1 Building Vocabulary in Kindergarten Students Presented by: Sheryl White
2 Session Objectives Understanding vocabulary demands in the Common Core State Standards Selecting Tier 2 Academic Vocabulary Examining strategies for teaching vocabulary
3 How much do you know about the 3 Use a 1 Not heard of three tiers of vocabulary tiers of vocabulary? to show your current understanding. 2 Very little knowledge of three tiers of vocabulary 3 Some familiarity of three tiers of vocabulary 4 Know three tiers of vocabulary and how to use 5 Deep knowledge of three tiers can teach others
4 The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary knowledge is one of the best indicators of verbal ability. Vocabulary knowledge in kindergarten and first grade is a significant predictor of reading comprehension in the middle and secondary grades.
5 The Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary difficulty strongly influences the readability of text. In fact, vocabulary is far and away the most significant factor influencing text difficulty. Teaching vocabulary can improve reading comprehension for both native English speakers and English learners. (Graves, 2006, 2007)
6 Oral Language & Vocabulary Research Risley, Todd R. Meaningful Differences in Everyday Experience of Young American Children, Social Status Number of words heard per/hour Estimate of number of words heard per/week Encouraging words vs. Discouraging words per/week Welfare Families , vs. 1,100 Children from Working Class Families Children from Professional Families 1, ,000 1,200 vs , ,000 3,200 vs. 500
7 Common Core Vocabulary L.K.5 With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. Q 1 b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms). Q 2 c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful). d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings. Q 2
8 Common Core Vocabulary L.K.6 Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.
9 SFPS Kindergarten Essential Question How do we use questioning, read aloud activities, rhyming, writing, and oral language development to support students acquisition of strong foundational reading and writing skills?
11 Components of a Successful Vocabulary Program High-Quality Classroom Language Reading Aloud to Students Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Word-Learning Strategies Wide Independent Reading
12 High-Quality Classroom Language Use high quality vocabulary in the classroom. To ensure understanding, tell students the meaning of words when first used. Don t procrastinate on your work. Procrastinate means to wait to doing something you should be doing. Pair in the meaning of the word by using parallel language. Please refrain from talking. Please don t talk.
13 Read-Alouds Actively engage students during story book and informational text reading to increase vocabulary gains. Ask questions that promote passage comprehension. Retell and prediction questions are particularly useful. Use a variety of responses including: Group (choral) responses Partner responses Physical responses 13
14 Read Alouds For young students, read the book several times to increase greater gains in vocabulary. Provide a rich discussion before and after reading of the book. What was your favorite part of the book? What really surprised you in the story? What would be another ending for the story? Is there something you are wondering about from the book? 14
15 Read-Aloud Vocabulary Instruction Incidental Exposure Example: Instructional Focus I don t know what I would have done. Curiosity might have gotten the better of me. Explanation: Teacher infuses a vocabulary word into a discussion about the read-aloud.
16 Read-Aloud Vocabulary Instruction Embedded Instruction Example: Instructional Focus And he s using an oar-a stick-to move the raft [pointing to the illustration]. Explanation: Teacher provides a synonym before the target term oar, pointing to the illustration.
17 Read-Aloud Vocabulary Instruction Focused Instruction Example: Instructional Focus Let s get set means let s get ready [elicits examples of things students get ready for]. Explanation: Teacher leads a discussion on what it means to, get set including getting set for school and party.
18 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary activities specifically designed to teach new words Explicit vocabulary strategies Use informational and narrative texts Promote thinking and extend discourse Encourage use of novel words Provide access to print Examine word relationships Teach word parts Use graphic organizers 18
19 Successful Vocabulary Instruction A successful approach to vocabulary instruction involves directly explaining the meanings of words along with thought-provoking, playful and interactive follow-up.
