# CHAPTER 1. Minimum connectors

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1 PTR Minimum connectors Learning objectives fter studying this chapter, you should be able to: understand the significance of a minimum spanning tree apply Kruskal s algorithm to a network apply Prim s algorithm to a network apply Prim s algorithm to a matrix.. Introduction haulage company has many lorries collecting and delivering goods throughout the country. The company uses the lorries in such a way that the total distance travelled by all of the lorries is as short as possible. This is one example of a company trying to find a minimum. The aim of television cabling companies is to connect as many homes in as many towns as possible to a network. The less this costs the better, so they aim to use as short a length of cabling as possible. The diagram below shows a network of roads connecting main towns near to Manchester. The numbers represent the distances, in miles, between towns. MP TO OLLOW

2 2 Minimum connectors The problem is to determine how to connect six towns in the network using the least amount of cabling. We can model this problem by drawing a network. ury () Rochdale (R) Salford (S) Manchester (M) Oldham (O) Trafford (T) The towns are vertices (or nodes) on the network. The lines connecting the towns are called edges (or arcs). The problem is to determine how to connect the vertices R, O, M, T, S and so that the total length of the edges is as short as possible. The solution can be found by inspection. The solution is 2 miles of cabling, as shown below. S T M R O It is interesting to notice that the solution contains five edges. The number of edges in a minimum spanning tree is always one less than the number of vertices. The edge MS of length was not included as this edge would make a cycle MSTM. (raph theory is dealt with fully in hapter.) This is called the minimum spanning tree for the network. In this example there was only one spanning tree that gave the minimum answer of 2, but this is not always the case. It was easy to find a minimum spanning tree by inspection in this example because there were only six towns. owever, if there were 20 towns then it would be impractical to try and find a minimum spanning tree by inspection as the number of possible spanning trees for a network of 20 vertices is To find a solution efficiently we apply an algorithm. There are two algorithms for finding a minimum spanning tree: Kruskal s and Prim s. lgorithms are dealt with in hapter.

3 .2 Kruskal s algorithm To find a minimum spanning tree for a network with n edges. Step hoose the unused edge with the lowest value. Step 2 dd this edge to your tree. Step If there are n edges in your tree, stop. If not, go to Step. Worked example. Use Kruskal s algorithm to find the minimum spanning tree for the following network. 2 0 Minimum connectors t each step remember to make sure you do not make a cycle. 9 0 J I Solution There are 0 vertices so the minimum spanning tree will have nine edges. Step hoose the lowest edge, a value of. Step 2 dd to the tree. Step hoose the lowest edge or, both have a value of. It doesn t matter which is chosen. Step 2 dd to the tree.

4 Minimum connectors Step hoose the lowest edge, with a value of. Step 2 dd to the tree. Step hoose the lowest edge or, both have a value of. Step 2 dd to the tree. Step hoose the lowest edge, with a value of. Step 2 dd to the tree. Step hoose the lowest edge, or I, all have a value of. Step 2 O NOT to the tree. This would make a cycle of. dd to the tree.

5 Minimum connectors Step hoose the lowest edge I, with a value of. Step 2 dd I to the tree. I Step hoose the lowest edge, with a value of. Step 2 dd to the tree. I Step hoose the lowest edge or IJ, both with a value of. Step 2 O NOT to the tree as this would make a cycle of. dd IJ to the tree. Step There are now nine edges and the minimum spanning tree is complete. J I The length of the minimum spanning tree is 9 units. XRIS Showing your working, use Kruskal s algorithm on the following networks to find a minimum spanning tree. In each case, state the length of your minimum spanning tree and draw it.

6 Minimum connectors (a) 2 (b) I The diagram below shows a network of roads connecting villages. Shaw (S) elph ().. Royton (R) lodwick () Mossley (M). 7 shton (). 9 hadderton () Lees (L) Showing your working, use Kruskal s algorithm to find a minimum spanning tree. State the length of your minimum spanning tree and draw it. The diagram below shows rooms in a school. The numbers on each edge represent the length of cabling required to connect that particular arc to a new cabling network. ach room is to be connected to this new computer network. J I K L Showing your working, use Kruskal s algorithm to find a minimum spanning tree. State the length of your minimum spanning tree and draw it.

