1 12 JOURNAL OF APPLIED SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, 15: 12 25, J BAKER ET AL. Copyright 2003 by the Association for Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology /03 $ DOI: / Sport-Specific Practice and the Development of Expert Decision-Making in Team Ball Sports JOSEPH BAKER AND JEAN CÔTÉ School of Physical and Health Education Queen s University BRUCE ABERNETHY School of Human Movement Studies The University of Queensland The role of sport-specific practice in the development of decision-making expertise in the sports of field hockey, netball, and basketball was examined. Fifteen expert decision-makers and 13 experienced non-expert athletes provided detailed information about the quantity and type of sport-specific and other related practice activities they had undertaken throughout their careers. Experts accumulated more hours of sport-specific practice from age 12 years onwards than did non-experts, spending on average some 13 years and 4,000 hours on concentrated sport-specific practice before reaching international standard. A significant negative correlation existed between the number of additional activities undertaken and the hours of sportspecific training required before attaining expertise, suggesting a functional role for activities other than sport-specific training in the development of expert decision-making. In their seminal study of chess, Simon and Chase (1973) suggested that a minimum of 10 years of preparation was necessary to reach the expert level. Since that time, this 10-year Received 24 September 2001; accepted 4 June During the completion of this research the first author was with the School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland and the second author was on research leave at the School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland. The authors would like to extend appreciation to Dr. Deborah Hoare, Dr. Ross Smith, and the coaches and athletes of the Australian national men s basketball, women s netball and men s and women s field hockey teams for their support and patience during the completion of this study. The authors would also like to thank Steve Cobley and other colleagues for helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. This research was funded by the Australian Sports Commission and a standard research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC # ). Address correspondence to Joseph Baker, School of Physical and Health Education, Queen s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N
2 SPORT-SPECIFIC PRACTICE AND EXPERTISE 13 rule has been shown to also apply to the development of expertise in other domains including music (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993; Hayes, 1981; Sosniak, 1985), mathematics (Gustin, 1985), swimming (Kalinowski, 1985), distance running (Wallingford, 1975), tennis (Monsaas, 1985), soccer, and field hockey (Helsen, Starkes, & Hodges, 1998). The theory of deliberate practice, developed by Ericsson and colleagues (e.g., Ericsson & Charness, 1994; Ericsson et al., 1993), is predicated on the notion that it is not simply training of any type, but rather a minimum of 10 years engagement in deliberate practice that is the necessary condition for the attainment of expertise. Deliberate practice refers to practice activities done with the specific instrumental goal of improving performance and which (a) are performed in a daily, work-like manner; (b) require effort and attention; (c) do not lead to immediate social or financial rewards; and (d) are frequently not enjoyable to perform. While the notion of deliberate practice was developed through research with musicians, Ericsson and his colleagues have indicated that it has applicability to the acquisition of expertise in all areas of human endeavor, including sport (Ericsson, 1996; Ericsson et al., 1993). To date, research examining the application of the theory of deliberate practice to sport in general and team sports in particular has been limited. Researchers have examined figure skating (Starkes, Deakin, Allard, Hodges, & Hayes, 1996), karate (Hodge & Deakin, 1998), wrestling (Hodges & Starkes, 1996), middle distance running (Young & Salmela, in press), soccer (Helsen et al., 2000; Helsen et al., 1998), and field hockey (Helsen, Starkes, & Hodges, 1998). These studies provide support for many of the contentions of Ericsson and his colleagues, including the strong relationship between accumulated hours of practice and level of performance. For instance, expert athletes and musicians performed similar amounts (around 25 hours) of deliberate practice per week. However, these studies also indicate that some of the original tenets of the theory of deliberate practice may be too inflexible for direct application to sport settings. For example, all of the examinations of deliberate practice performed to date in sport have found that, contrary to one of the key components of Ericsson s definition of deliberate practice, the athletes systematically rate many specific practice activities as being very enjoyable. Examination of the application of the theory of deliberate practice to team sport settings has been more difficult. While Ericsson and his colleagues indicated that practice alone was the most important activity for developing musical proficiency, the development of expertise in team sport settings requires mastery of a wide range of skills extending from very general elements such as physical fitness to very specific elements such as team strategies. To master these