BASIC FIRST AID. Knowing the basics of first aid could literally save a life. Truer words have never been spoken!

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1 BASIC FIRST AID Knowing the basics of first aid could literally save a life. Truer words have never been spoken! Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

2 Imagine how good you would feel if you can help a friend or family member when they are in need. First Aid Training on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) There are so many different circumstances which require knowledge of basic first aid, for example, when you or someone else has: A cut A graze A burn A scald Sunburn A sting A bite A bruise Poisoning Bleeding Choking A Graze A Burn A Bruise Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

3 Just looking at the above examples, it is clear that any person could end up in a situation requiring some basic form of first aid. In general, it is good to write down a few basic first aid principles on a piece of paper, and leave it next to the phone or medicine cabinet or carry it with you. You never know when you might need it. A list of emergency numbers is also very important. Bruises Bumps and bruises occur in the soft tissue under the skin. Minor bruises do not need medical treatment. Minor bruises can be identified by the following: They show only slight bleeding. There is not a lot of pain. No numbness, tingling, broken bones or dislocated joints. When a bruise occurs, it can be treated in the following way: Apply an ice pack or anything cold on the bruised area. If possible, elevate (lift) the bruised area so that it is higher than the heart, which heart and prevents blood from pooling in the affected area. Keep the bruised area elevated for about 15 minutes. If the bruise does not appear to get any better, seek medical help. Cuts and Scrapes If minor cuts, scrapes and grazes occur, these basic first aid principles can be followed: 1. Wash the injured area with mild soap and lukewarm water. 2. Apply bacterial cream or spray to prevent infection, for example, Bactoban. 3. Cover the wound with a sterile gauze pad and tape or a simple plaster. 4. If the cut is deep, it is important to see a doctor if stitches are required. Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

4 Grazes Grazes often happen when a person falls down and their skin touches the ground. If minor scrapes occur, follow these basic first aid principles: Wash the grazed area with mild soap and lukewarm water. Make sure any dirt or bits of gravel and soil are washed out of the graze. Apply antiseptic cream or anti-bacterial cream or spray to the grazed area. Cover with a dressing or plaster that has holes in it, as it is important that air can flow through. Cover the Graze with a Dressing or Plaster Scalds and Burns Burns can result from different things, for example. Fire: electricity and even the sun. If you or someone else gets burned, for example, if your clothes catch on fire, follow the link below to see what to do. For more information on Fire Safety go the Grade 5 Natural Science module on Energy We Can See, Feel and Hear by clicking on the link below: Burnt Hand Showing Blisters Peeling Off Burnt Foot Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

5 Tips for all types of burns: Make sure that both you and the person who is burnt are away from the source of the burn, for example, the fire, electricity box, etc. Call for help. Make sure you have emergency numbers on standby. For a full list visit If you do not live in Gauteng, google the words emergency numbers in., fill in your area and the emergency numbers will appear. Take off any clothes or jewellery around the burnt part of the body. Use cold, running water to cool the burn for at least 20 minutes. Run the water gently, not fast. Use Cold Running Water To Cool the Burn Do not use ice directly on a severe burn. Do not break blisters that might form. Keep the person warm with extra clothes and blankets on the parts of the body that are not burnt. Make sure to see a doctor if the burn is larger than a R5 coin. See A Doctor if the Burn is Larger than a R5 Coin Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

6 Sunburn Sunburn can be quite severe, especially if the person is dehydrated (when your body loses too much water) as well. Severe Sunburn When having fun in the sun it is important to do so in a responsible manner. Remember the following points to avoid sunburn: Wear protective clothing, for example, a T-shirt. Cover yourself with high factor sunscreen, (at the least factor 30). Wear a hat and sunglasses. Do not stay out in the direct sunlight for too long. Drink plenty of water to keep hydrated. Wear a Hat Sunburn is often underestimated; true sunburn is almost like being burnt from a fire. Your skin will be red, sore to the touch and blisters can appear. If sunburn occurs, following these basic first aid principles: Have a cool bath. Use a soothing lotion, one especially developed for sunburn. Do not use soap, as it could irritate the burnt skin. Drink lots of water. If you get blisters, go to a doctor. Use a Soothing Lotion and Sunscreen Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