7 Minimum connectors 7. Prim s algorithm To find a minimum spanning tree for a network with n edges. Step rom a start vertex draw the lowest valued edge to start your tree. (ny vertex can be chosen as the start vertex; however, it will always be given in an exam question.) Step 2 rom any vertex on your tree, add the edge with the lowest value. Step If there n edges in your tree, you have finished. If not, go to step 2. t each step remember to make sure you do not make a cycle. key aspect of Prim s algorithm is that as the tree is being built, the tree is always connected. You are always adding a new vertex to your current tree. Worked example.2 Use Prim s algorithm, starting from, to find the minimum spanning tree for the network below J I Solution Step hoose the lowest edge from, which is, with a value of. Step 2 hoose the lowest edge from or, which is, with a value of. dd to the tree.

8 Minimum connectors Step 2 hoose the lowest edge from, or, which is, with a value of. dd to the tree. Step 2 hoose the lowest edge from,, or, which is, with a value of. dd to the tree. Step 2 hoose the lowest edge from,,, or, which is either or, with a value of. O NOT to the tree as this would make a cycle of. dd to the tree. Step 2 hoose the lowest edge from,,,, or, which is, with a value of. dd to the tree.

9 Minimum connectors 9 Step 2 hoose the lowest edge from,,,,, or, which is I, with a value of. dd I to the tree. I Step 2 hoose the lowest edge from,,,,,, or I, which is, with a value of. dd to the tree. I Step 2 hoose the lowest edge from,,,,,,, I or, which is either or IJ, with a value of. O NOT OOS, as this would make a cycle of. dd IJ to the tree. J I Step There are now n (which equals 9, in this case) edges. The minimum spanning tree is your final answer. The length of the minimum spanning tree is 9 units. XRIS Showing your working, use Prim s algorithm starting from on the following networks to find a minimum spanning tree. In each case, state the length of your minimum spanning tree and draw it.

10 0 Minimum connectors (a) 2 (b) I The diagram below shows a network of roads connecting villages. Shaw (S) elph ().. Royton (R) lodwick () Mossley (M). 7 shton (). 9 hadderton () Lees (L) Showing your working, use Prim s algorithm starting from to find a minimum spanning tree. State the length of your minimum spanning tree and draw it. The diagram below shows rooms in a school. The numbers on each edge represent the length of cabling required to connect that particular arc to a new cabling network. ach room is to be connected to this new computer network. J I K L Showing your working, use Prim s algorithm starting from to find a minimum spanning tree. State the length of your minimum spanning tree and draw it.

11 . omparison of Prim s and Kruskal s algorithms Whenever these two algorithms are applied to the same network, the order in which we add the edges is different. owever, the final minimum spanning tree will always be the same. Worked example. ind the minimum spanning tree for the network below, showing the order in which edges are selected: (a) using Kruskal s algorithm, (b) using Prim s algorithm starting from. Minimum connectors It is essential that you write down the order that each edge is added to the tree. (You do not have to draw the tree at each step of the algorithm.) In an examination this is how an examiner will determine if the correct algorithm has been used Solution The minimum spanning tree for the network is: 7 The length of the minimum spanning tree is 29. The order of adding the edges to the tree is different using the two algorithms: (a) Kruskal s (b) Prim s

12 2 Minimum connectors. Matrix form of Prim s algorithm Often maps contain tables that summarise distances between towns to enable a reader to find the distance between two places at a glance. table can be called a matrix. The table below shows the distance, in miles, between five cities. berdeen irmingham ardiff London Oxford berdeen 0 irmingham ardiff London 20 2 Oxford 0 0 ow can we find a minimum spanning tree when information is given in this format? rom the table it is possible to draw the network connecting the towns, and then from this network to apply either of the algorithms. This method is time-consuming for five towns and certainly would be impractical if there were 20 towns. Prim s algorithm can be adapted to enable a minimum spanning tree to be determined directly from the table (matrix). Step Label the column corresponding to the start vertex with a. elete the row corresponding to that vertex. Step 2 Ring the smallest available value in any labelled column. Step Label the column corresponding to the ringed vertex with a 2, etc. elete the row corresponding to that vertex. Step Repeat steps 2 and until all rows have been deleted. Step Write down the order in which edges were selected and the length of the minimum spanning tree. O NOT ONSIR NTRIS TT V N LT Worked example. Use Prim s algorithm, starting from berdeen, to find the minimum spanning tree for the following network represented in matrix form. raw the minimum spanning tree. berdeen irmingham ardiff London Oxford berdeen 0 irmingham ardiff London 20 2 Oxford 0 0

