Creating PivotTables in Excel 2010

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1 Creating PivotTables in Excel 2010 Table of Contents OVERVIEW OF PIVOTTABLE AND PIVOTCHART REPORTS... 4 WHAT IS A PIVOTTABLE REPORT?... 4 Ways to work with a PivotTable report... 5 WHAT IS A PIVOTCHART REPORT?... 6 Differences between a PivotChart and a standard chart... 6 COMPARING A PIVOTTABLE REPORT AND A PIVOTCHART REPORT... 6 WORKING WITH THE SOURCE DATA OF A PIVOTTABLE OR PIVOTCHART REPORT... 7 Creating a PivotTable or PivotChart from worksheet data... 7 Using an external data source to create a PivotTable or PivotChart... 7 Using another PivotTable report as the data source... 8 Changing the source data of an existing PivotTable report... 8 CREATE A PIVOTTABLE REPORT... 9 DEFINE THE DATA SOURCE FOR THE PIVOTTABLE REPORT... 9 CREATE THE PIVOTTABLE REPORT... 9 ADD FIELDS TO THE PIVOTTABLE REPORT Copy fields in a PivotTable report CREATE A PIVOTTABLE FROM AN EXTERNAL DATA SOURCE SWITCH BETWEEN AUTOMATIC AND MANUAL UPDATING OF THE REPORT LAYOUT REFRESH PIVOTTABLE DATA Refresh PivotTable data manually View the refresh status or cancel the refresh Refresh PivotTable data automatically when opening the workbook DELETE A PIVOTTABLE REPORT CREATE A PIVOTCHART REPORT FROM AN EXISTING PIVOTTABLE REPORT CREATE A STANDARD CHART FROM SOME OR ALL DATA IN A PIVOTTABLE REPORT CONVERT A PIVOTCHART REPORT TO A STANDARD CHART DELETE A PIVOTCHART REPORT WORKING WITH THE PIVOTTABLE FIELD LIST HOW THE PIVOTTABLE FIELD LIST WORKS GUIDELINES FOR MOVING FIELDS IN THE PIVOTTABLE FIELD LIST CHANGING THE PIVOTTABLE FIELD LIST VIEW ADD FIELDS TO A PIVOTTABLE OR PIVOTCHART Add the fields you want to display Add multiple copies of a field in the Values area Filter data before you add fields CHANGE THE LAYOUT AND FORMAT OF A PIVOTTABLE REPORT REARRANGE FIELDS IN THE PIVOTTABLE OR PIVOTCHART Remove fields from a PivotTable report CHANGE THE LAYOUT FORM OF A PIVOTTABLE REPORT Change a PivotTable report to compact, outline, or tabular form ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 1

2 CHANGE THE LAYOUT OF COLUMNS, ROWS, AND SUBTOTALS Turn column and row field headers on or off Display subtotals above or below their rows Change the order of row or column items Adjust column widths on refresh Move a column to the row labels area or a row to the column labels area Merge or unmerge cells for outer row and column items REPEAT ITEM LABELS IN A PIVOTTABLE REPORT Repeat item labels in rows Repeat item labels in columns Turn repeated item labels on or off for all fields Change the way item labels are displayed in a layout form EXPAND, COLLAPSE, OR SHOW DETAILS IN A PIVOTTABLE OR PIVOTCHART REPORT Expand or collapse to different levels of detail Expand or collapse levels in a PivotTable Expand or collapse levels in a PivotChart Show or hide the expand and collapse buttons in a PivotTable Show or hide details for a value field in a PivotTable Show value field details Disable or enable the option to show value field details CHANGE THE DISPLAY OF BLANK CELLS, BLANK LINES, AND ERRORS Change how errors and empty cells are displayed Display or hide blank lines after rows or items CHANGE OR REMOVE FORMATTING Apply a style to format a PivotTable report Apply banding to change the format of a PivotTable report Remove a style or banding format from a PivotTable report Change the number format for a field GROUP ITEMS IN A PIVOTTABLE REPORT Group numbers in numeric fields Group dates or times Group selected items Ungroup grouped items SORT DATA IN A PIVOTTABLE OR A PIVOTCHART REPORT LEARN MORE ABOUT SORTING SORT ROW OR COLUMN LABEL DATA IN A PIVOTTABLE REPORT SORT DATA IN THE VALUES AREA SORT DATA IN A PIVOTCHART REPORT FILTER ITEMS IN A PIVOTTABLE REPORT LEARN ABOUT FILTERING SPECIFY FILTER OPTIONS Allow multiple filters per field Display or hide field captions and filter drop downs USE A REPORT FILTER TO FILTER ITEMS Add a report filter to the PivotTable report Select items in the report filter Display report filter pages on separate worksheets FILTER ITEMS MANUALLY BY SELECTING ROW OR COLUMN LABEL FIELDS ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 2

