1 President Ronald Reagan: The End of the Cold War, Communism in China, & The Iran-Contra Affair
2 There are many pictures and diagrams in this presentation. Yet, you have a set of notes as depicted to the right. Whenever a slide comes up with the title that matches your note taking guide, that is when you copy down the notes. On the presentation, the sentence will be underlined. This is blank on your note sheet. Simply fill in the blanks with the matching lines.
3 E. America Enters World War II (1945-Present) g. Analyze the origins of the Cold War, foreign policy developments, and major events of the administrations from Truman to present
4 2.Changes at Home a. Analyze major domestic issues and responses of the administrations from Truman to present e. Identify the major contemporary social, environmental, and political issues (e.g., immigration, global warming, terrorism), the groups involved, and the controversies engendered by those issues f. Assess increasing global interdependence, the potential for conflict, and the U.S. role in world events in the present and future
5 Reagan, Economics, and Defense Funding -Reagan cut funding to many social programs that provided economic assistance to the middle class and poor. He believed cutting taxes, especially on the rich, would help the economy to become stronger. -Yet, the Cold War was still a focus for the USA. Reagan pumped huge amounts of money into defense spending to ensure the USA remained more powerful than the Soviet Union of Russia, in terms of military might. -He ordered the building of the Strategic Defense Initiative. He claimed it could stop nuclear missiles from hitting the USA, even suggesting it would use lasers to do so. It was nicknamed Star Wars. Democrats argued it was too expensive, unrealistic, and would simply increase hostility with the USSR.
6 COLD WAR RECAP During WW II, the Democracies of the world had originally teamed up with the Communist USSR to defeat Nazi Germany.
7 When World War II was finished, the USA, Britain, and France grew concerned. They wanted the nations of the world to accept Democracy. Yet, it was clear that Stalin wanted Eastern Europe to be dominated by Communism.
8 After World War II, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria became Satellite Nations that were controlled by the USSR.
9 A major concern during the Cold War was that both the USA and the USSR had nuclear weapons. Therefore, if direct fighting between the two nations did break out, the consequences would be devastating for the entire world.
10 Back in the 1940s, President Truman s goal of Containment was simply to keep Communism from spreading any further into the world. This policy failed.
11 Communism expanded to China, North Korea, Cuba, and Vietnam from the 1940s to the 1960s. Vietnam
12 In the 1960s, the Communist dictator of the USSR, Nikita Khrushchev, supported the Communist takeover of Cuba and wanted to put nuclear missiles on the island. This way, the USSR would have close missiles to attack the USA, if nuclear war broke out. President John F. Kennedy found this action unacceptable. He demanded that the USSR not put any nuclear weapons in Cuba. In the end, the USA agreed to allow Cuba to remain Communist and the USSR agreed to not place missiles on the island. The incident was called the Cuban Missile Crisis.
13 After World War II, the Democracies of the world, including the USA, were concerned about Communism spreading in Asia. Eventually, China fell to Communism as did North Korea. Then, Communism spread down to Vietnam. The USA got involved to try and keep South Vietnam from falling to Communism. The war became very unpopular in the USA as it lasted from the 1950s to the 1970s. President Lyndon Johnson and President Richard Nixon had to deal with various military campaigns in Vietnam. The USA s involvement ended while Ford was President. South Vietnam fell to Communism.
14 By 1980, the Soviet Union (USSR) was still a nation and Communist struggles were occurring in various parts of the world. Reagan argued he had to heavily fund defense spending to remain more powerful than the Communist USSR.
15 Many Democrats critiqued Reagan because he cut social programs that gave aid to citizens but used vast amounts of money to increase defense spending, which many argued made the tension between the USSR and the USA escalate. Likewise, they asserted the so called Star Wars endeavor wouldn t even work and was unrealistic.
16 The Rise of Mikhail Gorbachev in the USSR -Since World War II ended, the USA had tension with various leaders of the Soviet Union. Joseph Stalin was a ruthless dictator who killed and persecuted many people. Under his leadership, the USSR built nuclear weapons and entered into an arms race with the USA. -Nikita Khrushchev, the General Secretary of the Communist Party after Stalin, experienced less tension with the USA. Yet, during his time in office, the USA and the USSR experienced the Cuban Missile Crisis and came close to all out nuclear war. -Mikhail Gorbachev was different. As General Secretary of the Communist Party, he stressed that the USSR needed to pursue changes, such as allowing the freedom of speech and press, letting free enterprise be established, and taking steps to establish a Democracy in the USSR. His goal in pursuing these plans was called glasnost, which meant transparency.
17 Since after WW II, when Joseph Stalin dominated Easter Europe with Communism, the USA and the USSR had a tense relationship. Nikita Khrushchev reduced those tensions as he ruled the USSR in the 1960s. Yet, Khrushchev also experienced the Cuban Missile Crisis against JKF, which hurt the relationship of the two nations. In the 1980s, many viewed Mikhail Gorbachev as the first leader of the USSR that could radically reduce tension with the USA and work with America to pursue peace.