components athletes undertake a variety of forms of training, all of which are believed to be relevant to the improvement of their overall individual and/or team performance. Crosstraining (i.e., training using other sports or activities) is routinely used to improve physiological conditioning (Moran & McGlynn, 1997) whereas skills training is typically done in a very sport-specific manner. Performance in team sports is also dependent upon the cohesive interaction among members of the sports team unit, thereby necessitating training as a group in addition to training alone. Therefore, unlike the Ericsson et al. (1993) study of musicians where only practice alone was examined, all forms of practice must be considered when examining deliberate practice in team sports (Helsen et al., 2000). In the Helsen et al. (1998, 2000) investigation of deliberate practice in the team sports of field hockey and soccer, they noted that athletes had performed approximately 10,000 hours of training at the time of data collection and that this accumulated training was a key distinguishing factor between athletes at various levels of expertise (i.e., international, national, and provincial level of play). This value is quite similar to the near 10,000 hours of training indicated by the musicians in the Ericsson et al. study. Unsurprisingly, the attainment of expertise is much more complex than simply accumulat-
3 14 J. BAKER ET AL. ing a required number of hours of deliberate practice. For instance, key developmental periods may occur in the development of sporting expertise where the influence of participation in a wide range of activities, and not just the sport of prime interest, is important. Côté and colleagues (Côté, 1999; Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, in press; Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2001; Côté & Hay, 2002), in their investigations of elite Australian and Canadian athletes, have identified three distinct stages of sport participation that athletes pass through prior to the attainment of expert performance: the sampling years (5 12), the specializing years (13 15), and the investment years (16+). The sampling years are typified by the athlete participating in a wide range of different sports. It is during this period that skills such as running, jumping, and throwing that are fundamental to performance in many sports are acquired and refined. In the specializing years, athletes begin to narrow their focus and participate in fewer activities. In the investment years, athletes become devoted to a single sport by making maximal performance in this sport their primary life focus. In their study of expert team sport athletes, Helsen et al. (1998) found that at a time around 9 years into their career expert soccer and field hockey players increased both training duration and intensity and they suggested that this was a necessary requirement for reaching expert level performance (i.e., international level of competition). Moreover, research on the hierarchy of motor skill development (e.g., Seefeldt, 1980, 1982) supports the approach that sport involvement should progress from a focus on fundamental motor skills in early childhood to more sport-specific skills in adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, the development of fundamental motor skills may be transferable across sports and activities that share similar general capacities. Most theories of child development (e.g., Piaget, 1962; Vigotsky, 1978) hold that play activities provide a medium for useful development. In an in-depth analysis of play theories, Sutton-Smith (1997) discussed the different kinds and levels of playful behavior and recognized that the various levels of play merit as much attention from researchers as the distinction between play and non-play. Consequently, based on the work of Denzin (1975), Côté and colleagues (Côté, 1999; Côté et al., in press; Côté & Hay, 2002) differentiated among the various kinds of play and suggested the concept of deliberate play as a key component of children s early involvement in sport. Contrary to practice activities where the goal is to improve performance, the goal of deliberate play is to have fun. Deliberate play activities have a structure modified from the structure of existing sports and in that sense are also different from free play activities (e.g., children playing freely with toy cars). Côté et al. (in press) recently suggested an activity scale of involvement in sport ranging from the most elementary activity (i.e., free play) to the most complex (i.e., deliberate practice). The activity-scale levels proposed were (a) free play, (b) deliberate play, (c) structured practice, and (d) deliberate practice. Côté and colleagues (Côté et al, in press; Côté & Hay, 2002) also proposed that as the athlete progresses in sport there is a marked shift from activities focused on pleasurable participation and play during the sampling years to a focus on activities designed to optimize performance improvements through practice during the investment years. The virtue of such a scale is that it is founded on the notion that expertise in sport does not develop from engagement in only one type of activity as it has been suggested in music (Ericsson et al., 1993). Côté et al. advocated that more attention needed to be focussed on developmental issues and the specific nature of the play and practice activities that athletes engaged in at various stages of their involvement in sport. Accordingly, a more comprehensive understanding of the practice base essential for expert performance, especially team ball sports, requires consideration of not only the sport-specific practice activities undertaken by players but also the nature and extent of practice and experience accumulated in other related activities. A key characteristic underlying expert performance in team ball sports is decision-making, that is, the ability to perceive essential informa-