3 FILTER ITEMS BY APPLYING A LABEL FILTER How to use wildcard characters FILTER ITEMS BY APPLYING A VALUE FILTER FILTER ITEMS BY APPLYING A DATE FILTER APPLY A FILTER TO DISPLAY THE TOP OR BOTTOM 10 ITEMS FILTER BY SELECTION TO DISPLAY OR HIDE SELECTED ITEMS ONLY REMOVE FILTERS USE SLICERS TO FILTER PIVOTTABLE DATA What are slicers? Using slicers Formatting slicers for a consistent look Sharing slicers between PivotTables Create a slicer in an existing PivotTable FORMAT A SLICER SHARE A SLICER BY CONNECTING TO ANOTHER PIVOTTABLE Make a slicer available for use in another PivotTable Use a slicer from another PivotTable DISCONNECT OR DELETE A SLICER Disconnect a slicer Delete a slicer CALCULATE VALUES IN A PIVOTTABLE REPORT AVAILABLE CALCULATION METHODS Summary functions in value fields Functions that you can use as a subtotal Custom calculations Functions available for custom calculations in value fields Formulas HOW THE TYPE OF SOURCE DATA AFFECTS CALCULATIONS USING FORMULAS IN PIVOTTABLE REPORTS Create formulas in a PivotTable report Add a calculated field Add a calculated item to a field Enter different formulas cell by cell for calculated items Adjust the order of calculation for multiple calculated items or formulas EDIT A PIVOTTABLE FORMULA Determine whether a formula is in a calculated field or a calculated item Edit a calculated field formula Edit a single formula for a calculated item Edit an individual formula for a specific cell of a calculated item DELETE A PIVOTTABLE FORMULA VIEW ALL FORMULAS THAT ARE USED IN A PIVOTTABLE REPORT SUBTOTAL AND TOTAL FIELDS IN A PIVOTTABLE REPORT Subtotal row and column fields DISPLAY OR HIDE GRAND TOTALS FOR THE ENTIRE REPORT Display or hide grand totals Change the default behavior for displaying or hiding grand totals CALCULATE THE SUBTOTALS AND GRAND TOTALS WITH OR WITHOUT FILTERED ITEMS SHOW DIFFERENT CALCULATIONS IN PIVOTTABLE VALUE FIELDS ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 3

4 Overview of PivotTable and PivotChart reports A PivotTable report is useful to summarize, analyze, explore, and present summary data. A PivotChart report can help you visualize PivotTable report summary data so that you can easily see comparisons, patterns, and trends. Both reports enable you to make informed decisions about critical data in your enterprise. What is a PivotTable Report? A PivotTable report is an interactive way to quickly summarize large amounts of data. Use a PivotTable report to analyze numerical data in detail and to answer unanticipated questions about your data. A PivotTable report is especially designed for: Querying large amounts of data in many user-friendly ways. Subtotaling and aggregating numeric data, summarizing data by categories and subcategories, and creating custom calculations and formulas. Expanding and collapsing levels of data to focus your results, and drilling down to details from the summary data for areas of interest to you. Moving rows to columns or columns to rows (or "pivoting") to see different summaries of the source data. Filtering, sorting, grouping, and conditionally formatting the most useful and interesting subset of data to enable you to focus on the information that you want. Presenting concise, attractive, and annotated online or printed reports. You often use a PivotTable report when you want to analyze related totals, especially when you have a long list of figures to sum and you want to compare several facts about each figure. In the PivotTable report example, you can easily see how the thirdquarter golf sales in cell F3 compare to sales for another sport, or quarter, or to the total sales. Source data, in this case, from a worksheet The source values for Qtr3 Golf summary in the PivotTable report The entire PivotTable report The summary of the source values in C2 and C8 from the source data In a PivotTable report, each column or field in your source data becomes a PivotTable field that summarizes multiple rows of information. In the preceding example, the Sport column becomes the Sport field, and each record for Golf is summarized in a single Golf item A value field, such as Sum of Sales, provides the values to be summarized. Cell F3 in the preceding report contains the sum of the Sales value from every row in the source data for which the Sport column contains ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 4

5 Golf and the Quarter column contains Qtr3. By default, data in the Values area summarize the underlying source data in the PivotChart report in the following way: numeric values use the SUM function, and text values use the COUNT function. To create a PivotTable report, you must define its source data, specify a location in the workbook, and lay out the fields. Ways to work with a PivotTable report After you create the initial PivotTable report by defining the data source, arranging fields in the PivotTable field List, and choosing an initial layout, you can perform the following tasks as you work with a PivotTable report: Explore the data: Expand and collapse data, and show the underlying details that pertain to the values. Sort, filter, and group fields and items. Change summary functions, and add custom calculations and formulas. Change the form layout and field arrangement: Change the PivotTable report form: compact, outline, or tabular. Add, rearrange, and remove fields. Change the order of fields or items. Change the layout of columns, rows, and subtotals: Turn column and row field headers on or off, or display or hide blank lines. Display subtotals above or below their rows. Adjust column widths on refresh. Move a column field to the row area or a row field to the column area. Merge or unmerge cells for outer row and column items. Change the display of blanks and errors: Change how errors and empty cells are displayed. Change how items and labels without data are shown. Display or hide blank lines Change the format: Manually and conditionally format cells and ranges. Change the overall PivotTable format style. Change the number format for fields. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 5

