1 Welcome! Academic Vocabulary through journeys 2014 Barb Kruger Sharon Hepburn Maria Lowenstein Melinea Rubiano
2 Table of Contents Slides 1-2: Housekeeping Slides 3-4: Shift # 6 and CCSS Slide 5: What is Academic Vocabulary? Slides 6: Research Slides 7: Keys to Vocabulary Development Slide 8: Three Tiers of Vocabulary Slide 9-11: Focus Wall and Organizer Slide 12-13: Text Complexity Slides 14-16: Vocabulary Instruction Slide 17: Small Group Instruction Slide 18: Literacy Centers Slides 19-20: English Language Learners Slide 21: Literacy and Language Guide Slides 22: Reading Science Slide 23: Florida Civics Connection Slide 24: Common Core ELA Exemplar Resources Slide 25-27: Tier 2 and Tier 3 Interventions Slide 28-29: Trade Books Slide 30: In Summary Slide 31-32: Closing/Questions and Answers For your convenience in viewing the session, here is a table of contents summarizing the various topics of this presentation.
3 Today s Focus Instructional Shift # 6: Academic Vocabulary This session focuses on academic vocabulary through Journeys, which is instructional shift #6. This shift focuses on general academic words that appear across multiple contexts of informational, technical, and literary texts. In addition, teachers need to help students investigate how meaning can be altered by changing key words and why authors choose one word over another. Another key component of this shift, is that students need to be exposed to and interact with challenging language throughout the class to acquire understandings of word meanings. Lastly, Students are taught fewer words, but at a deeper and more meaningful level.
4 English Language Arts Common Core State Standards The sixth instructional shift pertains to the Common Core Literature and Informational Standards -- Reading Anchor Standard 4 which deals with the interpretation of words and phrases and the analysis of word choice. In addition, academic vocabulary pertains to Language Anchor standards 4, 5 and 6 which deal with the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, figurative language, word relationships, nuances in word meaning and lastly, academic and domain-specific words and phrases. According to Marilyn Jager Adams, words are not just words. Words are the interface between communication and thought. When we read, it is through words that we build, refine, and modify our knowledge. What makes vocabulary valuable and important is not the words themselves so much as the understandings they afford. There is more information on common core appendix A page 32. Research suggests that if students are going to grasp and retain words and comprehend text, they need repeated exposure, in a variety of context, to the words they are trying to learn.
5 What is academic vocabulary? Vocabulary critical to understanding the concepts of the content taught in schools... General academic words are tier two words that are frequently encountered in complex, written text and are particularly powerful, because of their wide applicability to many sorts of reading. Most of the words are likely to appear frequently in a wide variety of texts and in the written and oral language of mature language users.
6 What we know from research Word meaning is critical to success in reading Students learn words through wide reading and explicit instruction Understanding word meanings helps to improve comprehension Some of the key points that we know from research in vocabulary instruction are: Knowledge of word meaning is critical to success in reading. Students learn words through wide reading. Students acquire new words by learning strategies for understanding unfamiliar words. Language and word awareness are critical to learning new words. Prior knowledge and experiences support increased vocabulary knowledge. There is a relationship between difficulty of words in text and comprehension. Direct vocabulary instruction improves comprehension, therefore, teachers should dedicate a portion of the regular classroom lesson to explicit vocabulary instruction. Repeated exposure to words in meaningful contexts improves comprehension. Students should be given sufficient opportunities to use new vocabulary in a variety of contexts through activities.
7 Key to students vocabulary development Build rich and flexible word knowledge Use and respond to the words Learn to make connections and patterns in language The key to students vocabulary development is building rich and flexible word knowledge. Students also need opportunities to use and respond to the words they learn through playful and formal talk, discussion, reading or being read to and responding to what is read. Students benefit from instruction about the connections and patterns in language.
