1 grants for innovation Grants for innovation Innovative Economy,
2 The Operational Programme Innovative Economy, (OP IE) is one of the six National Strategic Reference Framework programmes which is financed from European funds. This programme is directed to, above all, entrepreneurs, who are planning to introduce and implement innovation projects, connected to research and development, modern technologies, investments possessing high importance to economy or implementing and application of information and communication technologies. Between within the Programme Innovative Economy, entrepreneurs, business environment institutions, scientific and research entities and public administration institutions will receive financial support over 9,71 billion euro ( ) for realization of various projects, which will contribute to the process of improving the innovativeness of Polish economy and enterprises. The aforementioned amount includes 8,25 billion euro ( ) that comes from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the remaining 1,46 billion euro ( ) comes from the national budget. Financial means for realization of OP IE (in billion euro) 8,25 (85%) National public contribution 1,46 (15%) EU funds OP IE is the third largest entrepreneurship support programme, especially for innovation companies, taking into consideration the amount of the devoted funds. Percent participation of OP IE in Total allocation of European Funds for Poland in years % 11% 3% 1% 1% 13% 43% PO Infrastructure and Environment PO Human Capital PO Innovative Economy Regional Operating Programmes PO Development of Eastern Poland PO European Territorial Cooperation PO Technical Assistance
3 4 GOAL OF THE PROGRAMME Development of the Polish economy on the basis of innovative enterprises How do we achieve that? Science Modern infrastructure International co-operation Additional financing of research and development + Enterprises Innovative Conduct own research Implementing own research and development works (R&D) Cooperation between scientists and entrepreneurs More innovative products of Polish origin on international market New companies More employment opportunities Greater competitiveness level of Polish science New technologies Development of the Polish economy on the basis of innovative enterprises The support available within the Innovative Economy Programme will be devoted to co-financing of innovation projects, realized by four categories of beneficiaries: entrepreneurs (45,8% of support) scientific and research entities (10,8% of support) business environment institutions rendering innovative services and their networks (23,05% of support) public administration within electronic services rendered for citizens, especially entrepreneurs (16,96% of support) 16,96 10,8 23,05 Percent division of financial means of OP IE in terms of the beneficiaries category 3,39 Entrepreneurs 45,8 Scientific-Research Entities Central Administration Units Business Environment Institutions Technical Assistance
4 5 The definition of Innovation in OP IE INNOVATION stands for implementation of modern elements into economical practice: a new or a significantly improved solution regarding the product (a good or service), a process, marketing or organization. Innovative solution may be a result of company s own research and development activity, co-operation with other companies and institutions or may be the result of purchase of knowledge in a non-material or a material form. An innovative company or entrepreneurship is such a company, in which within a given period of observation an innovation process has been performed. In accordance with the above directive, a company should not be considered innovative if it is in possession of highly developed technology and sells it to other companies but id does not take any steps aiming at the development of such technology. The support planned within OP IE will be given disregardful of a sector or the industry branch which it is subject to (with all of the limitations that stem from the ERDF scope of intervention as well as regulations connected to public health). Within OP IE local and regional innovations will not be supported. These types of innovations will be promoted and supported in Regional Operational Programmes and within Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland. All of the OP IE funds have been divided onto the so-called priority axis, which are priorities, which will allow to reach the main goal and the detailed goals of the Programme. There are nine Programme priorities including eight substantial priorities and the Technical Assistance priority. Percent share of OP IE means divided into priorities I. Research and development of new technologies II. R+D infrastructure 15% III. Capital for innovation 3% 13% IV. Investments in innovative undertakings V. Diffusion of innovation VI. Polish economy on the international market 8% 4% 4% 13% 4% VII. Information society establishment of electronic administration VIII. Information society increase of innovativeness of economy 36% IX. Technical Assistance