6 What is a PivotChart report? A PivotChart report provides a graphical representation of the data in a PivotTable report, which in this case is called the associated PivotTable report. Like a PivotTable report, a PivotChart report is interactive. When you create a PivotChart report, PivotChart report filters are displayed in the chart area so that you can sort and filter the underlying data of the PivotChart report. Changes that you make to the field layout and data in the associated PivotTable report are immediately reflected in the PivotChart report. A PivotChart report displays data series, categories, data markers, and axes just as standard charts do. You can also change the chart type and other options such as the titles, the legend placement, the data labels, and the chart location. You can automatically create a PivotChart report when you first create a PivotTable report, or you can create a PivotChart report from an existing PivotTable report. Differences between a PivotChart and a standard chart If you are familiar with standard charts, you will find that most operations are the same in PivotChart reports. However, there are some differences: Row/Column orientation: Unlike a standard chart, you cannot switch the row/column orientation of a PivotChart report by using the Select Data Source dialog box. However, you can pivot the Row and Column labels of the associated PivotTable report to achieve the same effect. Chart types: You can change a PivotChart report to any chart type except an xy (scatter), stock, or bubble chart. Source data: Standard charts are linked directly to worksheet cells. PivotChart reports are based on the data source of the associated PivotTable report. Unlike a standard chart, you cannot change the chart data range in the Select Data Source dialog box of a PivotChart report. Formatting: Most formatting including chart elements that you add, layout, and style is preserved when you refresh a PivotChart report. However, trendlines, data labels, error bars, and other changes to data sets are not preserved. Standard charts do not lose this formatting once it is applied. Although you cannot directly resize the data labels in a PivotChart report, you can increase the font size of the text to effectively resize the labels. Comparing a PivotTable report and a PivotChart report When you create a PivotChart report from a PivotTable report, the layout of the PivotChart report, that is, the position of its fields is determined initially by the layout of the PivotTable report. When you create the PivotChart report first, you determine the chart layout by dragging fields from the PivotTable Field List to specific areas on the chart sheet. Note: The Totals and Subtotals of an associated PivotTable report are ignored in a PivotChart report. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 6

7 The PivotTable and PivotChart reports of sales data illustrate the relationship between the two. A row label corresponds to a category A column label corresponds to a data series Working with the source data of a PivotTable or PivotChart report When you create a PivotTable or a PivotChart report, you can use any of several different types of source data. Creating a PivotTable or PivotChart from worksheet data You can use data from a Microsoft Excel worksheet as the basis for a report. The data should be in list format, with column labels in the first row. Each cell in subsequent rows should contain data appropriate to its column heading. There should not be any blank rows or columns within the data of interest. Excel uses your column labels for the field names in the report. The worksheet data becomes the source data for the PivotTable report. Using a named range: To make the report easier to update, name the source range, and then use the name when you create the report. If the named range expands to include more data, you can refresh the report to include the new data. Excel tables: Excel tables are already in list format and are good candidates for PivotTable source data. When you refresh the PivotTable report, new and updated data from the Excel table is automatically included in the refresh operation. Including totals: Excel automatically creates subtotals and grand totals in a PivotTable report. If the source data contains automatic subtotals and grand totals that you created by using the Subtotals command in the Outline group on the Data tab, use that same command to remove the subtotals and grand totals before you create the report. Using an external data source to create a PivotTable or PivotChart You can retrieve data from a source that is external to Excel such as a database, an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube (A database technology that has been optimized for querying and reporting, instead of processing transactions. OLAP data is organized hierarchically and stored in cubes instead of tables.), or a text file. For example, you might maintain a database of sales records you want to summarize and analyze. Office Data Connection files: If you use an Office Data Connection (ODC) file (.odc) to retrieve external data for your report, you can input the data directly into a PivotTable report. We recommend that you retrieve external data for your reports by using ODC files. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 7