13 Minimum connectors Solution Step Label the berdeen column with a and delete the row corresponding to berdeen. Step 2 Ring the smallest entry,, in this column. Step Label the irmingham column with a 2 and delete the row corresponding to irmingham. berdeen irmingham 2 ardiff London Oxford berdeen 0 irmingham ardiff London 20 2 Oxford 0 0 Step 2 The smallest entry in either the berdeen or irmingham column is, irmingham to Oxford. Ring. Step Label the Oxford column with a and delete the Oxford row. berdeen irmingham 2 ardiff London Oxford berdeen 0 irmingham ardiff London 20 2 Oxford 0 0 Step 2 The smallest entry in columns berdeen, irmingham or Oxford is, Oxford to London. Ring. Step Label the London column with a and delete the London row. berdeen irmingham 2 ardiff London Oxford berdeen 0 irmingham ardiff London 20 2 Oxford 0 0 Step 2 The smallest entry in any of the four columns is 0, Oxford to ardiff. Ring 0. Step Label the ardiff column with a and delete the ardiff row.

14 Minimum connectors Step ll rows have now been deleted. berdeen irmingham 2 ardiff London Oxford berdeen 0 irmingham ardiff London 20 2 Oxford 0 0 Step The order of the edges selected was, O, OL and O and the total length is 0 miles. XRIS Showing your working, use Prim s algorithm starting from on the following matrices to find a minimum spanning tree. In each case, state the length of your minimum spanning tree and draw it. (a) (b) Write the network given in Worked xample. as a matrix. pply Prim s algorithm to this matrix, starting from, to find the minimum spanning tree. Write the networks given in xercise as a matrix. pply Prim s algorithm to this matrix, starting from, to find the minimum spanning tree. MIX XRIS The following matrix shows the distances, in miles, between six towns. (a) Using Kruskal s algorithm and showing your working at each stage, find the minimum spanning tree for these six towns. (b) State the length of your minimum spanning tree. [] (a) or a connected graph with n vertices, state the number of edges in a minimum spanning tree. (b) cable company has laid cables to ccrington and is now considering extending the network to neighbouring villages. The distances, in miles, between the villages are shown below.

15 Minimum connectors Sabden (S) ccrington () Read (R) Whalley (W) 2 Padiham (P) igham () (i) Using Prim s algorithm, starting from ccrington, showing a sketch at each stage, obtain the minimum spanning tree for the cable company. (ii) State the length of your minimum spanning tree. [] The distances, in miles, between six towns are given by the following matrix. (a) Using Prim s algorithm and showing your working at each stage, find a minimum spanning tree for these six towns. (b) State the length of your minimum spanning tree. (c) When information is provided in matrix form, explain why Prim s algorithm, in preference to Kruskal s algorithm, is normally used to find a minimum spanning tree. [] The distance chart below gives the distances, in miles, between six towns in northern ngland. radford () alifax (al) arrogate (ar) uddersfield ud) 2 2 Leeds (L) Wakefield (W) (a) Using Kruskal s algorithm and showing your working at each stage, find a minimum spanning tree for these six towns. (b) State the length of your minimum spanning tree. []

16 Minimum connectors The following diagram shows a network of roads connecting eight towns. The number on each arc represents the distance, in miles, between two towns. Penrith 9 72 urham 2 20 Newcastle 2 Sunderland Middlesbrough 2 Ripon 22 Leeds 2 York (a) Starting from Ripon and showing your working at each stage, use Prim s algorithm to find the minimum spanning tree for the eight towns. State the length of your minimum spanning tree. (b) raw your minimum spanning tree. [] The following diagram shows the lengths of roads, in miles, connecting eight towns Using Kruskal s algorithm, showing your working at each stage, find the minimum spanning tree for the network. State its length. []

17 Minimum connectors 7 7 The following diagram shows the lengths, in miles, of roads connecting 0 towns J 9 Use Kruskal s algorithm, showing the order in which you select the edges, to find the minimum spanning tree for the network. raw your minimum spanning tree and state its length. The following matrix shows the costs of connecting together each possible pair from six computer terminals: The computers are to be connected together so that, for any pair of computers, there should be either a direct link between them or a link via one or more other computers. Use an appropriate algorithm to find the cheapest way of connecting these computers. Show your result on a network and give the total cost. nsure that you show clearly the steps of the algorithm. Stating the correct answer without showing how you achieved it is not sufficient. [] 9 The network in the diagram below indicates the main road system between 0 towns and cities in the north of ngland. computer company wishes to install a computer network between these places, using cables laid alongside the roads and designed so that all places are connected (either directly or indirectly) to the main computer located at Manchester. ind the network which uses a minimum total length of cable. [] Liverpool 22 7 I 29 Preston hester 29 0 Manchester Sheffield Leeds 2 29 Middlesbrough oncaster York ull