5 6 Priority 1: Research and development of new technologies Within the first priority forecasting of the research directions, which may incline the largest influence on the social and economical development of the country, will be financed. The aforementioned forecasting The Information Processing Centre process will be performed with application of a popular in other countries method called foresight. The priority encompasses the support for conveying of scientific development and research works that are used in the process of construction of an economy based on knowledge. Foresight is a systematic, future oriented way of information access in order to create medium or long term development vision, their directions and priorities and in this context undertaking current decisions and mobilizing of common actions; its core is to engage all of the interested parties into the public debate, connected to the most important future society and industry needs (entrepreneurs, representatives of non-government institutions, politicians, media people, scientists). It is planned to undertake actions aiming at the realization of a system project, the aim of which is to create the awareness of importance of successful management of scientific research and their results. It is important for the scientific research sector to get acquainted to methods, models and means of effective management in order to increase the degree of commercialization of scientific research and development works. The Foundation for Polish Science It is not a new factor to discover that the Polish scientific personnel age average is quite high. Younger and new influence is needed. What therefore will be supported will be the process of introducing students, graduates and young doctors into the research projects in the fields that are key to the economical development of the country as well as projects realized by young scientists that are members of the best research units in Poland and conveyance of research works that are the basis of the doctors thesis. Thanks to financing of research projects conveyed in Polish scientific units by outstanding foreign scientists and thanks to support provided for doctorate studies conveyed in co-operation with foreign scientific units one may await the process of transferring of good practices especially in connection with cooperation of science with economy. Moreover, application type development projects, engineered at direct practice application and matching the needs of the industry/economy branches possessing special social character will be supported. The project also includes the support for transfer of scientific results and development works engineered for economy support via co-financing of industry property protection costs created in scientific units based in Poland.
6 7 The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development Realization of this priority will be concentrated on the entrepreneur s investment support in the field of Research and Development by co-financing of projects encompassing technical, technological and organizational projects (industrial research and development works) realized by entrepreneurs. Introduction of results of research and development activities conducted in this priority will be co-financed within 4.1 activities. The priority also foresees supporting of the project The European Technological Institute + (EIT+). EIT + is a new and initiated in Wrocław innovation and education development programme, which key element is to localize the European Technological Institute headquarter in this city The goal, which we want to achieve via the realization of the aforementioned project is: INCREASING THE IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE SECTOR IN THE ECONOMY If you belong to one of the following groups you may ask for a grant within this priority scientific units Polish technological platforms entrepreneurs (especially small and middle-sized companies) scientists (especially young) and groups of scientists Students Minister in charge of science Technological platform is a form of a committee established upon the free-will of members that realize the mutual engineered programme. In the understanding of the European Committee industry representatives (including small and middle-sized companies), authorities, members of financial communities, consumers and community members should be the members of Technological Platforms 1,3 billion euro has been devoted to the priority Research and development of modern technologies Priority financial allocation, the total of Share of the EU assets in the priority euro euro Share of the public assets in the priority euro Intermediate Body The Ministry of Science and Higher Education
7 8 PRIORITY 2: R&D infrastructure Within the 2nd priority, there will be offered support for projects realized by centres possessing a high research potential, especially for investments into scientific and research equipment and in smaller extent into infrastructure. It is forecasted that a substantial amount will be devoted to the aforementioned infrastructural investments in few or in maximum several large centres run by scientific and industrial committees. Projects realized within Large Research Infrastructural Objects will also receive proper support. Processes aiming at restructuring, consolidation of scientific units will also be co-funded by transfer or construction of common and modern research infrastructure. The Ministry of Science and Higher Education The Department of European Funds At the same time investments connected to the upkeep and development of the scientific IT infrastructure will also be co-financed. It is also planned to develop the digital scientific assets, especially creation and running of a database that contains information regarding results and conditions for access to results of research projects by entrepreneurs. The goal, which we want to achieve via the realization of the aforementioned project is: THE INCREASE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF THE POLISH SCIENCE If you belong to one of the following groups you may ask for a grant within this priority scientific entities scientific networks and scientific and industrial committees entities engaged in EIT+ programme organizational units, the operational subject of which is research and development works and their organization universities and colleges leading units of Municipal Academic of Scientific Networks (MAN) High Power Computer Centres 1,299 billion euro has been devoted to the priority R&D Infrastructure. Priority financial allocation, the total of Share of the EU assets in the priority Share of the public assets in the priority Intermediate Body euro euro euro The Ministry of Science and Higher Education