8 OLAP source data: When you retrieve source data from an OLAP database or a cube file (An OLAP data structure. A cube contains dimensions, like Country/Region/City, and data fields, like Sales Amount. Dimensions organize types of data into hierarchies with levels of detail, and data fields measure quantities.), the data is returned to Excel only as a PivotTable report or a PivotTable report that has been converted to worksheet functions. Non-OLAP source data: This is the underlying data for a PivotTable report or a PivotChart report that comes from a source other than an OLAP database. For example, data from relational databases or text files. Using another PivotTable report as the data source The PivotTable cache: Each time that you create a new PivotTable report or PivotChart report, Excel stores a copy of the data for the report in memory, and saves this storage area as part of the workbook file. Thus, each new report requires additional memory and disk space. However, when you use an existing PivotTable report as the source for a new report in the same workbook, both reports share the same copy of the data. Because you reuse the same storage area, the size of the workbook file is reduced and less data is kept in memory. Location requirements: To use a PivotTable report as the source for another report, both reports must be in the same workbook. If the source PivotTable report is in a different workbook, copy the source report to the workbook location where you want the new report to appear. PivotTable reports and PivotChart reports in different workbooks are separate, each with its own copy of the data in memory and in the workbook files. Changes affect both reports: When you refresh the data in the new report, Excel also updates the data in the source report, and vice versa. When you group or ungroup items in one report, both reports are affected. When you create calculated fields or calculated items in one report, both reports are affected. PivotChart reports: You can base a new PivotTable report or PivotChart report on another PivotTable report, but you cannot base it directly on another PivotChart report. However, Excel creates an associated PivotTable report from the same data whenever you create a PivotChart report; therefore, you can base a new report on the associated report. Changes to a PivotChart report affect the associated PivotTable report, and vice versa. Changing the source data of an existing PivotTable report Changes in the source data can result in different data being available for analysis. For example, you may want to conveniently switch from a test database to a production database. You can update a PivotTable report or a PivotChart report with new data that is similar to the original data connection information by refreshing the report. To include additional data or different data, you can redefine the source data for the report. If the data is substantially different with many new or additional fields, it may be easier to create a new report. Displaying new data brought in by refresh: Refreshing a report can also change the data that is available for display. For reports based on worksheet lists, Excel retrieves new fields within the source range or named range that you specified. For reports based on external data, Excel retrieves new data that meets the criteria for the underlying query. You can view any new fields in the Field List and add the fields to the report. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 8

9 Create a PivotTable report Define the data source for the PivotTable report To use worksheet data as the data source, click a cell in the range of cells that contains the data. To use data in a Microsoft Excel table as the data source, click a cell inside the Excel table. Note: Make sure that the range has column headings or that headers are displayed in the table, and that there are no blank rows in the range or table. Create the PivotTable report 1) On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click PivotTable. a) Excel displays the Create Pivot Table dialog box. Tip: To create a PivotChart that is based on the PivotTable report at the same time, click the arrow below PivotTable, and then click PivotChart. 2) In the Create PivotTable dialog box, under Choose the data that you want to analyze, make sure that Select a table or range is selected, and then in the Table/Range box, verify the range of cells that you want to use as the underlying data. a) Excel automatically determines the range for the PivotTable report, but you can replace it by typing a different range or a name that you defined for the range. b) For data in another worksheet or workbook, include the workbook and worksheet name by using the following syntax [workbookname]sheetname!range. Tip: You can also click Collapse Dialog to temporarily hide the dialog box, select the range on the worksheet, and then click Expand Dialog. 3) Under Choose where you want the PivotTable report to be placed, specify a location by doing one of the following: a) To place the PivotTable report in a new worksheet starting at cell A1, click New Worksheet. b) To place the PivotTable report at a specific location in an existing worksheet, select Existing Worksheet, and then in the Location box, specify the first cell in the range of cells where you want to position the PivotTable report. 4) Click OK. a) Excel adds an empty PivotTable report to the specified location and displays the PivotTable Field List so that you can add fields, create a layout, and customize the PivotTable report. Note: If you created a PivotChart at the same time, it is displayed on top of the associated PivotTable report. A PivotChart and its associated PivotTable report must always be in the same workbook. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 9

10 Add fields to the PivotTable report In the PivotTable Field List, do one or more of the following: 1) To place a field in the default area of the layout section, select the check box next to the field name in the field section. a) By default, nonnumeric fields are added to the Row Labels area, and numeric fields are added to the Values area. 2) To place a field in a specific area of the layout section, right-click the field name in the field section, and then select Add to Report Filter, Add to Column Label, Add to Row Label, or Add to Values. 3) To drag a field to the area that you want, click and hold the field name in the field section, and then drag it to an area in the layout section. Tips: You can use the PivotTable Field List to rearrange the fields at any time by rightclicking the fields in the layout section and then selecting the area that you want, or by dragging the fields between the areas in the layout section. Changes that you make to the source data after you create the PivotTable report are reflected in the report when you refresh the selected PivotTable report (PivotTable Tools, Options tab, Data group, Refresh button). If you add rows to the range of source data, you can include those rows in the PivotTable report by changing the source data (PivotTable Tools, Options tab, Data group, Change Source Data button). If the source data is in an Excel table, additional rows are automatically displayed when you refresh the PivotTable report. The field section contains the field names of the fields you can add to the Layout section The layout section contains the Report Filter area, the Column Labels area, the Row Labels area, and the Values area. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 10

