Ancient Near East (aka Mesopotamia) Neolithic Jericho c bce Uruk (Sumerian) c bce Ziggurat Cuneiform, Cylinder seals Inanna, Anu

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1 Ancient Near East (aka Mesopotamia) Neolithic Jericho c bce Uruk (Sumerian) c bce Ziggurat Cuneiform, Cylinder seals Inanna, Anu Votive Queen Puabi Gilgamesh registers Akkad c bce Sargon, Enhuedonna, Naram Sin Stele Neo-Sumerian c bce Gudea Lilith Babylon c bce Hammurabi Law code Shamash Hittites c bce Lion Gate Assyria c bce Assurnasirpal II Lamassu Neo Babylonia bce Ishtar gate, Nebuchadnezzar, Ba al, Marduk Persia bce Persepolis, Apadana Ancient Iran beaker 5000 bce Scythian gold

2 Ancient Near East (Mesopotamia & Persia) 4,000 BCE

3 Neolithic city of Jericho, bce Walls, tower

4 Jericho, altered skulls, 7000 bce Plaster, paint, cowrie shells

5 Mesopotamia, Euphrates river

6 Sumeria bce Ziggurat cuneiform

7 Ancient Sumerian Ziggurat, c. 3, bce White Temple, Uruk (Erech Bible, Warka today) SE View, right

8 Ancient Sumer, White Temple, Uruk c. 3,500

9 Ancient Sumer, White Temple, Uruk c. 3,500

10 Ancient Sumer, White Temple, Uruk c. 3,500

11 Nanna Ziggurat, Ur, Neo-Sumeria 2,100 BCE

12 Decorative cone mosaics

13 cuneiform

14 Cylinder seals & stamps

15 Cylinder Seals

16 Uruk Vase, 3,300. alabaster 36

17 Registers? Ground line? Pose of body?

18

19 Woman from Uruk, 3,300 Marble, 8 Lost, then recovered during war in Iraq 2003

20 Royal Tombs of Ur 2,550 Queen Puabi

21 Royal Tombs of Ur 2,550 Queen Puabi

22

23 Bull Harp, 2550, Royal tombs of Ur

24 Plaque 13 Medium? Registers? Ground line? Pose of figures?

25 Gilgamesh, King of Ancient Sumer

26 Votive figures, Tell Asmar, Iraq, marble 2,700 BCE

27 Largest figure 30 Scale? Shape? Naturalism? Stylized?

28 Later examples of Sumerian votive figures

29 Akkad (2, BCE) and the 5 Great Kings

30 Sargon?, bronze, 2,300 BCE

31 Disk of Enhuedonna, Ur, alabaster BCE Shape? Composition?

32 Stele of Naram sin, limestone, 7 2,254 BCE Shape? Composition? Registers? Scale? Pose of figures?

33 Gudea, King of Lagash, diorite, BCE Neo-Sumerian

34 Gudea seated Compositon? Shape? Line?

35 Lilith, Neo-Sumerian or Babylonian?, clay (c.2,100 BCE)

36 Babylon, bce

37 Babylonia 6 th century (neo Babylonia) (Tower of Babel ) Ziggurat Hanging Gardens 18 th century BCE Hammurabi

38 Babylon, bce Law code of King Hammurabi, basalt, BCE cuneiform

39

40 Kassites, Hittites & Mitanni c bce (war God Right)

41 Lion Gate of Bogazkoy, Anatolia (Turkey) c BCE Guardian figures

42 Tone?

43 ASSYRIANS c BCE

44 Assyrians Conquer Egypt

45 Palace of Sargon II, Khorsabad, c. 721 BCE

46 Palace of Sargon II, Khorsabad, c. 721 BCE

47 Palace of Sargon Khorsabad Guardian Figures 8 th century Guardian figures hybrid creatures

48 Bogazkoy vs. Khorsabad

49

50 GUARDIAN FIGURES Compositon? Shape? Naturalism? Line? Texture? Lamassu, Khorsabad 720 bce Limestone, 14 Bull/lion

51

52 King Assurnasirpal II Stone portrait bce

53 3 Themes: War Hunting Religious Ceremony

54 Assurnasirpal II at War Note siege engine Nimrud, Iraq c. 875 BCE, limestone, 39" h.

55 Detail siege engine or battering ram

56 War

57 Assurnasirpal hunting 9 th century

58 King vs Lion

59

60 The Lion Hunt Ritual Composition?

61 Assurnasirpal II at War c. 875 BCE, limestone, 39" h. Type of carving: In the round or relief?

62 Tone?

63

64 Religious Ritual reliefs

65

66

67 Neo-Babylonia bce The Ishtar Gate c. 575 BCE Glazed brick, 40 high

68 Ishtar Gate, Berlin Museum 575 bce Composition? Medium? Color?

69

70

71 Marduk aka Ba al

72 Sections of wall framing Ishtar Gate, Babylon

73 Persian Empire c

74 Beaker from Susa c BCE

75 Persian Empire c. 539bce c.400ce Battle of Thermopolis (the 300)(Spartans, Persians)480 bce Persians Sack Athens 480 bce

76 Persians & Spartans 480 bce Leonidis & Xerxes Xerxes or Darius

77 Persians & Spartans 480 bce Bulls & Griffins From Persepolis c. 500 bce

78 Leonidis & Pausinas

79 Persians & Spartans 480 bce Persian Soldiers

80 Spartan Hopiltes

81 Persian Capital Persepolis c. 500 BCE Darius & Xerxes

82 Persian Capital Persepolis c. 500 BCE Hypostyle hall from Egypt!

83 Apadana (audience hall) of Darius & Xerxes & Bull Capitals, Persepolis, c. 500 BCE

84 Apadana at Pesepolis (burned by Alexander the Great c. 320 bce)

85

86

87

88

89

90 Medes, Scythians, Bactrians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks

91 Phonecian L Median body guards below

92 Persian archers L Armenian tribute bearer below

93 Lydians Left, Phonecian R

94

95 Darius & Xerxes at Persepolis c. 500 BCE

96 King Darius seated with Prince Xerxes Persepolis c. 500 bce

97 Ancient Scythian Stag, gold 7 th century 12 ½

98 Achaemenid Rhytons, 5 th century, gold

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