8 9 PRIORITY 3: Capital for innovations At the initial stage of the process of setting up a company funds, which aid its development, are needed. Within this priority micro and small companies will be supported, especially those which are at the point of initiation of their innovative activities or are in the growth phase. The predicted assets are addressed especially to those entrepreneurs whose companies are characterized by a large level of innovation, considerably low value and a large market potential as well as high risk. The National Capital Fund S.A. Advisory activities in the field of creation of a new company, availability of infrastructure and services indispensable for newly created companies as well as their financing, are the planned means of support, which on the basis of innovation aim for creation of new companies including spin offs. SPIN OFF ventures are generally created in the scientific and research sector, they are often created in co-operation with universities. A typical spin off company is such, the products of which are created on the basis of innovative (in most cases secured) technology or invention. Such companies are most often owned by university scientist/scientists and the university itself via a separate entity. Nevertheless, spin-off companies are considered as these business ventures that employ the already existing university intellectual potential: expert knowledge, equipment servicing capabilities, inventions and mastering as well as unique equipment. Within Priority 3, the support will be also directed for creation of funds of high risk capital and the networks of business angels. The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development Within this priority capital support for small and middle-sized companies at their initial development stages is also predicted via the process of shares purchase or of debt instruments by capital funds. At the same time, activities connected to the processes of reaching the private investors and inviting them to co-operate and to financing of companies, which look for funds for realisation of their own innovative projects. The goals, which we want to achieve via the realization of the aforementioned project is: INCREASING OF THE NUMBER OF COMPANIES ACTING ON THE BASIS OF INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND INCREASING OF THE ACCESS TO THE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF FINANCING OF THE INNOVATIVE PROJECTS
9 10 If you belong to one of the following groups you may ask for a grant within this priority Small and middle-sized enterprises The National Capital Fund (Krajowy Fundusz Kapitałowy) and capital funds Business environment institutions that support the creation of new innovative companies Entrepreneurship organizations and employer associations 340 million euro has been devoted to the priority Capital for innovations. Priority financial allocation, the total of Share of the EU assets in the priority Share of the public assets in the priority Intermediate Body euro euro euro The Ministry of Economy PRIORITY 4: Investments in innovative undertakings All of the activities forecasted in priority 4 encompass co-funding of activities most importantly in the scope of introduction of research and development activities and investments possessing large importance for the economy. The support will be given to the projects of various entrepreneurs that are based on introduction of own or purchased technologies. The supplement of the support for the companies investing in research and development is consultancy funding as well as investments indispensable for running of such business, including preparation of entrepreneurs for gaining of a research and development centre status. At the same time investments in the field of creation of industrial and customer design that constitute one of the sources of competitive advantage. The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development Projects that will be liable for receiving of assets in the field of realisation of new investments including the purchase of innovative technological or organizational solutions (leading to decreasing of a harmful environmental impact) may also stem from the manufacturing and services industry. All of the activities within OP IE will have to possess a high level of innovative in the applied solutions and a considerably high value of the project.