11 Copy fields in a PivotTable report In a PivotTable report you may want to add the same field more than once to the Values area so that you can display different calculations by using the Show Values As feature. For example, you may want to compare calculations side-by-side, such as gross and net profit margins, minimum and maximum sales, or customer counts and percentage of total customers. 1) Click and hold a field name in the field section, and then drag the field to the Values area in the layout section. 2) Repeat step 1 as many times as you want to copy the field. 3) In each copied field, change the summary function or custom calculation the way you want. Notes: When you add two or more fields to the Values area, whether they are copies of the same field or different fields, the Field List automatically adds a Values Column label to the Values area. You can use this field to move the field positions up and down within the Values area. You can even move the Values Column label to the Column Labels area or Row Labels areas. However, you can t move the Values Column label to the Report Filters area. You can add a field only once to either the Report Filter, Row Labels, or Column Labels areas, whether the data type is numeric or non-numeric. If you try to add the same field more than once for example to the Row Labels and the Column Labels areas in the layout section the field is automatically removed from the original area and put in the new area. Another way to add the same field to the Values area is by using a formula (also called a calculated column) that uses that same field in the formula. Create a PivotTable from an external data source When you create a PivotTable report from external data, you are creating a connection to source data that is stored outside Excel, for example in a database program (such as Microsoft Access or Microsoft SQL Server) or an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube. 1) Click a cell on the worksheet. 2) On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click PivotTable, or click the arrow below PivotTable, and then click PivotTable. a) Excel displays the Create PivotTable dialog box. Tip: To create a PivotTable and PivotChart report at the same time, on the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click the arrow below PivotTable, and then click PivotChart. Excel displays the Create PivotTable with PivotChart dialog box. 3) Under Choose the data that you want to analyze, click Use an external data source. 4) Click Choose Connection. a) In the Show box at the top of the Existing Connections dialog box, select the category of connections for which you want to specify a connection or select All Connections (which is the default). ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 11

12 5) Under Select a Connection, select a connection, and then click Open. Note: If you select a connection from the Connections in this Workbook category, you will be reusing or sharing an existing connection. If you select a connection from the Connection files on the network or Connection files on this computer categories, Excel copies the connection file into the workbook as a new workbook connection, and then uses that file (an.odc file) as the new connection for the PivotTable report. 6) Under Choose where you want the PivotTable report to be placed, specify a location by doing one of the following: a) To place the PivotTable report in a new worksheet starting at cell A1, click New Worksheet. b) To place the PivotTable report in an existing worksheet, select Existing Worksheet, and then in the Location box, specify the first cell in the range of cells where you want to position the PivotTable report. 7) Click OK. a) Excel adds an empty PivotTable report to the specified location and displays the PivotTable Field List so that you can add fields, create a layout, and customize the PivotTable report. Note: If you create a PivotChart report at the same time that you create a PivotTable report, Excel displays the chart on top of the associated PivotTable. A PivotChart report and its associated PivotTable report must always be in the same workbook. 8) To add fields to the report, do one or more of the following: a) Select the check box next to each field name in the field section. The field is placed in a default area of the layout section, but you can rearrange the fields if you want. By default, nonnumeric fields are added to the Row Labels area, numeric fields are added to the Values area, and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) date and time hierarchies are added to the Column Labels area. b) Right-click the field name and then select the appropriate command, Add to Report Filter, Add to Column Label, Add to Row Label, and Add to Values, to place the field in a specific area of the layout section. Tip: You can also click and hold a field name, and then drag the field between the field section and an area in the layout section. Switch between automatic and manual updating of the report layout By default, changes you make in the PivotTable Field List are automatically updated in the report layout. To improve performance when you are accessing a large amount of external data, you can temporarily switch to manual updating mode. Manual updating mode allows you to quickly add, move, and remove fields in the PivotTable Field List. However, you cannot use the report until you switch back to automatic updating mode. 1) To enable manual updating of the PivotTable report, at the bottom of the PivotTable Field List, select the Defer layout update check box. Caution: After you set the report layout to manual updating, closing the PivotTable Field List, changing to Fields only view, or exiting Excel discards all layout changes that you have made to the PivotTable report without confirmation. 2) In the PivotTable Field List, make the field layout changes, and then click Update to manually update the layout in the PivotTable report. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 12