4 SPORT-SPECIFIC PRACTICE AND EXPERTISE 15 tion from the playing environment, correctly interpret this information, and then select the appropriate response. While expert superiority in these different components of decision-making has been consistently demonstrated (see Abernethy, 1991, for a review) little is yet known about how such abilities develop. This study examined the quantity and type of both sportspecific and non-sport-specific practice accumulated throughout the careers of expert decision-makers from three different team sports and contrasted these with the practice experiences of less accomplished athletes. The purpose of examining the quantity of sport-specific practice was to (a) ascertain whether this conformed to the general rules for expertise established in other domains (i.e., 10 years/10,000 hours of training) and (b) determine if the amount of sport-specific practice was a key factor discriminating expert decision-makers from lesser skilled athletes. The purpose of examining the quantity and type of other (non-sport-specific) practice activities undertaken was to (a) identify commonalities in the backgrounds of expert decision-makers from different sports that may have contributed to their unique expertise and, in particular, (b) determine the extent to which expert athletes participation in other sports was a distinguishing attribute of their development. Participants METHODS Twenty-eight athletes served as participants. The expert group consisted of 15 players chosen from the Australian national women s netball team (n = 3), national men s basketball team (n = 4), national men s field hockey team (n = 4), and national women s field hockey team (n = 4). At the time of data collection, each of the teams was highly ranked internationally. The women s netball and field hockey teams were world champions, while the men s field hockey and basketball teams were ranked second and fourth in the world respectively. Each athlete was nominated by their respective national team coaches as being amongst the best decisionmakers internationally in their particular sports. All coaches from each respective national team agreed unanimously on the athletes selection for the present study (i.e., athletes chosen for inclusion in the study were uniformly regarded as expert decision-makers by the entire national team coaching staff rather than simply by each head coach). Expert decision-making was operationally defined to the coaches in terms of superior capabilities to read the play and select the most appropriate option under the pressure of game play rather than in terms of athleticism or sheer physical skill. The sample of expert decision-makers had a mean age of 27.6 years (SD = 4.3) and had been playing their primary sport for an average of 20.7 years (SD = 5.3). These experts played in a variety of different positions on each team with no evidence of potential positional confounds (e.g., selecting only expert point guards in basketball and comparing them to centers). A sample of 13 non-expert decision-makers (4 from men s basketball and 3 each from women s netball, men s field hockey and women s field hockey) provided important comparative data. The non-expert decision-makers all had greater than 10 years experience in their sport but had not participated beyond the state or provincial level. The average age for this non-expert group was 23.2 yrs (SD = 4.6) with an average involvement of 12.2 years (SD = 1.7) in their sport. A general limitation of studies examining the differences between experts and novices/non-experts is that comparisons are often confounded by years of playing experience. Experts typically have greater experience than non-experts and therefore it is difficult to distinguish whether expert/non-expert differences are a constituent or a by-product of that expertise (e.g., see Abernethy, Thomas, & Thomas, 1993). In order to address this issue, our intent was to obtain athletes who had extensive experience in their sport but who did not reach
5 16 J. BAKER ET AL. the same level of playing proficiency as the expert group. Both expert and non-expert athletes provided informed consent before participating in the study. Procedures Each participant completed a structured interview specifically developed to examine the practice activities of elite athletes (Côté, Ericsson, & Beamer, 2002). 