20 Common Core and Three Tiers of Vocabulary
21 Three Tiers of Words Tier One High Frequency Words Tier Two Academic Vocabulary Tier Three Domain-specific Vocabulary 21
22 Three Tiers of Vocabulary Tier 1- Everyday Words (implicit) Used in everyday speech* chair, bed, happy, house (Beck & McKeown, 1985)
23 Three Tiers of Vocabulary Tier Two - Words in general use, not content specific = Academic Vocabulary Appear far more in written texts than in speech concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved, dignity, convenient, observation, analyze, persistence ++describe, detail, example
24 Three Tiers of Vocabulary Tier Three- Domain-Specific Words Words related to a specific content or field of study triangle, stem, addition, syllable tundra, igneous, triangle, perpendicular, democracy
25 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Sources of Words Sources of words for vocabulary instruction WORDS from read-aloud books WORDS from core reading programs WORDS from reading intervention programs WORDS from content area instruction and texts Math Science Social studies Health Art, PE, music, etc. 25
26 Sources of Words for Young Children for the most part ARE NOT words from the texts that young children read ARE words from books that are read to children teacher s and other adult s language
27 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction- Selection of Vocabulary Select words that : are likely unfamiliar are critical to passage understanding. students are likely to encounter in the future and are generally useful. are Tier Two words (Academic Vocabulary) are easily explained to children at their level (Beck & McKeown, 2003) (Stahl, 1986) 27
28 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Selection of Vocabulary Goldilocks Words Not too difficult Not too easy Just right (Stahl & Stahl, 2004) 28
29 Selection Criteria for Instructional Vocabulary Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Description Basic words that most children know before entering school Words that appear frequently in texts and for which students already have conceptual understanding Uncommon words that are typically associated with a specific domain or content area Examples clock, baby, happy coincidence, fortunate, insist, adapt chrysalis, peninsula, decimal (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002)
30 How do I determine that a word is TIER 2? Word Is this a generally useful word? Does the word relate to other words and ideas that students know or have been learning? Is the word useful in helping students understand text? If you answer yes to all three questions, it is a tier 2 word. If not, it is probably a tier 3 word.
31 Your Turn-Selecting Tier 2 Words In partners at your table, choose one of the texts you have brought to work with for today. Identify (4 )Tier 2 words you would teach your students. Use the selection criteria to help guide you through this process.
32 What Strategies Would You Use to Teach Your Selected Words? Fold the Line
33 Text Talk: Teaching Vocabulary Using Read Alouds Use books teachers read aloud to students as a source of vocabulary Engage in vocabulary activities after a book has been read K-1 recommendation (I. Beck,M.McKeown & L. Kucan))
34 Text Talk for Young Children A read-aloud approach to enhance children s comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. Introduce the story Read Stopping and asking open-ended questions Following up children's response (e.g. rereading, revoicing) Think and Talk Comprehension discussion Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Extended practice and application
35 Text Talk Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Read story and select 3-6 Tier 2 words. Introduce Vocabulary Step 1: Contextualize each word from text. Step 2: Explain the meaning of the word is explained using student-friendly terms. Step 3: Children repeats the word so they can create a phonological representation of the word.
36 Providing Student-Friendly Definitions Providing student-friendly definitions ones that are accurate and that students will understand is no mean task. Below is a definition of dazzling from the dictionary and a student-friendly definition. Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2003). bright enough to deprive someone of sight temporarily If something is dazzling, that means that it s so bright that you can hardly look at it. Cobuild 36
37 Text Talk Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Introduce Vocabulary Step 4: Teacher provides examples in contexts and other than the one used in the story. Students also provide their own examples. Step 5: Children say the word again to reinforce the phonological representation.
38 Text Talk Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Develop Vocabulary Step 6: Students engage in activities that allow them to interact with words. These activities serve as a means for students to respond, explain and create their own examples.
39 Note Taking As each type of interactive activity is explained, please record any ideas or notes that will assist you in the future.