10 11 The Ministry of Economy The Support Instruments Department All of the projects from the industry of modern services, that provide a substantial number of jobs, especially for highly qualified employees (i.e. within research and development centres). There has also been forecasted a support instrument for large innovative projects realized in the manufacturing sector, introducing innovative solutions on a large European and World scale. Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego The Enterprise Support Department Within this Priority it is possible to receive co-funding from the Technological Credit Fund (Fundusz Kredytu Technologicznego), what is particularly important during initiation of manufacturing of innovative products by small and middle sized companies, which have a problem with an access to bank funding. The Technological Credit Fund has been created in the Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego. The Assets of the Fund are directed to technological credits, provision of funds for funding of technological investments. The Technological Credit is an investment credit that is meant for the entrepreneurs. The goal, which we want to achieve via the realization of the aforementioned project, is: PROVIDING A BOOST FOR THE COMPANIES LEVEL OF INNOVATION BY ENCOURAGING THEM TO APPLY MODERN SOLUTIONS If you belong to one of the following groups you may ask for a grant within this priority Entrepreneurs 3,42 billion euro has been devoted to the Priority Investments in innovative undertakings. Priority financial allocation, the total of Share of the EU assets in the priority Share of the public assets in the priority Intermediate Body euro euro euro The Ministry of Economy
11 12 PRIORITY 5: Diffusion of innovation Support provided within priority 5 has been devoted to the development of co-operation connections of more than a regional character, especially on mutual undertakings of an investment and advisory character that help for easier transfer and diffusion (scattering) of knowledge and innovation between co-operating entities. The aid forecasted in priority 5 is meant to strengthen the network of business environment institutions of a more than a regional character and nationwide institutions, which tender innovative services and from the field of innovation for businesses. Within the process of creation of positive conditions for innovative activities of companies the support has been provided to complex projects of specialized innovation centres, especially technology parks located in The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development areas possessing a high development potential from the point of view of the whole economy. Supporting these institutions strengthens the connections between entrepreneurs and scientific units by making available of proper infrastructure, services and knowledge indispensable for running of business activities with application of innovative activities. The available instruments of priority 5 have been additionally supplemented by the support of small and middle sized enterprises in the field of industrial property and actions undertaken to promote the application of industrial property security rights among entrepreneurs. Goals, which we want to achieve via the realization of the aforementioned project is: PROVIDING OF HIGH QUALITY INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES AIM- ING AT STRENGTHENING AND PROPER USAGE OF THEIR INNOVATIVE POTENTIAL STRENGTHENING OF THE COMPETITIVE POSITION OF ENTREPRENEURS If you belong to one of the following groups you may ask for a grant within this priority Entrepreneurs groups of entrepreneurs, including: clusters, small and middle-sized and large company production chains, technological networks (small and middle-sized companies and scientific units) Technological platform nationwide business environment institutions, networks of business environment institutions possessing more than just a regional character
12 13 specialized innovation centres (entities managing scientific and technology parks, technological incubators, advanced technology centres, productivity centres and other centres for specialized services for entrepreneurs) Cluster is a geographic concentrated group of companies and associated institutions in a particular field, linked by commonalities and complementarities. (J. Porter) 399 million euro has been devoted to the priority Diffusion of innovation. Priority financial allocation, the total of Share of the EU assets in the priority Share of the public assets in the priority Intermediate Body euro euro euro The Ministry of Economy PRIORITY 6: Polish economy on the international market Support provided within priority 6 is directed at activities promoting Poland as the attractive partner abroad and at the same time the attractive place for investment location, the tourist values of the country as well as promoting of products manufactured in Poland on international markets. Projects that will be financed from the priority 6 assets are connected to research of foreign markets, taking part in fairs and trade fairs, consulting and workshops in the field of promotion and sales abroad and export promotion. These assets are mainly meant for entrepreneurs who are interested in making trade contracts with foreign partners. The Ministry of Economy The Support Instruments Department The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development Moreover, in order to attract international businesses to invest in Poland, support for the development of entrepreneurships servicing centres is also offered. The aforementioned support is also connected to the construction and development of the internet entrepreneurship servicing centre that aids the process of searching for foreign trade partners and to initiation of business activities on the territory of Poland.