1 Interviews were conducted one-on-one in a quiet environment with each interview lasting approximately 2 to 3 hours. The purpose of the interview was to develop a detailed longitudinal account of each athlete s involvement in sports and other extra-curricular activities. The interview used charts to systematically record the types of activity that participants engaged in throughout their development and evaluated various conditions associated with each activity. The initial part of the interview was devoted to the establishment of a comprehensive set of extra-curricular activities undertaken by the athlete in either a formal or informal way. The specific instructional set used to elicit information during this phase of data collection was I would like you to focus on the activities that you were involved in when you were young. I would like you to list your involvement outside of mandatory school activities, for example music, dance, play, and other domains of activity. I am also interested in your early sport involvement. Looking back over your entire life please tell me of any type of activity that you engaged in on a regular basis before you decided to specialize in basketball [or field hockey or netball]. What musical, sport, play, and artistic activities, if any, were you participating in before becoming seriously involved in your main sport? Please list all of these activities, such as piano, dance, drawing, etc. For each of the activities listed, athletes were then asked the following questions: How old were you when you first got started? How long did you keep up the involvement? Please tell me of any periods when your involvement was stopped. The second part of the interview assessed the amount of time participants spent in their main sport(s) throughout their development. The following instructional set was used to elicit this information: For each of the years listed in the chart can you provide the number of hours per week and number of months per year that you were involved in your main sport? This includes practices, games, and specific training activities for your main sport such as organized training, selfinitiated training, and individualized instruction. This information was categorized as sport-specific training. To examine the quantity and type of practice needed to acquire expert level performance it was necessary to define a standard criterion for determining when expert status was achieved. While the identification of such a discrete milestone can be contentious and somewhat arbitrary the advantage is that it provides a consistent point for the comparison of findings both within and between studies. In this study expertise was defined as the time when the athletes in the expert decision-making group were first selected to their respective national open-age team. The average age for reaching the national open-age team was 18.6 years of age (SD = 2.4 years). 1 A copy of the interview guide is available upon request to the second author.
6 SPORT-SPECIFIC PRACTICE AND EXPERTISE 17 RESULTS Reliability of Retrospective Information As the interview task relied extensively on the retrospective recall of the athletes involved, and because of the complexity and depth of information the athletes were required to recall, measures were taken to cross-validate the data provided by the athletes. Previous research has relied largely upon the use of one-week training diaries to validate retrospective information provided by athletes (Helsen et al., 1998; Hodges & Starkes, 1996). This information, while providing an adequate validation of the information provided by the athlete for more recent events, may not provide an accurate validation of the retrospective recall of activities undertaken much earlier in the athlete s development. Validation of the number and type of early activities and hours of practice provided by the expert athletes was done by interviewing a sample of their parents, specifically the parent deemed by each athlete as most knowledgeable about their sporting career. To examine the correspondence between the number of activities reported by the athletes and the number of activities reported by their parents (n = 10) the percent agreement (Bahrick, Hall, & Berger, 1996) was computed. There was a complete agreement (i.e., 100%) between the total number of activities reported by the expert athletes and the total reported by the parents. To validate the athletes self-reported practice hours, a Pearson product moment correlation analysis was performed between the number of practice hours per year estimated by the athlete and the comparable estimate provided by their parent. The correlation coefficient for these two sources was r =.59 (p <.05). Reliability of the athletes estimates of hours spent in practice activities was also examined through the use of a redundant item built into the interview protocol. The protocol elicited information regarding the number of practice hours through two separate questions. An initial question required athletes to indicate the total number of hours of practice they performed each week while the second question had the athletes indicate the number of hours practice spent in each specific activity. The practice hours in each activity were then summated and compared to the overall training hours estimate provided by the athlete. The correlation between these two estimates was r =.73 (p <.05). Although this coefficient is slightly lower than the one presented by Helsen et al. (1998) this was not surprising given that the recall in this study was for events that were, in some cases, up to 30 years in the past. Collectively, these results indicate the data are reasonably valid and reliable. Sport-Specific Practice Activities The total number of years and hours of sport-specific practice prior to achieving expert performance (i.e., national open-age team selection) was computed. This information, as well as the number of other sporting activities in which each athlete participated, is presented in Table 1. The number of years spent in practice prior to national team selection ranged from 7 to 20 years. All but one of the expert athletes had a minimum of 10 years of involvement before achieving expertise (M = 12.9, SD = 2.9). However, the number of hours spent in practice for their sport prior to national team selection varied considerably within the sample of expert decision-makers. The range of practice hours prior to the achievement of expert performance ranged from 600 hours to 6026 hours (M = 3939, SD = ). Basketball players reported significantly greater sport specific training hours prior to national team selection than the netball and field hockey players, F (2, 12) = 7.9, p <.05. Figure 1 presents the distribution of cumulated hours spent in sport-specific practice and practice hours per week for the expert and non-expert athletes by year of involvement. Figure