8 Three Tiers of Vocabulary Tier One Most basic words Rarely require instruction Tier Two Frequently used words by mature language users (typically found in written language) Tier Three Not frequently used words, limited to specific domains Examples clock, baby, happy Examples coincidence, absurd, reluctant Examples isotope, peninsula, refinery In Bringing Words to Life, Isabel Beck and others identify three tiers of vocabulary. The tiers are not intended to be a hierarchy. All three are necessary for vocabulary development. Tier One Words: These are words found in everyday speech. These are words that our students are likely to hear in daily language and can easily define or use in spoken language and writing. Tier Two Words: These are the general academic words. These are words that are likely to have root words, prefixes, suffixes, or other word parts. Students are likely to encounter these words across content areas, in a variety of texts. Tier two words are important for vocabulary development because of the role they play in literacy. They are the words that characterize written text but are not so common in everyday conversation. These words are far more likely to appear in written texts than in speech and often represent subtle or precise ways to say relatively simple things. Because tier two words are found across many types of texts, they are highly generalizable. Tier Three Words: These are the domain specific words. These words are rarely used in daily language and would be found in texts specific to a certain subject area. Knowledge of these words is vital to understanding content area instruction. These words are far more common in informational texts than in literature. Recognized as new and hard words for most readers, they are often explicitly defined by the author of a text, repeatedly used and heavily scaffolded.
9 Journeys Focus Wall Teachers can find all of the vocabulary and vocabulary strategies, comprehension skills and strategies, phonics, fluency, writing and grammar teaching points on the focus wall for each Journeys five day plan. This same information can be found on the Journeys Unit organizers in the ELR CAB conference. Whether using the focus wall or the unit organizers, teachers can see at a glance the various teaching points that will be addressed in the five day plan. Teachers need to look at the opening routines and various suggested lessons in order to identify the purpose of the activity. If teachers read the suggested lesson and determine the lesson doesn t fit the needs of their students, they can look at all resources available to them that would assist their students with the specific skill or strategy. For example, instead of Daily Vocabulary Boost, a teacher may decide to substitute an Oral Vocabulary Card story from Treasures in order to further develop the students oral vocabulary development. Or if a teacher already has some word wall activities in place from the District Word Wall Flip Book, these can be used in place of the Daily High Frequency Word suggestions.
10 Journeys Features Word Study Target Skill & Strategy The progression of the Word Study lessons and the Target Skills and Strategies can be found in the Journeys Unit Organizers found in the ELR CAB conference. Remember, the progression of phonological awareness, phonics and skill/strategy lessons spiral throughout the series. Therefore, if you choose to use a story out of sequence, be sure that students are still following the progression of phonological awareness and phonics skills and that the skill/strategy lesson is reteaching those which have already been taught. Also, teachers need to use the decodable readers with caution, as many times these readers are frustrational text for struggling readers and do not make sense, as they are contrived to follow a certain phonics pattern. Just like in Treasures, the target skill and strategy are introduced and then emphasized throughout the anchor text. Students get additional practice in small group through the use of the appropriate leveled readers.
11 Journeys Features Each unit organizer in Journeys has a section for each lesson which highlights the target vocabulary words for that week. Teachers can use these words and other words found in the texts to plan their lessons.
12 This Journeys Text Complexity rubric is found in each lesson after the focus wall page, in the Teacher s Edition. The text complexity rubric provides quantitative measures such as the lexile level and the guided reading level. The rubric also provides the language conventionality and clarity demands of the text which gives a description of the vocabulary. This rubric will assist you in determining the amount of scaffolding necessary when using the anchor and paired texts. Remember, this rubric is only a guideline and you may have to adjust, according to your specific students needs, when you are planning your lessons.
13 Journeys Features: Another way that Journeys helps teachers with developing academic vocabulary is by providing multiple texts with the same target vocabulary. Students are also exposed to multiple interactions with vocabulary, to develop word meaning and the language needed to tackle the more complex texts in Journeys.
14 Vocabulary context On Day 1 in each lesson, the teacher introduces the target vocabulary words and uses the context cards to enhance instruction. There are vocabulary in context cards that came to you in a box labeled Instructional Cards Kit. These cards are referred to throughout the five day lesson plan.