13 14 The support has been meant for preparation of large investment areas, especially in the field of studio and conceptual activities for the realization of investments type: greenfield, brownfield, greyfield. The Polish Tourist Organization The Structural Funds Department Funds will also be directed for projects aiming at the increase of the tourist attractiveness factor of Poland, therefore connected to the promotion of Polish tourist values, including the creation of new, innovative product types and tourist services, the tourist information system as well as investments in nationwide tourist products that add to the increase of the level of tourist services. The goal, which we want to achieve via the realization of the aforementioned project is: IMPROVEMENT OF THE IMAGE OF POLAND AS THE ATTRACTIVE ECONOMICAL PARTNER, THE PLACE FOR INITIATION OF VALUABLE TRADE CONTRACTS, LOCATING OF INVESTMENTS, RUNNING OF ECONOMICAL ACTIVITY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURIST SERVICES If you belong to one of the following groups you may ask for a grant within this priority nationwide and international business environment institutions that support the economical and tourist promotion of Poland business environment institutions that operate in the tourist industry public Institution, including legal individuals local authority units Entrepreneurs 410,6 million euro has been devoted to the priority Polish economy on the international market. Priority financial allocation, the total of Share of the EU assets in the priority Share of the public assets in the priority Intermediate Body euro euro euro The Ministry of Economy
14 15 PRIORITY 7: Information society establishment of electronic administration Each one of us would like to be able to solve most of our matters via the Internet without pointless queues and waiting. Within The Innovative Economy Programme there have been proper support forecasted that enables the creation of new electronic services meant for the citizens and especially for entrepreneurs. Creation of electronic public services for citizens and entrepreneurs will be possible thanks to reconstruction of the infrastructure of the public administration and creation of totally integrated platforms, which will enable rendering Implementing Authority for European Programmes of public services via the electronic method in key areas. These areas are in the first place tax issues, customs fees administration fees, public orders etc. Thanks to the support received from the Programme there will be modern administration created that will enable to contact the public administration institution via the Internet. What is also planned is the broadening and integration of the nationwide tele-information infrastructure of the public administration, which constitutes the basis for a unified realization of electronic services. This will enable for not only transfer of data between various platforms, electronic data banks and institutions themselves, integrating public administration units, but it will also ensure the set of indispensable tools that supplement rendering of electronic public services, among others thanks to the electronic system of identity confirmation (eid). The important support area will also be the creation and development of Polish digital Internet resources, especially resources that possess a great importance to the competitiveness of Polish economy in the European Union, the development of entrepreneurship and the increase of social and economical cohesion. The main task in this area is the reconstruction and integration of national registers in order to ensure the safe and efficient access to the information inside the database and the development of systems granting access to public information. The goal, which we want to achieve via the realization of the aforementioned project is: THE IMPROVEMENT IN THE CONDITIONS OF RUNNING BUSINESS THROUGH INCREASING OF THE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION RESOURCES OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC SERVICES IN DIGITAL FORM FOR CITIZENS AND ENTREPRENEURS
15 16 If you belong to one of the following groups you may ask for a grant within this priority state administration entities and their subordinate entities institutions that keep state records and registers pursuant to acts consortia of public administration entities and enterprises, non-governmental organisations, local government bodies or research and development entities 788,2 million euro has been devoted to the priority Information society establishment of electronic administration. Priority financial allocation, the total of Share of the EU assets in the priority Share of the public assets in the priority Intermediate Body euro euro euro The Ministry of Interior and Administration PRIORITY 8: Information society increase of the innovativeness of economy Within priority 8. measures connected to the creation of electronic services, creation of electronic communication between companies as well as will be supported. Implementing Authority for European Programmes The support for the creation and rendering eservices for citizens and companies will be based on provision of grants for performance of the project in the field of creation of digital products and provision of digital services, connected to the multitude of branches of industry, micro- and small companies running their business for not longer than 1 year. The priority foresees the possibility to purchase the services of consulting and IT companies thanks to which the businesses set up on the market of electronic services could be initiated by entrepreneurs possessing various specializations. Moreover, the creation of electronic services rendered between companies as well as application of modern technologies in companies will also be supported. These grants will be rendered to B2B types of projects of technical (IT) as well as organizational character that lead to the realization of e-business. The indispensable supplementation of the above activities is constituted by the fact of provision of the broadband internet access for the citizens. Support in this respect will mean partial or total coverage of the costs of access to the broadband Internet