7 18 J. BAKER ET AL. Table 1 Descriptive Statistics for Practice Years, Hours and Number of Other Activities Prior to Reaching National Team Sport Yrs of Involvement # Practice Hrs # Other Sport Activities Basketball players 11.0 (3.2) (104.9) 4.8 (2.2) Range Netball players 13.3 (1.5) (1479.6) 11.7 (2.1) Range Field hockey players 13.8 (3.0) (1437.0) 9.4 (3.0) Range Females 12.6 (1.5) (1448.5) 11.0 (2.4) Range Males 13.3 (3.8) (903.4) 6.5 (3.1) Range Entire group 12.9 (2.9) 3939 (1769.8) 8.6 (3.6) Range presents expert and non-expert practice hours per week and involvement in other activities by chronological age. Experts accumulated similar hours of sport-specific training to nonexperts until approximately 11 years of involvement in their sport. At this point, the rate of sport-specific practice accumulation by experts escalated dramatically, such that after 15 years of sport involvement the number of hours of practice accumulated by experts was nearly twice that undertaken by the non-experts. Figures 1 and 2 provide a comparison of the hours of training per week for the experts and non-experts according to both year of sport involvement and chronological age. For the year of sport involvement examination, statistical analyses after 15 years of involvement were not possible due to an insufficient number of non-expert athletes reporting data after 15 years. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA on training hours per week measured at 3-year intervals revealed main effects for both level of expertise (F (1, 24) = 6.9, p <.05) and time (each 3-year epochs; F (1, 24) = 52.9, p <.05), as well as a significant interaction between these two factors (F (1, 24) = 22.3, p <.05). The interaction was attributable to the number of hours of sportspecific practice undertaken by the expert group being greater than that for the non-experts at 12 and 15 years after commencing the activity. For the chronological age analysis, a statistical comparison of the two skill groups was only possible after 12 years of age because non-experts typically did not begin their involvement in basketball, netball, or field hockey until later. This analysis revealed a main effect for both level of expertise (F (1, 24) = 6.7, p <.05) and time (F (1, 24) = 14.2, p <.05), as well as a significant interaction between these two factors (F (1, 24) = 5.3, p <.05). The interaction is attributed to the significant difference between hours per week for experts and non-experts after 18 years of age. Other Activities The number of additional sporting activities (organized and unorganized physical activity) athletes participated in ranged from 3 to 14 activities (M = 8.6, SD = 3.6). Those athletes that
8 SPORT-SPECIFIC PRACTICE AND EXPERTISE 19 Figure 1. Comparison of expert and non-expert cumulative training hours and training hours per week by year of involvement. required fewer hours of sport-specific practice to attain expertise had typically experienced a larger number of other sporting activities, while those athletes that performed the greatest amount of sport-specific practice prior to attaining expertise reported fewer other activities. This observation was confirmed by correlation analysis. A partial correlation between the number of prior activities and the number of sport-specific practice hours prior to expertise, while controlling for type of sport, indicated a negative relationship between these two variables (r =.54, p <.05). Engagement in a large number of other sporting activities was associated with a relatively small number of sport-specific practice hours required before attaining expert level performance and vice versa. Table 2 contains a list of the additional activities that the expert decision-making athletes participated in prior to attaining national team selection. Activities were categorized into four groups: team sports, individual sports, unorganized sporting activities, and artistic/musical activities. The most commonly experienced other team sport activities included basketball, football (including rugby, Aussie Rules, and touch football), cricket and softball sports that involve skills (e.g., working with teammates, anticipating opponent s actions) that may be transferable to other similar sports. Athletics (i.e., track and field) was the most commonly performed individual sporting activity. Other individual sport activities that were commonly reported were tennis, squash, and golf. The expert decision-making athletes also reported participating in a wide range of sport activities that were not organized by an adult (i.e., activities that might constitute deliberate play). These deliberate play activities (such as backyard games, pick-up games) were performed in informal atmospheres that were not part of an organized sporting system. The most commonly reported deliberate play activities were forms of football, cricket and cycling. Experts reported minimal participation in artistic/musical activities, with the most common activities being drama, guitar, piano, choir and dance.