18 Minimum connectors 0 The table gives the distances (in miles) between six places in Scotland. raw the network and use the graphical form of Prim s algorithm to find a minimum connector. [] berdeen dinburgh ort lasgow Inverness Perth William berdeen dinburgh ort William lasgow Inverness Perth 0 2 The table gives the distances (in miles) between six places in Ireland. Use the matrix form of Prim s algorithm to find a minimum connector for these places. [] thlone ublin alway Limerick Sligo Wexford thlone ublin alway 2 0 Limerick 7 2 Sligo 7 0 Wexford 9 2 Some of the eight towns to are directly linked by roads. The table shows the distances along these roads in miles (a) In the winter the local authority grits some of these roads. They wish to grit the minimum total length of roads possible in order to be able to travel between any two of the towns on gritted roads. Use Prim s algorithm starting at to find which roads they should grit and state the minimum total length of roads which need to be gritted. (b) Illustrate in a graph the minimum connector which you found in (a). ow far is it from to in your graph?

19 Minimum connectors 9 (c) The ambulance station is at and next year the local authority has decided that it would like to grit the minimum total length of roads possible so that the ambulance can reach any of the other towns on gritted roads by travelling less than miles. Show how to adapt your graph in (b) to find the roads which the local authority should grit next year. [] complicated business document, currently written in nglish, is to be translated into eight of the other uropean Union languages. ecause it is harder to find translators for some languages than for others, some translations are more expensive than others; the costs in euros are as shown in the table. rom/to an ut ng re er re Ita Por Spa anish (a) utch (u) nglish () rench () erman () reek (r) Italian (I) Portuguese (P) Spanish (S) Use Prim s algorithm to decide which translations should be made so as to obtain a version in each language at minimum total cost. [] n oil company has eight oil rigs producing oil from beneath the North Sea, and has to bring the oil through pipes to a terminal on shore. Sometimes oil can be piped from one rig to another, and rather than build a separate pipe from each rig to the terminal the company plans to build T T the pipes in such a way as to minimise their total length Where it is possible to build pipes from one rig to another the distances (in km) are given in the table below (a) ind the minimum length of pipes needed to connect the entire system. (b) ind the minimum length of pipes needed to connect the terminal (T) to the oil rig. []

20 20 Minimum connectors n international organisation has offices,,,,,, and. The table shows the cost, in pounds, of transmitting a piece of information from one of the offices to another along all existing direct links. (a) onstruct a network using vertices to to represent the information in the table. (b) piece of information has to be passed from office to all the other offices, either directly or by being passed on from office to office. Use Kruskal s algorithm to find the minimum total cost of passing the information to all the offices. (c) To rom Office joins a communications discount scheme in which the cost of passing information from is halved (but it does not affect the cost of s incoming information). (i) escribe how to adapt the above table to show the revised costs. (ii) dapt your answer to (b) in order to calculate the minimum cost of passing a piece of information from office to all the other offices with these revised costs. [] Key point summary minimum spanning tree shows the shortest p2 set of edges connecting a number of vertices. There is always one edge less than the number of vertices in a spanning tree. 2 Kruskal s algorithm adds edges to a tree in p order of size. Prim s algorithm adds the nearest vertex to a p7 current tree. Prim s algorithm can be applied to a matrix. p2

21 Minimum connectors 2 Test yourself What to review raw all possible spanning trees for the graph shown below. Section. 2 ind for the following network the minimum spanning tree: Sections.,.2,. (a) using Prim s algorithm starting from, (b) using Kruskal s algorithm. 7 In each case list the order in which the edges are added to your spanning tree. ind a minimum spanning tree for the following network, Section. starting from raw a graph with four vertices that have edges of length Section.,, 7,, 9 and a minimum spanning tree of length 9 units.

22 22 Minimum connectors Test yourself NSWRS 2 (a),, Total 2 (b),,,,, Total

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