15 Vocabulary instruction On each day, there is a review of the target vocabulary called Daily Vocabulary Boost. This is found under the Opening Routines in the teacher s edition. In addition, on Day 3, there is a section called Apply Vocabulary Knowledge which allows the students to use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to text. On Day 4, there is a section called Vocabulary Strategies and on Day 5, there is a section called Extend the Topic, which focuses on domain-specific vocabulary.
16 Vocabulary reader Student Book Teacher Lesson Plans The vocabulary reader and plans have a section on the practice and application of the target vocabulary. The vocabulary reader and the vocabulary reader 8 page lesson plans were sent to the school in print form. They are also found digitally on Think Central under Resources, under the heading Readers.
17 Small Group & Flexible Grouping Plan Small group lesson plans are found in the Teacher s Edition. The lesson plans found behind the small group tab are brief and may not meet the needs of your students. More extensive lesson plans can be found under Readers in the Teacher Resources. Teachers also have a hard copy of these more in-depth small group lesson plans. There are lesson plans that use the vocabulary reader on day 1 and there are lesson plans on differentiated vocabulary strategies on day 4.
18 LITERACY CENTERS The literacy center flip charts are only available online through Think Central. These flip charts have activities that can be used to reinforce vocabulary and word study.
19 English Language learner In the English Language Learners section of Journeys, there are lesson plans to develop and practice the target vocabulary. The English Language Learners tab contains the lesson plans that support ELL students. The lessons can also be found in Think Central, in the English Language Learners tab, to the left, under Florida in the resource page.
20 English Language learner ELL Newcomer Teacher Guide ELL Newcomer Vocabulary and Concept Map In the English Language Learners Newcomer Guide, there are lesson plans that help build background knowledge and practice and apply the vocabulary found in the additional texts found in the book. The newcomer teacher guides are found digitally on Think Central on the Resource page under English Language Learners. In addition, the newcomer vocabulary and concept maps that go with the texts found in the newcomer guide were sent to schools and are also found in same location as teacher guides.
21 Literacy and language guide The Literacy and Language Guide has weekly lesson plans for Word Study, Vocabulary, Reading and Writing. The vocabulary mini-lessons connect to Journeys instruction and provide students with additional support using the weekly target vocabulary. The Literacy and Language Guide comes in digital format only. It is found in the resource tab of Think Central under the Teaching Aid.
22 Reading Science This resource is found under Teaching Aids in the online resources for teachers. Many lessons at Grades 1 5 include direct instruction on vocabulary strategies, including lessons on prefixes, suffixes, and Greek and Latin roots, based on vocabulary found in each informational text. This resource also includes reading, writing, speaking and listening instruction
23 Florida Civics connection This resource is found under Practice and Study Aids in the online resources for teachers. Florida Civics Connection provides reading passages, activities and questions that tie to the NGSSS as related to civics only. This resource is available for each grade level and can be used as a supplement to the social studies adopted materials. There are sections on each page that focus on academic vocabulary.
24 Common Core ela exemplar resources Teachers can find the Common Core ELA Exemplar Resource in Think Central, through the Teacher Gateway, under the Teaching Aids section. This resource was developed to provide instruction for the exemplars found in Appendix B of the CCSS for ELA. Remember these exemplars are organized by grade level bands (K-1, 2-3, and 4-5). This resource may be used to help students routinely write. It also gives students an opportunity to be exposed to academic vocabulary in content area text.
25 Write- in reader: Tier 2 The write-in reader is a research based Tier II intervention that provides extra support for the CCSS. It includes easier text that scaffolds students toward reading more complex grade level text. The write-in reader has engaging selections that connect to the main topic. In addition, it has an interactive work text which reinforces the week s vocabulary and comprehension. There are daily lessons that use the target vocabulary that the anchor text uses. The write-in reader lesson plans are found in the teacher s edition behind the intervention tab in the back of each teacher s edition. The write-in reader is also available online in think central.the write-in reader audio text can be found under the intervention link found on the left side of the resource page under the Florida title.