9 20 J. BAKER ET AL. Figure 2. Comparison of expert and non-expert participation in other activities and training hours per week by chronological age. Figure 2 illustrates the pattern of participation in musical, team and individual sporting activities, and unorganized activities for each year of involvement. For the expert athletes there is an increase in the number of activities they participated in until approximately 12 years of age. This is followed by a decrease in involvement from 12 to 17 years of age. Finally, at approximately 17 years of age there is a leveling off of involvement for the expert athletes. For the non-experts, a similar pattern is evident for the first few years of involvement, although their mean involvement in other activities is somewhat less than that undertaken by the expert decision-makers. As with the experts, non-experts demonstrate an increase in activity involvement until approximately 12 years of age. However, after 12 years of age, non-experts maintain a broader participation in a number of activities while experts begin to decrease their broad sports involvement to focus their energies toward their specialist sport and directly related practice activities. DISCUSSION The data collected in this study suggest that the 10-year rule presented by Simon and Chase (1973) remains a good rule of thumb with respect to the minimal sport-specific practice base needed for the development of expertise in team sports. With only one exception, the expert athletes in the present study were involved in their primary sport for, at least, a minimum of 10 years; nearly 13 on average before reaching national, open-age, team selection. Further, the number of accumulated hours of sport-specific practice suggested that this is also an important indicator of expertise in sport decision-making, supporting previous findings for
10 SPORT-SPECIFIC PRACTICE AND EXPERTISE 21 Table 2 Additional sporting activities of expert decision-makers Activity N Activity N Team Sports Unorganized Sporting Activities Netball 1 * Aerobics 1 Volleyball 1 Pickup Basketball 1 Soccer 3 Squash 1 Basketball 8 * Football 7 Cricket 5 Cycling 4 Softball 6 Cricket 6 Football 6 Soccer 2 Swimming 2 Individual Sports Table Tennis 2 Athletics (track and field) 8 Volleyball 1 Tennis 4 Chase 1 Karate 1 Badminton 2 Running 2 Gymnastics 1 Squash 4 Golf 4 Artistic/Musical Activities Swimming 3 Organ 1 Dance 2 Drama 4 Choir 2 Guitar 3 Piano 2 Trumpet 1 Recorder 1 Flute 1 Crafts 1 Note. * this number does not include expert athletes from this sport (e.g., basketball n = 8 does not include the 4 basketball expert athletes). team sport athletes (Helsen et al., 1998, 2000). However, the number of hours of repeated sport-specific practice was far short of the 10,000 hours of deliberate practice reported for expert musicians by Ericsson et al. (1993) and expert soccer and field hockey players by Helsen et al. (1998, 2000), being 4,000 hours, on average. 2 The difference in the number of hours invested in sport specific training (i.e., deliberate practice) reported by athletes in this study and other studies of athletes in team sports (Helsen et al., 1998, 2000) is likely to be the result of the different time frames used to calculate accumulated hours of training. The specific criteria used in the current study to define expertise (i.e., being chosen for the national open-age team) signified that deliberate practice hours were counted from first involvement in sport to national team selection (a definite criteria of 2 It is plausible that the expert players reached an elite status because of better practice opportunities during their development. However, in a subsequent analysis it was found that the quality of resources was similar between experts and non-experts during the sampling and specializing years. The quality of training facilities, equipment, coaching, and social support was significantly better for the expert players when compared to the non-expert players only during the investment years (Abernethy, Côté, & Baker, 2002).
