWII, nationalism spread throughout Asia, however,
The Cold War and the American Dream.. Key question: How did the U.S. economy and political climate change after WWII? WHAT is the COLD WAR? The Cold War was a period of mistrust and bad feeling between
Name: Class: _ Date: _ Chapter 26 Worksheet - Dr. Larson - Summer School Matching IDENTIFYING KEY TERMS, PEOPLE, AND PLACES Match each item with the correct statement below. You will not use all the items.
OBJECTIVES: Identify and explain how the United States and the USSR differed in their post-war goals. Explain what helped achieve American goals in postwar Europe. Explain Communist advances on American
CHAPTER 33 - THE WEST SINCE WORLD WAR II CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter surveys the decades since the end of World War II, years which have witnessed extraordinary changes both in Europe and the world it
A10: Superpower Relations 1945-1962: Exam Questions The following exam questions are taken from the 2011 and 2012 exams as well as some rewritten questions from previous years exams. Refer to the marking
GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION HISTORY B (MODERN WORLD) A971/11 Aspects of International Relations, 1919 2005, with Depth Study Germany, 1918 1945 *A920040111* Candidates answer on the answer
The Axis Defeated World War II Victory in Europe and the Pacific By March of 1945 the Allies had pushed the Germans west past the Rhine River into Western Germany. Soviet troops also pushed the Germans
World The History: Americans Patterns of Interaction Grade 11 McDougal Grade 10 Littell McDougal Littell NAME Unit 7 Chapter Test Main Ideas 1) What gamble did Germany make before the United States entered
To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? Although the dominant military confrontations of the 20 th century
IB History Paper 2 - World History Questions TOPIC 1 CAUSES, PRACTICES AND EFFECTS OF WAR 1. Compare and contrast the causes of the First World War and the Second World War. (2008) 2. To what extent did
Chapter 39 Essential Question 39.1 Were the methods used by the United States to contain communism justified? U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers on trial in Moscow, 1960 Soviet forces recovered the wreckage
Rahaf Alwattar Daniela Morales Kiley Smith Madison So To What Extent is The Cold War a Result of Two Conflicting Ideologies? The Cold War was an unceasing state of political and military tensions between
Essential Question: What led to the Cold War between the United States & Soviet Union? CPUSH Agenda for Unit 12.3: Clicker questions Eisenhower, McCarthyism, & the Cold War notes Today s HW: 26.3 County
1. Creator: Stephen Sack Title: See No Hear No Speak No Publication: Ft. Wayne Journal Publication Date: Unknown, 1978-1979 Description: In 1964 Leonid Brezhnev took over as the General Secretary of the
19.4 Solidarity Union Leader: Lech Walesa Union in Poland that wanted the gov t to recognize them Unions were illegal under SU law Solidarity workers went on strike at the Gdansk shipyard Millions of Poles