18 Reagan s Direct Opinion of the USSR -President Ronald Reagan was extremely clear that he felt the USSR, in the 1980s, was a threat to the world. -In a speech given in 1983, to the National Association of Evangelicals, Reagan said of the USSR, They preach the supremacy of the state, declare its omnipotence over individual man and predict its eventual domination of all peoples on the Earth I urge you to beware the temptation to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire -Many were concerned that Reagan was increasing the tension of the Cold War. Others felt Reagan was aggressively trying to bring about the fall of the USSR. Despite his bold opinion of the USSR, Reagan felt Gorbachev could be an agent of change for the Soviet Union.
19 The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty -Reagan s massive commitment to defense spending was damaging the USSR s economy as they tried to keep up. Gorbachev wanted to reduce military tension so the USSR could stop trying to keep up with defense spending. -This led to Reagan and Gorbachev to sign the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty). -This banned nuclear and conventional groundlaunched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges, defined as between (300-3,400 miles). It also allowed inspection of nuclear capabilities between the USA and the USSR.
20 Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) in 1987.
21 The Tearing Down of the Berlin Wall -The increased cooperation between the USA and the Soviet Union led to discussions about past actions of the USSR. -In Eastern Germany, the Western Portion of the city of Berlin was a Democracy. Yet, the Eastern portion of the city was Communist. The USSR literally built a wall around the Western portion, cutting it off from Eastern Europe. -Families were literally broken up and many in the East tried to get across the wall to escape the Communism of East Germany. In 1987, Ronald Reagan gave a famous speech demanding that the wall be torn down. Eventually, the pro- Soviet military presence evacuated the area. In 1989, the wall was torn down by citizens of West and East Germany.
22 Even though Berlin was in the Eastern Communist area, half the city remained in control of West Germany and was a Democracy. This agreement was reached after WW II.
23 The Berlin Airlift was an attempt to help the Western Half of Berlin stay Democratic. The USA would do fly overs and drop off supplies to help the area remain a Democracy.
24 Khrushchev built a literal wall around the Western Half of Berlin. Communist Eastern Europeans were forbidden from coming into the Western Half of the City.
25 Eastern Germans building the Berlin Wall
26 By the 1980s, the Berlin Wall had multiple sections and guards watching from towers. If anyone tried to cross it, they could be shot and killed.
27 We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall! -Ronald Reagan, 1987 In 1987, Ronald Reagan demanded the Berlin Wall be torn down. The wall was eventually torn down in 1989.
30 The Breaking Apart of the USSR -Gorbachev s desire to implement some forms of Democracy, the desire to reduce military funding in the USSR to cease trying to keep up with Reagan s defense spending, and the decline of the USSR s economy led to the Soviet Union breaking apart. -The Soviet Union consisted of Russia and the Russian control of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. -Yet, by 1991, these nations had broken away from the core nation, Russia. Russia became a Democracy and the other areas were allowed to form their own national governments. This was the end of the Soviet Union alliance.
31 . From the 1950s to 1991, Russia controlled various areas in the world. This alliance of various areas with Russia formed the Soviet Union.
33 After 1991, Russia became an independent nation and gave up control of the former Soviet Union areas. These areas became individual nations.
34 Communism Remains in China -China also reduced its Communist practices somewhat in the 1980s. For instance, China allowed more freedom and put less control on businesses. -Yet, many Chinese citizens wanted more extreme reforms. In 1989, in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, college students led marches against the government. -China s leader, Li Peng, ordered the military to end the protests. The nations of the world watched on CNN as the military attacked the students. After the event, it was clear China was going to remain Communist, despite their small changes.
35 Tiananmen Square Protests Against Communism in 1989.
36 The Students of the Tiananmen Square Protests made a Statue of Liberty to symbolize their demand for Freedom. Li Peng, pictured above, the Premier of China, sent in the military to force the protests to cease.
37 A lone protestor stood in front of a line of tanks, when Li Peng sent in the military. His identity is unknown as is his fate after this incident. Yet, this picture became an iconic image that showed the brutality of the military invasion.
38 The Iran-Contra Affair
39 The Iran-Contra Affair -Iranian terrorists took American hostages in the country of Lebanon in The nation of Iran wanted weapons as a ransom to help with their war in Iraq. In a controversial move, Reagan sold weapons to Iran in agreement for the hostages to be let go. -The USA used the funds from Iran to help fund the Contras of Nicaragua, who were fighting against Communist like takeovers from occurring in Nicaragua. The Boland Amendment said America could not fund revolutionary groups in Central America. The Contras used brutal tactics and many American government leaders did not support them. -In 1992, President Bush had to pardon several members of Reagan s staff for illegally selling weapons and giving the money to guerilla fighters in Central America.
40 THE END
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