40 Activities for Interacting with Words What s the Word Concept Web Making Choices Idea Substitution Situations and Examples Choose the Best Answer Word Association Questions, Answers, Reasons Using All the Words*
41 Step 6 Interactive Activities What s the Word? Teachers provides a sentence with a word missing. Tell students one of the words they are learning will fit in each sentence. For each sentence, a child should be asked to explain why they chose they word they did.
42 Step 6 Interactive Activities Concept Web loyal
43 Step 6 Interactive Activities Making Choices Teacher provides examples and students respond orally or physically (stand up, raised hand, color coded cards, etc.).
44 Activities for Interacting with Words Idea Substitution Tell students that you will read a sentence that has something to do with one of their words. Then ask someone to repeat the sentence using the new word.
45 Activities for Interacting with Words Situations and Examples Tell students that you will ask them to use their new words in different ways. Explain you will give them examples and then have them do the same. As they respond with an example, have them explain the connection between the word and its meaning.
46 Step 6 Interactive Activities Choose the Best Answer Ask students questions and have them choose the answer that makes sense with one of the words they are learning. After a response, call on a child to explain
47 Step 6 Interactive Activities Word Association Teacher tells students that he/she will say something and they are tell which word (of those they are learning) it makes them think of. For each word, make them explain why. Repeat the word choices at the end of each sentence.
48 Step 6 Interactive Activities Questions, Reasons and Examples A final activity for each word provides situations in which children have to interact with the target word, often by responding to and explaining examples as well as creating their own.
49 Step 6 Interactive Activities Using All Words Activities where student interact will all the target words from the lesson. Can serve as a concluding activity.
50 Text Talk Maintaining Words The research strongly points to the need for frequent encounters with new words in order to become a permanent part of a student s vocabulary repertoire. Apply Words Learned to New Stories Using Words in Reading and Writing Situations
51 Other Text Talk Extensions Morning Message Our Words reluctant drowsy loyal Word Tallies # of Times We Have Heard Word IIII III IIII Word Wall Word Jar
52 My Turn A Pocket for Corduroy You will be my class! Please follow along with me and participate in the student responses. reluctant, insisted, drowsy
55 Your Turn As a small group, triad or partners, you will practice designing a Text Talk lesson using the a book you brought for today. Complete the Text Talk Planning template Choose at least 2 interactive activities
56 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Using Literature & Informational Text Graphics and visuals Identify the word(s) to be learned Present a student-friendly explanation Illustrate the word with examples or have children act out revolve when something moves around something else Marzano Building Academic Vocabulary
57 Making Vocabulary Active TPR- Total Physical Response recognizes the value of language being associated with physical responses grammar-based view of language that focuses on meaning, not form Evidence-based strategy for English Language Learners strong
58 Categorizing/Sorting List-Group-Label for Young Children Identify topic Provide or have students generate words related to topic or use picture cards that relate to topic Sort picture cards into group Label the name for each category
59 Categorizing/Sorting Categories Descriptors Familiar Settings & Topics Categories 5 Senses, etc. People, Places, Things
60 Your Turn Each table will be given a card with a topic and type of category As a group, create a chart that shows how you would teach this topic and categories.
61 Categorizing/Sorting Semantic Feature Analysis Can modify for Kindergarten students by using pictures on both axis.
63 Words and Shades of Meaning Acting out Simon Says talk, march, strut, prance speak, whisper, murmur
64 Nursery Rhyme Substitution Substitute verbs in nursery rhymes and have students act out the differences in the verb meanings. Jack and Jill went up the hill Walked, skipped, ran, sauntered, pranced, marched
65 How much do you know NOW about the Use a 1 Not heard of three tiers of vocabulary 3 tiers of vocabulary? to show your current understanding. 2 Very little knowledge of three tiers of vocabulary 3 Some familiarity of three tiers of vocabulary 4 Know three tiers of vocabulary and how to use 5 Deep knowledge of three tiers can teach others
66 3-2-1 List 3 Things You Learned: List 2 Things You Will Try: List 1 Question You Have:
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