7 Poisoning Poison can make people very ill and can even lead to death. Poisons can be: Chemicals used around the house or garden. Chemicals Used in the Home Drugs or chemicals from plants found in insect bites or stings. Mosquito Smoke or fumes in the air that enter the body when breathing. Breathing in Fumes & Smoke Breathing in Clean, Fresh Air Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

8 Poisons get into the body: 1. Through swallowing. 2. Through being absorbed by the skin. 3. Through snake and insect bites. 4. Through inhalation (breathing in). Some signs and symptoms of poisoning: Stomach pain Drowsiness Difficulty breathing Blurred vision Change of skin colour, possible blueness around the lips Sudden collapse Drowsiness Sleepiness If you think someone has been poisoned, call an ambulance immediately. Remember to get the emergency numbers in your area so you won t have to search for numbers. They need to be on hand in an emergency. While you are waiting: Do not let the person eat or drink anything until help has arrived. Save the bottle or container that the person drank from, to show to the paramedics. Do not make the person vomit until a trained health professional says so. Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

9 Paramedics at the Scene of an Emergency If poison enters through the skin: Wash the area with lots of water. If there is a substance on the person s skin, use gloves and a cloth to remove the poison as soon as possible. Do not put anything on the affected area, until a trained health professional says so. If you think you or someone else has been poisoned, call an adult or an ambulance immediately! What to do when you or a person have been bitten by, for example, a snake or an insect. For a snake or spider bite: Remove Poisonous Substance From the Person s Skin Call an ambulance. Go and get help and bring the help to the person. It is dangerous to let the person walk, because the poison can circulate through the body. Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

10 Grass Snake Keep calm and do not try and catch the snake. Wrap a bandage or cloth firmly over the bite and down the leg or arm. Hold the arm or leg still. Wait for the paramedics. Follow the same rules for a spider bite. Spider Spider Bite Bees and wasps: For a bee sting, try to get the sting out, if possible. Use the flat edge of something to gently scrape the sting away. Do not try to dig at the sting, as you may push it in deeper. Bee Wasp Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

11 If a wasp stings you, be very careful, as they tend to sting many times when they are angry. A wasp does not leave its sting in a person like a bee does. Put an ice pack on both wasp and bee stings. Some people are very allergic to bee stings, in this case, immediately call an ambulance, or adult to help, or go directly to a doctor. People who are allergic to bee stings usually carry medication with them that they need to take if they are stung. Find out if any of your friends or family are allergic to bee stings and know where they keep their medicine so that you can provide the correct help. Inhalation If you feel dizzy due to chemicals, for example, when cleaning the house, do the following: Poisonous Fumes Immediately move away from the fumes. Go outside in the clean, open air. Go Outside Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

12 Wash off any of the chemical which might have landed on your skin. Get help if you still feel dizzy after you have been outside for a while. Choking Signs that someone is choking: Clutching the throat Coughing Difficulty breathing, speaking or swallowing Face, neck, lips and fingernails turning blue Choking What to do: Try to relax the person and ask them to cough, in order to try and remove the object. If coughing does not help, immediately call an ambulance and an adult to help. In the meantime, bend the person forward and give 5 blows, with the heel of the hand between the shoulder blades. Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

13 Chest Thrusts to Clear the Blockage Try to find someone who is trained in CPR to give 5 chest thrusts, slower but sharper than compressions. If the blockage does not clear while waiting for the ambulance, continue alternating back blows with chest thrusts. Bleeding When someone is bleeding, always remember that blood can carry disease, so you have to be careful. Wash your hands before and after you help someone who has been bleeding. Use plastic gloves if you can. Wash Hands Thoroughly Use Gloves If there is only minor bleeding: Wash the wound with water. Try to get any dirt out of the wound, by using water with soap or a bit of disinfectant. Cover the wound with a clean dressing. Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

14 If there is heavy bleeding due to a wound: Call for an ambulance immediately or get help from an adult. Remove or cut the person s clothing, so you can clearly see the wound. If possible, apply direct pressure to the wound, using a pad or your hands (if possible use gloves). Squeeze the wound edges together, if possible. Try to raise and support the injured part of the body above the level of the heart. The wound will also need to be bandaged. If the bleeding does not stop or circulation below the bandage is poor, call for help immediately so that paramedics or a doctor can help. Cover the Wound with Dressing Remember to get the emergency numbers for your area, so that while you do the basic first aid, help can already be on the way! Version 1: August 2013 Copyright My Cyberwall

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