13 3) To return to automatic updating after you finish changing the report layout in the Field List, clear the Defer layout update check box. Note: A PivotTable report starts with automatic updating each time that you open the workbook. Refresh PivotTable data When a PivotTable report is connected to another PivotTable in the same workbook or in another workbook, or to another external data source, such as a Microsoft Access or SQL Server database, or an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube, you can perform a refresh operation to retrieve any data updates. Each time you refresh the PivotTable data, you ll see the most recent version of the data, including changes that were made to the data since it was last refreshed. By default, PivotTables are not refreshed automatically, but you can specify that the PivotTable is automatically refreshed when you open the workbook that contains the PivotTable. Refresh PivotTable data manually 1) Click anywhere in the PivotTable report. a) This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding an Options and a Design tab. 2) On the Options tab, in the Data group, do one of the following: a) To update the information to match the data source, click the Refresh button, or press ALT+F5. b) To refresh all PivotTables in the workbook, click the Refresh button arrow, and then click Refresh All. Note: If you experience display or formatting changes when you refresh the PivotTable report, make sure that the Autofit column width on update and Preserve cell formatting on update check boxes are selected on the Layout & Format tab in the PivotTable Options dialog box (PivotTable Tools, Options tab, PivotTable group, Options command). View the refresh status or cancel the refresh After starting a refresh, you can review the status or cancel it at any time. 1) On the Options tab, in the Data group, click the Refresh button arrow, and then click Refresh Status to view the status or Cancel Refresh to stop refreshing. Refresh PivotTable data automatically when opening the workbook 1) Click anywhere in the PivotTable report. a) This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding an Options and a Design tab. 2) On the Options tab, in the PivotTable group, click Options. 3) In the PivotTable Options dialog box, on the Data tab, select the Refresh data when opening the file check box. Delete a PivotTable report 1) Click anywhere in the PivotTable report that you want to delete. a) This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding the Options and Design tabs. 2) On the Options tab, in the Actions group, click the arrow below Select, and then click Entire PivotTable. 3) Press DELETE. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 13

14 Note: Deleting a PivotTable report that is associated with a PivotChart report turns that PivotChart report into a standard chart that you can no longer pivot or update. Create a PivotChart report from an existing PivotTable report 1) Click the PivotTable report. a) This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding the Options and Design tab. 2) On the Options tab, in the Tools group, click PivotChart. 3) In the Insert Chart dialog box, click the chart type and chart subtype that you want. You can use any chart type except an xy (scatter), bubble, or stock chart. 4) Click OK. a) The PivotChart report that appears has PivotChart report filters that you can use to change the data that is displayed in the chart. Create a standard chart from some or all data in a PivotTable report 1) Select the data in the PivotTable report that you want to use in your chart. Tip: To include field buttons and data in the first row and column of the report, start dragging from the lower-right corner of the data that you select. 2) On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy. 3) Click a blank cell outside the PivotTable report. 4) On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow below Paste, and then under Paste Values, click Values, Values & Number Formatting, or Values & Source Formatting. 5) On the Insert tab, in the Charts group, click the chart type that you want, and then click a chart subtype. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 14

15 Convert a PivotChart report to a standard chart You can convert a PivotChart report to a standard chart by deleting its associated PivotTable report. If you have multiple PivotTable reports and PivotChart reports in your workbook, you may first have to find the associated PivotTable report that has the same name as the PivotChart report. 1) Do one of the following: a) If you know which PivotTable report is associated with the PivotChart report that you want to change, click that PivotTable report. b) If you do not know which PivotTable report is associated with the PivotChart report that you want to change, do the following: Click the PivotChart report that you want to change. (1) This displays the PivotChart Tools, adding the Design, Layout, Format, and Analyze tab. To find the name of the associated PivotTable report, do the following: (1) On the Design tab, in the Data group, click Select Data. (2) In the Select Data Source dialog box, in the Chart data range box, note the associated PivotTable name, which is the text that follows the (!) exclamation point, and then click OK. To find the associated PivotTable report, do the following: (1) Click a PivotTable report in the workbook. (2) On the Options tab, in the PivotTable group, click Options, and then click Options. (3) In the Name box, note whether the name matches the name of the associated PivotTable report. (4) Repeat steps 1 through 3 of this procedure for each PivotTable report in the workbook until you find the same name in the Name box. (5) Click OK, and then select the associated PivotTable report that has the same name as the PivotChart report that you want to change. 2) On the Options tab, in the Actions group, click Select, and then click Entire PivotTable. 3) Press DELETE. Delete a PivotChart report 1) Click anywhere in the PivotChart that you want to delete. 2) Press DELETE. Note: Deleting a PivotChart report does not delete the associated PivotTable report. Working with the PivotTable Field List By using the PivotTable Field List, you can add, rearrange, or remove fields to show data in a PivotTable or PivotChart exactly the way that you want. By default, changes you make in the PivotTable Field List are automatically updated in the report layout. To improve performance when you are accessing a large amount of external data, you can temporarily switch to manual updating. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 15