11 22 J. BAKER ET AL. expertise attainment in team sports). The metric used to calculate number of hours invested in deliberate practice was the same for all expert players independent of their age at data collection. Because the focus of this study was on the development of expertise and not on the maintenance of expertise (i.e., years on the national team), counting deliberate practice hours up to national team selection presents an actual account of deliberate practice hours during development and is not inflated by the report of older athletes who may have invested a large number of deliberate practice hours after reaching an international level of performance. In the present study the addition of training done while on the national team, a time frame accounted for in Helsen et al. studies (1998, 2000), may have produced an estimate of accumulated hours in deliberate practice comparable to the 10,000 hours typically reported in other studies. An important finding unique to this study is that the range of accumulated hours reported by the expert athletes was highly variable both within and between sports, suggesting factors additional to the total hours of accumulated sport-specific practice influence expertise attainment in team sports. Related practice, in other non-sport-specific contexts, emerges as a prime candidate as an additional factor critical to the acquisition of decision-making expertise in sport. The involvement of expert athletes in other activities prior to expertise attainment has not been examined in other retrospective studies of expert team sport athletes (Helsen et al. 1998, 2000) yet examination of other related sporting activities is important as these may provide an alternative to early specialization in sport specific deliberate practice activities. A significant negative correlation was found between the number of prior sporting activities experienced by the expert decision-makers and the number of hours of sport-specific practice required before national team selection. This suggests that participation in other activities may indeed be a functional element in the development of expert decision-making skill. Exposure to practice in other sport settings, especially in generic aspects of pattern recognition and decision-making, may circumvent the need for, or perhaps partially substitute for, some of the many hours of sport-specific practice needed to become an expert in team ball sports. Perhaps, unlike the domain of music, within which Ericsson et al. (1993) developed their theory of deliberate practice, sport expertise in team sports may be sufficiently multi-faceted to permit beneficial learning to occur through settings other than deliberate, task-specific practice. Two of the activities commonly reported as early activities by the expert athletes were football (including Aussie Rules, rugby, and touch football) and basketball sports that share a number of characteristics in common with the sports in which these participants became experts. For example, all require repeated, dynamic decision-making during play; all are played in a confined space that necessitates well-developed pattern recognition and spatial awareness skills to know where teammates and opponents are at all times; and all require a high degree of physical ability for success. The sports of cricket and softball were also commonly reported and may contribute to developing hand-eye coordination. This may be particularly relevant for field hockey, another striking game. In addition, athletes also indicated running and cycling as common activities in which they were engaged. Participation in these forms of aerobic activity could provide beneficial cardiovascular effects enhancing performance in sports such as basketball, netball, and field hockey, which place heavy demands on aerobic energy systems. These suppositions suggest that in a practical context, very significant transfer of learning may take place from one sport to another. Prior research examining transfer of learning would suggest that in all probability transfer occurs more in general cognitive/perceptual capacities and physiological adaptations than in the skill-specific execution elements of movement. Furthermore, it is likely that this transfer occurs earlier rather than later in the athlete s development (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2000).