26 Instructional Shift and Building Background Curious About Words Tier 2 Curious About Words is a Tier 2 intervention designed for oral vocabulary development in grades K-3. It comes in a separate container with a teacher s manual. This intervention provides oral vocabulary instruction for students with limited vocabulary. The materials include engaging, Read Alouds with a Teacher s Manual. This Tier 2 intervention teaches high-utility, research-based words, including academic vocabulary. Lastly, it has an assessment piece that includes weekly pretests and posttests.
27 Reading Tool Kit 1-3 vs. Literacy Tool Kit 4-5 Tier 3 The Reading Tool Kit and the Literacy Tool Kit are intended for the Tier III students. Reading Tool Kit is for Grade 1-3. It is an intensive intervention that consists of targeted 15 minute reading skill intervention lessons for those students who have not mastered key early reading skills. There are 90 lessons that are organized by the critical components of reading: phonemic/phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. The lessons follow a three step instructional plan and each component is divided into three stages. Periodic assessment and lesson quick checks are included to monitor progress. Since the same kit is used for Grades 1-3, some vertical planning is recommended to determine how your school will use these resources effectively. The Literacy Tool Kit is designed for Grades 4-5. The lessons are also divided under the areas of phonics and word study, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. These lessons are similar to the Reading Tool Kit, however, additional readers are used in Grades 4-5. The school will be receiving the readers that will provide students with the opportunity to practice the skills and strategies highlighted in the lessons. In both kits, the lessons are prescriptive. You need to know the areas of need for your students and choose lessons that deal with the specific need.
28 Journeys Features: Teachers can find the Common Core ELA Exemplar Resource under the Teaching Aids section. This resource was developed to provide instruction for the exemplars found in Appendix B of the CCSS for ELA. Remember these exemplars are organized by grade level bands (K-1, 2-3, and 4-5). Teachers may look at the exemplars for informational text and tie into content area standards being taught. The lesson set-up includes background information, questions corresponding to a first read and a second read as well as a performance task. This is a great way to expose students to Tier 2 and Tier 3 vocabulary words.
29 Journeys Features TRADE Books Grades 1-2 Extended Reading Lesson Plans 1st Tab in TE Units 2, 4, 6 Grades 3-5 Extended Reading Lesson Plans 1st Tab in TE Units 2, 4 Small Group Lessons - Unit 6 Extended Reading Lesson Plans for specific trade books are found in the 1st tab of the TE in Units 2, 4 and 6. This resource can be used either at the end of the specified units or at any time the teacher feels that use of the book is appropriate. In the old series, teachers used the Time for Kids to supplement lessons. With Journeys, teachers in Grades 3-5 received a class set of the Reading Adventures magazines. With this series, the magazines were not designed to be used as a supplement. In Grades 3-5, Unit 6 whole group lessons use the Reading Adventures magazines while the small group plans revolve around three different trade books with three different readability levels (classified as accessible, complex and more complex). Grade 3-5 teachers may choose to use the Reading Adventures magazine as a supplement but just keep in mind that the magazine is also used as the whole group lessons in Unit 6. This is the reason that you will not see a Unit 6 in the Grades 3-5 student basal textbooks. These additional resources can help teachers scaffold grade level complex pieces of texts.
30 In summary Rich Word-learning experiences Learn specific words Use independent word-learning strategies Develop high quality, rich language for speaking and listening Become word conscious Engage in wide reading In summary, teachers provide powerful vocabulary instruction and supportive word learning activities everyday. As a result, students are propelled into rich and memorable word learning experiences that help them learn specific words, use independent word learning strategies, develop high quality rich language for speaking and writing, become word conscious and engage in wide reading.
31 Change is possible. Change requires three things; a vision, a plan, and effort. It requires changing bad habits to good habits. It requires effort even when we don t feel like working. It requires one step at a time. Santa Clara University Change is happening now as we move towards the CCSS. It is going to take hard work. Start small where you feel comfortable. Work collaboratively and be sure to give children an opportunity to tackle complex text in your classroom learning opportunities. Above all, let students do the work.
32 Q and A Teachers can find a Journeys Frequently Asked Questions and Answers document in the Elementary Literacy Resources CAB conference. Thank you for time while learning more about Academic Vocabulary Through Journeys.