16 When you create a PivotTable, Excel displays the PivotTable Field List so that you can add fields to the PivotTable, rearrange and reposition them as needed, or remove them from the PivotTable. By default, the PivotTable Field List displays two sections: A field section at the top for adding fields to and removing fields from the PivotTable A layout section at the bottom for rearranging and repositioning fields You can dock the PivotTable Field List to either side of the Excel window and horizontally resize it. You can also undock the PivotTable Field List, in which case, you can resize it both vertically and horizontally. If you don't see the PivotTable Field List, make sure that you click anywhere in the PivotTable. If you close the PivotTable Field List, you can display it again. Right-click the PivotTable, and then click Show Field List. You can also click Field List on the Ribbon (PivotTable Tools, Options tab, Show group for a PivotTable; PivotChart Tools, Analyze tab, Show/Hide group for a PivotChart). If you don't see the fields that you want to use in the PivotTable Field List, refresh the PivotTable or PivotChart report to display any new fields, calculated fields, measures, calculated measures, or dimensions that you have added since the last operation (PivotTable Tools, Options tab, Data group). How the PivotTable Field List works It's important to understand how the PivotTable field List works and the ways that you can arrange different types of fields so that you can achieve the results that you want when you create the field layout of a PivotTable or PivotChart report. A data source contains structured data organized as one or more fields (also called columns) that are displayed in the Field List. Move a field to the Report Filter area in the Field List, which simultaneously moves the field to the Report Filter area in the PivotTable report. Move a field to the Column Label area in the Field List, which simultaneously moves the field to the Column Label area in the PivotTable report. Move a field to the Row Label area in the Field List, which simultaneously moves the field to the Row Label area in the PivotTable report. Move a field to the Values area in the Field List, which simultaneously moves the field to the Values area in the PivotTable report. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 16

17 Guidelines for moving fields in the PivotTable Field List To create a field layout, use the following guidelines for moving Value, Name, and Dimension fields from the field section to the four report areas in the layout section. Value fields: If you select a check box only for a numeric field, by default, it is moved to the Values area. Row and Column fields: You can add a field only once to either the Report Filter, Row Labels, or Column Labels areas, whether the data type is numeric or non-numeric. If you try to add the same field more than once for example, to the Row Labels and the Column Labels areas in the layout section the field is automatically removed from the original area and put in the new area. Changing the PivotTable Field List view The PivotTable Field List has five different views that are designed and optimized for different types of PivotTable tasks. 1) To change the view, click the Field List views button at the top of the PivotTable Field List. 2) In the list, select one of the following views: Fields Section and Areas Section Stacked This is the default view, and it is designed for a small number of fields. Fields Section and Areas Section Side- By-Side Fields Section Only Areas Section Only (2 by 2) Areas Section Only (1 by 4) This view is designed for adding and removing fields when you have more than four fields in each area. This view is designed for just adding and removing many fields. This view is designed for just rearranging many fields. This view is designed for just rearranging many fields. Tip: In the Fields Section and Areas Section Stacked and Fields Section and Areas Section Side-By-Side views, you can adjust the width and height of each section by resting the pointer on the section divider until the pointer changes to a vertical double arrow or horizontal double arrow, by dragging the double arrow up or down or left or right to where you want it, and then either clicking the double arrow or pressing ENTER. Add fields to a PivotTable or PivotChart After you create a PivotTable or PivotChart report, you are ready to add the fields that contain the data you want to display in the report. You typically select one field for each area in the layout section. However, to see different values for a specific field, you can also add multiple copies of a field to the Values area. If the PivotTable report is connected to an external data source that contains a lot of data, you can filter one or more fields before you add fields to the report, which can help reduce the time it takes to update the report. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 17

18 Add the fields you want to display In the PivotTable Field List, you can add fields to the PivotTable or PivotChart by doing one or more of the following: To place a field in a designated area of the layout section, in the Choose fields to add to report box, select the check box of the field that you want. You can then rearrange fields later if you want. Note: By default, nonnumeric fields are added to the Row Labels area, and numeric fields are added to the Values area. To place a field in a specific area of the layout section, in the Choose fields to add to report box, rightclick the field name, and then click Add to Report Filter, Add to Column Label, Add to Row Label, or Add to Values. To drag a field to an area in the layout section, in the Choose fields to add to report box, click and hold a field, and then drag it from the field section to the layout section that you want. Add multiple copies of a field in the Values area In a PivotTable report you may want to add the same field more than once to the Values area. You can do this whether the data type is numeric or non-numeric. For example, you may want to compare calculations sideby-side, such as gross and net profit margins, minimum and maximum sales, or customer counts and percentage of total customers. 1) In the PivotTable Field List, in the Choose fields to add to report box, click and hold a field, and then drag it to the Values area in the layout section. 2) Repeat step 1 to create as many copies of that field that you want to display in the Value area. 3) In the PivotTable, change the summary function or custom calculation the way you want in each copy of the field. Tip: In the PivotTable, you can also change the name of the copied fields as needed. Notes: When you add two or more fields to the Values area, whether they are copies of the same field or different fields, the Field List automatically adds a Values Column label to the Values area. You can use this field to move the field positions up and down in the Values area. You can even move the Values Column Label to the Column Labels area or Row Labels areas. However, you cannot move the Values Column label to the Report Filters area. You can add a field only once to either the Report Filter, Row Labels, or Column Labels areas, whether the data type is numeric or non-numeric. If you try to add the same field more than once for example, to the Row Labels and the Column Labels areas in the layout section the field is automatically removed from the original area and put in the new area. Another way to add the same field to the Values area is by using a formula (also called a calculated column) that uses that same field in the formula. Filter data before you add fields 1) In the PivotTable Field List, in the Choose fields to add to report box, rest the pointer on a field name, and then click the filter drop-down arrow next to the field name. 2) On the Filter menu, select the filter options that you want. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 18

19 Change the layout and format of a PivotTable report After creating a PivotTable report and adding the fields that you want to analyze, you may want to enhance the report layout and format it to make the data easier to read and scan for details. To change the layout of a PivotTable report, you can change the PivotTable form and the way that fields, columns, rows, subtotals, empty cells and lines are displayed. To change the format of the PivotTable report, you can apply a predefined style, banded rows, and conditional formatting. Rearrange fields in the PivotTable or PivotChart In the PivotTable Field List, you can rearrange existing fields or reposition those fields by using one of the four areas at the bottom of the layout section: PivotTable Description Values Use to display summary numeric data. Row Labels Column Labels Report Filter Values Use to display summary numeric data. Use to display fields as columns at the top of the report. A column lower in position is nested within another column immediately above it. Use to filter the entire report based on the selected item in the report filter. Use to display summary numeric data. Axis Field (Categories) Use to display fields as an axis in the chart. Legend Fields (Series) Report Filter Use to display fields in the legend of the chart. Use to filter the entire report based on the selected item in the report filter. To rearrange fields in a PivotTable report, click the field name in one of the areas, and then select one of the following commands: Move Up Moves the field up one position in the area. Move Down Move to Beginning Move to End Move to Report Filter Move to Row Labels Move to Column Labels Move to Values Value Field Settings, Field Settings Moves the field down position in the area. Moves the field to the beginning of the area. Moves the field to the end of the area. Moves the field to the Report Filter area. Moves the field to the Row Labels area. Moves the field to the Column Labels area. Moves the field to the Values area. Displays the Field Settings or Value Field Settings dialog boxes. For more information about each setting, click the Help button at the top of the dialog box. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 19

20 Tip: You can also click and hold a field name, and then drag the field between the field and layout sections, and between the different areas. Remove fields from a PivotTable report 1) Click the PivotTable report. a) This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding an Options tab and a Design tab. 2) To display the PivotTable Field List, if necessary, on the Options tab, in the Show group, click Field List. 3) To remove a field, in the PivotTable Field List, do one of the following: a) In the PivotTable Field List, clear the check box next to the field name. Note: Clearing a check box in the Field List removes all instances of the field from the report. b) In a Layout area, click the field name, and then click Remove Field. c) Click and hold a field name in the layout section, and then drag it outside the PivotTable Field List. Change the layout form of a PivotTable report To make substantial layout changes to a PivotTable report or its various fields, you can use one of three forms: Compact form: displays items from different row area fields in one column and uses indentation to distinguish between the items from different fields. Row labels take up less space in compact form, which leaves more room for numeric data. Expand and Collapse buttons are displayed so that you can display or hide details in compact form. Compact form saves space and makes the PivotTable report more readable and is therefore specified as the default layout form for PivotTables. Tabular form: displays one column per field and provides space for field headers. Outline form: is similar to tabular form but it can display subtotals at the top of every group because items in the next column are displayed one row below the current item. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 20

21 Change a PivotTable report to compact, outline, or tabular form 1) Click anywhere in the PivotTable report. a) This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding an Options and a Design tab. 2) On the Design tab, in the Layout group, click Report Layout, and then do one of the following: a) To keep related data from spreading horizontally off of the screen and to help minimize scrolling, click Show in Compact Form. In compact form, fields are contained in one column and indented to show the nested column relationship. b) To outline the data in the classic PivotTable style, click Show in Outline Form. c) To see all data in a traditional table format and to easily copy cells to another worksheet, click Show in Tabular Form. Change the layout of columns, rows, and subtotals To further refine the layout of a PivotTable report, you can make changes that affect the layout of columns, rows, and subtotals, such as displaying subtotals above rows or turning column headers off. You can also rearrange individual items within a row or column. Turn column and row field headers on or off 1) Click the PivotTable report. a) This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding an Options tab and a Design tab. 2) To switch between showing and hiding field headers, on the Options tab, in the Show group, click Field Headers. Display subtotals above or below their rows 1) In the PivotTable report, select the row field for which you want to display subtotals. a) This displays the PivotTable Tools, adding an Options tab and a Design tab. Tip: In outline or tabular form, you can also double-click the row field, and then continue with step 3. 2) On the Options tab, in the Active Field group, click Field Settings. 3) In the Field Settings dialog box, on the Subtotals & Filters tab, under the Subtotals, click Automatic or Custom. Note: If None is selected, subtotals are turned off. 4) On the Layout & Print tab, under Layout, click Show item labels in outline form, and then do one of the following: a) To display subtotals above the subtotaled rows, select the Display subtotals at the top of each group check box. This option is selected by default. b) To display subtotals below the subtotaled rows, clear the Display subtotals at the top of each group check box. ICT Training, Maxwell School of Syracuse University Page 21

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