12 SPORT-SPECIFIC PRACTICE AND EXPERTISE 23 Perhaps the most significant implication that can be drawn from the present study is that early specialization may not be a necessary requirement for expert level performance in decision-making sports. This is an implication consistent with the work of Carlson (1988, 1997), who showed that an all-round sport engagement before adolescence was a key ingredient in the development of elite tennis players in Sweden, and Hill (1993), who found that diversified youth sport participation was the norm among U.S. professional baseball players. While expert athletes clearly reported more years of involvement in their primary sport than did nonexperts, the total hours spent doing sport-specific practice was highly variable. In keeping with the premises within Côté s stages of sport participation model (Côté, 1999; Côté et al., in press; Côté & Hay, 2002), there was a broad range of activities performed in the sampling years by experts (age 6 12), a decrease in other activity involvement in the specializing years (age 13 15), followed by devotion to primarily one activity in the investment years (age 16+). Moreover, during the investment years the number of training hours per week for experts was significantly higher than those for non-experts. The significant negative correlation observed between breadth of sport exposure and the hours of sport-specific practice needed to acquire expertise suggests that it may be possible to accumulate useful practice from an early age without the need for early sport specialization and a singular focus on sport-specific practice. Indeed, up until the specialization years, experts engaged in as many or more activities additional to their principal sport, than do nonexperts. As the existing theory of deliberate practice advocates the relentless accumulation of task-specific practice as essential for the development of expertise, and hence, by inference, early specialization, it is our contention that modification to this theory is needed in order to fully encapsulate the learning to become an expert that occurs within the domain of team ball sports. Furthermore, we contend that expertise in team sports may be meaningfully investigated by examining changes in forms of practice and associated activities throughout the developmental career span of expert athletes. Unlike most other study areas, the retrospective study of expertise has a number of unique limitations. The study of genuine expertise is necessarily limited by the fact that the number of experts is, by definition, small and this makes the establishment of large sample sizes with strong statistical power extremely difficult. The study of the practice histories of established experts is also necessarily limited by the accuracy with which individuals can recall time spent in activities undertaken up to one or two decades earlier. The current study recognizes these difficulties and, while unable to eliminate them, has attempted to work within these constraints to establish as large a cohort of expert decision-makers as it is feasible to assemble without compromising on the quality criteria used to define an expert and by attempting to crossvalidate the retrospective information provided by the athletes with that from other credible sources. The discussions and conclusions are therefore based on the highest fidelity data accessible to the research group to address the questions of interest. Future research should extend the current findings by examining sports where expert performance occurs at younger ages (e.g., gymnastics, diving, figure skating) to investigate the importance of early specialization in these domains. Furthermore, domains where the capacities underlying performance may be more specialized (e.g., chess, music) should be investigated to determine whether the findings from this study are specific to sports such as basketball, netball, and field hockey or general to all domains of human endeavor. REFERENCES Abernethy, B. (1991). Visual search strategies and decision-making in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 22,
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14 SPORT-SPECIFIC PRACTICE AND EXPERTISE 25 Seefeldt, V. (1980). Developmental motor patterns: Implications for elementary school physical fitness. In C. H. Nadeau, W. R. Halliwell, K. M. Newell, & G. C. Roberts (Eds.), Psychology of motor behavior and sport 1979 (pp ). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Seefeldt, V. (1982). Concept of readiness applied to motor skill acquisition. In R. A. Magill, M. J. Ash, & M. J. Smoll (Eds.), Children in sport (pp ). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Simon, H. A., & Chase, W. G. (1973). Skill in chess. American Scientist, 61, Sosniak, L. A. (1985). Learning to be a concert pianist. In B. S. Bloom (Ed.), Developing talent in young people (pp ). New York: Ballantine. Starkes, J. L., Deakin, J. M., Allard, F., Hodges, N. J., & Hayes., A. (1996). Deliberate practice in sports: What is it anyway? In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts, sciences, sports and games (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Sutton-Smith, B. (1997). The ambiguity of play. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Vygotsky, L. S. (Ed.). (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wallingford, R. (1975). Long distance running. In A. W. Tayler & F. Landry (Eds.), The scientific aspects of sport training (pp ). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Young B. W., & Salmela, J. H. (in press). Perceptions of training and deliberate practice of middle distance runners. International Journal of Sport Psychology.
Psychological Review 1993, Vol. 100. No. 3, 363-406 Copyright 1993 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. OO33-295X/93/S3.OO The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance
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