16 17 The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development for the households potentially eliminated from the information society. Additionally there will exist the possibility for ensuring of proper equipment and software on the condition that proper conditions for its application are ensured as well as provision of technical assistance during the installation processes of the aforementioned equipment at home. There also exists a possibility for servicing of the aforementioned equipment and conveyance of indispensable workshops for final recipients. The business activity of small and middle-sized entrepreneurs will also be supported, based on the fact of the provision of broadband internet access on the section of the so-called the last mile in the areas, where such activity is not profitable. The goal, which we want to achieve via the realization of the aforementioned project, is: STIMULATING OF ELECTRONIC ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT VIA SUPPORT FOR CREATION OF NEW, INNOVATIVE ESERVICES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND DECREASING TECHNOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC AND MENTAL BARRIERS FOR APPLICATION OF ESERVICES AMONG THE SOCIETY If you belong to one of the following groups you may ask for a grant within this priority entrepreneurs, including micro- and small running their business activity not longer than one year local self-government units, their consortia and consortia of local self-government units and non-governmental organisations 1,4 billion euro has been devoted to the priority Information society - Increase of the innovativeness of economy Priority financial allocation, the total of Share of the EU assets in the priority Share of the public assets in the priority Intermediate Body euro euro euro The Ministry of Interior and Administration
17 18 THE INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM OF THE PROGRAMME The Ministry of Regional Development Managing Department for Competitiveness and Innovation Programmes The Ministry of Science and Higher Education The European Fund Department The Ministry of Economy The European Fund Department The Ministry of Interior and Administration IT Department Priority axis 1:The Information Processing Centre (measure 1.1 and 1.3), The Foundation for Polish Science (Beneficiary 1.2), PAED (measure 1.4) Priority axis 2: The European Fund Department in The Ministry of Science and Higher Education (measure 2.3, beneficiary 2.1 and 2.2) Priority axis 3: PAED* (mesaures 3.1, 3.3), The National Capital Fund (beneficiary 3.2) Priority axis 4: PAED* (mesaures 4.1, 4.2, 4.4), DIW** (mesaure 4.5), Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego (beneficiary 4.3) Priority axis 5: PAED* (mesaures 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4) Priority axis 7: Implementing Authority for European Programme measure 7.1 Priority axis 8: PAED* (measures 8.1, 8.2), Implementing Authority for European Programmes (measures 8.3, 8.4) *PAED The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development **DIW The Support Instruments Department in The Ministry of Economy Priority axis 6: PAED* (measure 6.1), The Polish Tourist Organization (measure 6.4, beneficiary 6.3), DIW** (sub-measure 6.6.2, beneficiary and measure 6.5) MANAGING AUTHORITY INTERMEDIATE BODIES IMPLEMENTING INSTITUTIONS
18 19 The Ministry of Regional Development The Managing Authority Managing Department for Competitiveness and Innovation Programmes ul. Wspólna 2/4, Warsaw More information can be obtained at or In case of any further questions contact us at the Information Point regarding The European Funds for the years , Warsaw, ul. Krucza 38/42, tel.+48 (22) and +48 (22) , e- INTERMEDIATE BODIES: The Ministry of Science and Higher Education The Department of European Funds (DFE) ul. Wspólna 1/3 (entrance from ul. Hoża 20) Warsaw tel. +48 (22) fax +48 (22) Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego The Department of Entrepreneurship Support and Innovations Al. Jerozolimskie 7, Warsaw tel. +48 (22) , fax +48 (22) The Ministry of Economy The Department of European Funds Plac Trzech Krzyży 3/5, Warsaw tel. +48 (22) fax +48 (22) The Ministry of Interior and Administration IT Department ul. Wspólna 1/3, Warsaw tel. +48 (22) fax. +48 (22) IMPLEMENTING INSTITUTIONS AND SYSTEM BENEFICIARIES: The Polish Tourist Organization The Department of Structural Fund Implementation ul. Chałubińskiego Warsaw, floor 33, tel. +48 (22) fax. +48 (22) Implementing Authority for European Programmes ul. Wspólna 2/4, IV floor, Warsaw tel. +48 (22) , fax. +48 (22) Information Processing Centre Al. Niepodległości 188 b, Warsaw tel.: +48 (22) fax: +48 (22) additional info can be obtained in The Implementation Department 1.1 and 1.3 OP IE: tel.: +48 (22) The Ministry of Science and Higher Education The European Fund Department (DFE) ul. Wspólna 1/3 (entrance from ul. Hoża 20) Warsaw tel. +48 (22) fax +48 (22) The Polish Agency for Enterprise Development ul. Pańska 81/83, Warsaw tel.: +48 (22) , fax: +48 (22) , , , The National Capital Fund ul. Krucza 16/22, Warsaw tel. +48 (22) fax. +48 (22) The Ministry of Economy The Support Instruments Department Plac Trzech Krzyży 3/5, Warsaw tel. +48 (22) fax +48 (22) The Foundation for Polish Science ul. Grażyny Warsaw tel. +48 (22) fax
19 Publisher: Ministry of Regional Development ul. Wspólna 2/4, Warsaw ISBN: Publication is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund