Excel 2007 Charts and Pivot Tables

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1 Excel 2007 Charts and Pivot Tables

2 Table of Contents Working with PivotTables... 2 About Charting... 6 Creating a Basic Chart Formatting Your Chart Working with Chart Elements Charting Extras

3 Working with PivotTables When your Excel Table or data range accumulates large amounts of mixed data, you need a way to identify the key trends and anomalies that exist deep within the data. For this, Excel 2007 offers the PivotTable report, a powerful tool designed to perform this very task. A PivotTable report provides a dynamic summary of an existing Table or data range that can be quickly expanded, collapsed, and rearranged to give you several different perspectives on your data. NOTE: This document provides a brief overview of creating a PivotTable from existing data, and then using the PivotTable Field List to create different views of the data. There are many advanced features related to PivotTables (e.g., PivotCharts and the PivotTable Options and Design tabs) which are beyond the scope of this document. Notes on Working with PivotTables As with Tables, PivotTables need first row column labels to determine how your data should be grouped PivotTables are most helpful for analyzing complex Tables and data ranges (e.g., those with three or more columns, with at least one column containing multiple data types) Each column in your data source becomes a PivotTable field, which summarizes its corresponding rows The initial PivotTable report is an empty shell; with this shell in place, you can add, remove, rearrange, and modify data using the PivotTable Field List or tools found in the Options and Design command tabs As you make changes in a PivotTable report, your data source remains untouched and completely secure The PivotTable Options and Design command tabs appear only when a PivotTable is active Before creating a PivotTable, be sure to disable any existing subtotals in your data source; PivotTables generate their own totals and subtotals. Creating a PivotTable Creating a PivotTable report from an existing Table or data range is easy 1. Select a cell within the Table or range for which you are creating a PivotTable 2. From the Insert command tab, in the Tables group, click INSERT PIVOTTABLE - 2 -

4 The Create PivotTable dialog box appears 3. In the Choose the data that you want to analyze section, select Select a table or range 4. In the Table/Range text box, type the cell range (or range name) for which you want to create a PivotTable report 5. To place the PivotTable in a new worksheet, in the Choose where you want the PivotTable report to be placed section, select New Worksheet To place the PivotTable in the active worksheet, a. In the Choose where you want the PivotTable report to be placed section, select Existing Worksheet b. In the Location text box, type cell or range where you want the PivotTable placed 6. Click OK An empty PivotTable appears in the specified location. The PivotTable Field List appears. Creating a PivotTable Report The PivotTable Field List lets you select which fields appear in your PivotTable report, and also where and how they are displayed. You can easily display or hide fields, and change how field data are viewed, sorted, or filtered

5 When you select a field in the PivotTable Field List, Excel analyzes the data it contains and automatically assigns it to one of four categories: Report Filter, Column Labels, Row Labels, or Values. If, for example, a field contains numerical data, Excel likely will add it to the Values category; if it contains text, it will probably be displayed in either the Row Labels or Column Labels category. However, the strength (and the purpose) of PivotTables lies in the ease with which you can maneuver fields between these various categories. 1. From the PivotTable Field List, in the Choose fields to add to report section, select the check box next to the field you want to display Excel displays the selected field in a default area of the PivotTable Field List and its field data in the corresponding area of the PivotTable report. 2. Repeat step 1 for all desired fields Customizing a PivotTable Report By moving fields among different Field List categories, the corresponding PivotTable report changes accordingly. 1. In the PivotTable Field List category currently displaying the field, position the mouse over the field label The pointer becomes a four-headed arrow. 2. Click and drag the field label into the new category 3. Release the mouse button The field is added to the new category of the PivotTable Field List. The PivotTable report changes accordingly. NOTE: If a PivotTable Field List category contains multiple fields, the lower fields are displayed in the PivotTable report as cascading sub-entries of the top field. The PivotTable Field List Illustrated The graphics below illustrate how fields selected in a PivotTable Field List are displayed in the PivotTable report. The original data source is shown in fig. 1; the empty PivotTable Field List is shown in fig. 2. To understand the relationship between a data source, the PivotTable Field List, and the PivotTable report, follow the blue arrow in fig. 3 from the Class field of the Choose fields to add to report area to its default category, Row Labels, and then the red arrows in fig. 3 to the data as displayed in fig

6 Notice that the Year field (i.e., column in the data source) is not selected and does not appear in any PivotTable Field List category or in the PivotTable report. Also see how the arrangement of the Class and Semester fields in the PivotTable Field List correlates in the PivotTable report. PivotTable Tools Once a PivotTable Report has been created, the Options and Design tabs appear on the Ribbon, under the PivotTable Tools heading. From these tabs you can sort, filter, format, and move your PivotTable report. NOTE: For the PivotTable Tools (i.e., the Options and Design tabs) to be visible, the PivotTable report must be active (i.e., selected)

7 About Charting Charts are graphic depictions of data in your worksheet. Excel can build a chart automatically based on existing data, after which the chart can be moved, resized, and deleted without affecting your worksheet data. Charts do not appear within a specific cell, but rather appear over other cells. When creating a chart, there are some basic rules to keep in mind to make the process easier. This document gives an overview of the necessary elements of a chart. Charting Rules Excel follows seven basic rules for creating charts. Understanding these rules can help avoid frustration and reduce the steps necessary for creating charts. Once the chart is created, you can modify it to meet your needs. Rule Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4 Rule 5 Rule 6 Description Excel does not automatically add a chart title to your chart based on the first row of selected information. A chart title can be added during the creation process or later Excel does not automatically add a chart subtitle to your chart based on the second row of selected information. A subtitle can be added after the chart is created Blank rows and columns in your information are not ignored. Excel will leave a blank bar or pie slice for every blank row or column in your information If the data contains more rows than columns, Excel will plot the data by column. The first column becomes the x-axis labels; the balance of the columns are the data series. The first row becomes the legend's labels If the data contains more columns than rows, Excel will plot the data by row. The first row becomes the x-axis labels; the balance of the rows are the data series. The first column becomes the legend's labels If the data contains an equal number of rows and columns, Excel defaults to plot the data by rows but gives you the option to plot by columns Rule 7 If only numeric data is selected, Excel follows rules 4 and 5-6 -

8 Bad Data Sample In the following example, notice how the blank cells in the data series create blanks spaces in the chart. Also, the lack of row labels makes it difficult for readers to understand the chart, because no specific labels appear on the legend to guide them. Good Data Sample In the following example, notice that no blank spaces exist in the data series, so no empty spaces exist in the chart. Also, the added row labels have made the legend much easier to understand. About Charting Elements A chart contains several elements, which are illustrated in this graphic

9 The following list describes the various elements in this chart. Title Identifies the chart, and frequently includes a date or time period. EXAMPLE: Average Monthly Temperatures Category (X) Axis Identifies the data being charted on the horizontal x-axis; values in this section will be used as labels along the x-axis. EXAMPLE: Cities (Minneapolis, Albuquerque, Tampa) Category Axis Title Identifies the title of the category (x) axis. Value (Y) Axis Identifies the data being charted on the vertical y-axis; values in this section will determine where points fall in relation to the y-axis. NOTE: The x-axis can also be used as a value axis. EXAMPLE: Average temperatures (0 90) Value Axis Title Identifies the title of the value (y) axis. Legend Identifies the information being charted. This is especially important when you have more than one type of information charted. Using the example of the above chart, the legend identifies which information relates to each month. Ticks Ticks, indicating measurement increments, appear on both the y-axis and x-axis and can help improve the readability of a chart. Both y-axis and x-axis ticks are optional

10 Origin The origin is the point where the x-axis and y-axis meet. The origin is generally at zero (0) but can be modified

11 Guidelines for Charting The ability to create effective charts is an important skill for both oral presentations and printed text. Understanding effective charting methods allows you to present the charted information in a visually appealing way. A chart's effectiveness depends on its ability to generate a sense of orientation and accessibility, and you can do so with the help of these charting guidelines. Chart Summary Excel 2007 offers several types of charts, each with its own unique functions. Be sure to choose the type of chart that best serves your purposes. The following table provides a quick summary of all the chart types available to you, as well as their functions: Chart Type Column Line Pie Bar Area X Y (Scatter) Stock Surface Doughnut Example Image Description Shows data changes among many data series over a period of time Indicates the relationship of one variable to another over time in equal intervals Proportionally compares the items in one data series NOTE: For more information, refer to Using Pie Charts. Shows data changes between many data series Displays the highest value or total value of items in a data series over time Displays the relationship of several data series on a coordinate plane, marked by points Illustrates fluctuation or stability in certain data series, not necessarily only for stock prices Displays combinations of two sets of data, each with a common data series, in a three-dimensional coordinate plane Proportionally compares the items in two or more data series

12 Bubble Radar Displays the relationship of two data series on a coordinate plane, marked by points, and a third data series that influences the size of the point Compares multiple values of multiple data series General Hints Consider the following when charting: Choose the correct chart The different chart types are designed to communicate information in different ways. Be sure to choose the correct chart format for your information. You can decide which chart is appropriate by referring to the Chart Summary or by creating the chart and, depending on how you prefer to display the information, changing the chart type as you see fit. Chart necessary information Consider the purpose of your chart when deciding what information to put into it. If you want to chart several data series, create multiple charts. This will allow you to focus on specific data series per chart, which will increase each chart's readability. Maintain consistency When creating multiple charts, be sure that they are similar in style and formatting. Informational content, not their stylistic differences, should be the focus when you have multiple charts. Excel can help keep your charts consistent with preformatted layouts and styles. Add emphasis To indicate significance in certain chart items, you may use one of many different formatting options. Maintain simplicity Simple charts are easy to read. Since clarifying and communicating information is the the goal of charting, complicated or "busy" charts (i.e., charts displaying too much information, charts with distracting formatting) are not advised. Edit the plot area When creating your chart, you may find excess space in the plot area (i.e., the chart area containing graphical information)

13 Use labels Labels help your audience understand chart information. You may add chart titles, axis titles, legends, data labels, data tables, or gridlines to increase its readability. Using Pie Charts Pie charts are unique from other charts. Pie charts display one data series (unlike other charts that display at least two data series). Therefore, pie charts do not have axes, plot areas, or points. Instead, they display one data series, divide it into pieces, and compare the pieces to each other. Keep in mind the following when using pie charts: Limit the number of slices Keep the number of slices to a minimum by combining smaller categories into one. Too many slices will decrease your chart's readability. Use labels for slices Try to place labels within slices whenever possible; this helps create clearer and more readable charts. Compare Multiple Pie Charts If you need to compare multiple pie charts to each other, you can consolidate them into one chart by creating a doughnut chart. These charts, like pie charts, compare the items in one data series, but can do so with more than one data series. Focus attention If necessary, draw your audience's attention to the particular slices you are discussing by exploding it to make it appear separate from the pie or by selecting an attractive color, pattern, shadow, or 3-D effect. Getting Ready to Chart Worksheets can be formatted to make creating a new chart easy. This document gives an overview of several ways to lay out your worksheet when preparing to create a chart. However, before you make your chart, you should consider creating range names for your data. Specifying range names in advance will decrease the potential for errors and enable you to add more data at a later date. Designing Your Worksheet for Charting You have two basic options for setting up your worksheet. You can choose to design your worksheet so the information to be charted is close together, or, if you have arranged your worksheet in a different way and want to chart only certain parts of your

14 data, you can create a summary section for charting. The best option for you will depend on what the worksheet is designed to do. HINT: Your chart will require the least amount of manual adjustments if the information to be charted is contained in a contiguous group of cells. The more information contained in contiguous cells for charting, the less work you will have to do when creating your chart. Based on the Charting Rules, an organization style similar to the following graphic will make automatic charting easier. While this setup may not always be appropriate, note that this format can reduce the amount of manual adjustments required for your charts. The above graphic is a sample worksheet section used to create the chart below. While the user needs to place the chart within the worksheet and initiate its creation, the organization of the data allows Excel to create and format the chart automatically. Charts can be enhanced by modifying the individual chart elements or by adding a new data series. Notice that the chart title is not included in the chart. Excel requires that this be added after the chart is created. Working with Range Names Before you create your chart, you should create range names to represent the data on your worksheet. Range names refer to specific groups of cells and are often used for cell references in functions, charting, and printing. Using range names when creating a chart rather than using the cell references will reduce the chance of error and allow you to add data to your chart in the future. Creating a Basic Chart

15 Microsoft Excel 2007 makes creating charts simple. With a few clicks, Excel will create a basic chart you can edit and enhance to meet your needs. This document shows you how to create a chart and perform basic editing

16 Creating a Chart In Excel, charts are visual representations of data on a spreadsheet. There are many types of charts available, so you should find one that is right for your project. 1. Create the data to be charted 2. Select the data to be charted NOTE: To select data from different areas of your worksheet or to select noncontiguous cells, hold down [Ctrl] and select the cells. 3. From the Insert command tab, in the Charts group, click the type of chart you prefer A pull-down list appears. 4. Click the specific chart you want The chart appears on the spreadsheet. The Design, Layout, and Format command tabs appear on the Ribbon. 5. OPTIONAL: If the information is represented on the incorrect axes, in the Design command tab, from the Data group, click Switch Row/Column Modifying a Chart Once your chart is created, you can modify it to fit your needs or any changes in your data. Changing the Chart Type If the chart you selected is not appropriate for the information you are charting, you can change it by using the Change Chart Type selection from the Quick Menu. 1. Right click your chart» select Change Chart Type... The Create Chart dialog box appears. 2. From the categories pane, select the type of chart you prefer

17 3. On the right, in the chart type section, select the specific chart you want 4. Click OK The chart is changed. Working with Data Series and Data Ranges A data series identifies the information charted. For example, a data series may contain the enrollment, by school, for the current academic year. Another data series may contain the forecasted enrollment for the next academic year. If you need to delete or change the references to the cells containing the information, you will need to edit the data series. A data range is a range of cells that contain data in a data series. To type a range, type the range's initial cell's ID, a colon, and the range's final cell's ID. EXAMPLE: The data range B2:B5 references the the cells B2, B3, B4, and B5. Adding Data Series You can add a data series to an existing chart with the Edit Data Source dialog box. NOTES: Before you begin, you should enter this added data into your worksheet. Adding a data series to a chart does not move it to the information used to create the chart. 1. Right click the chart» click Edit Data Source... OR From the Design command tab, in the Data group, click EDIT DATA SOURCE The Edit Data Source dialog box appears. NOTE: You may add a data series only in the x-axis of your chart. To switch axes, click SWITCH ROW/COLUMN

18 2. Click ADD The Edit Data Source dialog box closes and the Edit Series dialog box appears. 3. In the Series name text box, type the name of the series. EXAMPLE: In a line chart of students' grades, a series name would be the student's name. 4. In the Series values text box, type the appropriate data range to be added EXAMPLE: In a line chart of student grades, the data range values would be the cells containing a specific student's grades specified in the chart. OR To select a data range a. Click COLLAPSE DIALOG b. Select the cells to be added c. Click RESTORE DIALOG 5. Click OK The Edit Series dialog box closes and the Edit Data Source dialog box appears. 6. Click OK The data series is added to the chart. Deleting Data Series NOTE: Deleting a data series in a chart does not delete the data from the worksheet. 1. Right click the column, bar, line, or pie segment representing the data series to be deleted 2. Click Delete The data series is deleted. Positioning and Resizing a Chart Moving Your Chart The chart is an object on your worksheet. While your chart may be placed on top of some worksheet information, the information still exists. The chart can be moved anywhere on your worksheet

19 1. Select the chart by clicking it The cursor changes to include a four-headed arrow. 2. Click and hold anywhere on the border except corners or centers NOTES: Clicking and dragging on a border's centers or corners will resize your chart. Clicking and dragging inside the chart will move the contents within the chart border, but will not move the entire chart. 3. Drag the chart to the appropriate location 4. Release the mouse button The chart is repositioned. Resizing Your Chart As you resize the chart, the chart elements adjust proportionally. 1. Select the chart by clicking it 2. Click and hold one of the border centers or corners The cursor changes into a double arrow. 3. Drag the mouse to resize the chart 4. Release the mouse button The chart is resized. Formatting Your Chart In Excel 2007, adding formatting to your chart can enhance its overall appearance and clarity. Formatting is also a way to emphasize important areas of your chart. What Can be Formatted Since the options in the Format dialog box change depending on what chart item you choose to customize, it is important to understand what chart items can and cannot be customized. The following chart items can be filled with colors, patterns, or pictures, as well as adding and/or formatting borders and lines, shadows, and 3-D effects: The Chart Area (i.e., the charting space that the plot area and all label boxes rest on)

20 The Plot Area (i.e., the area that the graph image appears on) All label boxes (i.e., chart titles, axis titles, legends, data labels, and data tables) Data series in an Area chart Data series in a Surface chart The following graphical items cannot be filled with colors, patterns, or pictures, but can add and/or format their borders and connection lines, shadows, or 3-D effects: Columns and bars Lines Pie and doughnut slices Bubbles Radar lines If you are formatting any chart items from the Analysis group (in the Layout command tab), note that the following options are available for each function: Trendlines can only format their lines and add shadows Lines and Error Bars can only format their lines Up/Down Bars can add and/or format colors, patterns, and pictures, borders and lines, shadows, and 3-D effects The Format Dialog Box The Format dialog box is the primary tool you will use to format your charts. The options in this dialog box change depending on what chart item you choose to customize. To access the Format dialog box: 1. Right click the chart item you want to customize» select Format (chart item) The Format dialog box appears. NOTE: The following image is the Format dialog box for the Chart Area: 2. Select the desired options 3. Click CLOSE

21 Applying Chart Layouts Excel provides several preformatted chart layouts to help you stylize your chart. Chart layouts can change the positioning of chart items, such as the title, legend, axes. 1. Select your chart by clicking it 2. From the Design command tab, in the Chart Layouts group, click MORE A list of layouts appears. 3. Click the layout you prefer The layout is applied to your chart. Applying Chart Styles Excel provides several preformatted chart styles to help you stylize your chart. Chart styles are pre-formatted colors, backgrounds, shading, gradients, and other formatting elements that can give your charts a consistent aesthetic appeal. 1. Select your chart by clicking it 2. From the Design command tab, in the Chart Styles group, click MORE A list of styles appears. 3. Click the style you prefer The style is applied to your chart. Filling Areas with Colors, Patterns, and Pictures There are many chart items that can be filled with a color, picture, or texture. These items are normally in areas where information is placed. Adding Borders and Formatting Lines If the chart item you want to customize rests in a box or is a box, you can add and format a border. If the item is a line, you can format the line. If the item is a series of points, you can add and format its connection line. NOTE: Since the steps to format borders, connection lines, and lines are similar, Excel uses the term line to categorize each term. The following steps will also refer to these chart items as lines

22 1. On your chart, right click the chart item you want to format» select Format (Chart Item) The Format dialog box appears. 2. From the categories list, select Line The Format dialog box refreshes to display Line options. 3. To delete any line formatting, click NO LINE 4. For a single line a. Select Solid Line b. To add a color to your line, click COLOR» select the color you prefer c. To change the transparency of the line, move the Transparency slider 5. For a line with a color blend a. Select Gradient Line b. To choose a gradient color scheme, click PRESET COLORS» select the colors you prefer c. To choose a style of gradient flow, click TYPE» select the style you prefer d. To choose a different gradient starting point, click DIRECTION» select the direction you prefer 6. To give your line rounded corners, select Rounded Corners NOTE: Not all chart items that can format their lines have this option available. 7. From the categories list, select Line Style The Format dialog box refreshes to display Line Style options. 8. To change the width of the line, in the Width text box, type the width you prefer OR Use the nudge buttons to select the desired width 9. To add multiple lines to your line, click COMPOUND TYPE» select the style you prefer 10. To add dashes to your line, click DASH TYPE» select the style you prefer 11. To change the appearance of line caps (i.e., corners at the end of a line), from the Cap type pull down-list, select the style you prefer 12. To change the appearance of line joints, from the Join type pull-down list» select the style you prefer 13. When finished, click CLOSE The formatting is applied. Creating an Exploding Pie or Doughnut Slice In pie and doughnut charts, slices can be pulled out from their original positions to draw attention to them. This is effective when indicating significance to one or more slices

23 NOTE: With doughnut charts, you may only explode the the outermost ring. If you have already created your chart, you can change the chart type to a pie or doughnut chart that has pre-exploded slices. If your chart is an unexploded pie or doughnut chart, you may customize the exploded pieces by following these steps: 1. Select the pie chart by clicking it 2. On the pie chart, click and hold the slice you want to explode The cursor changes to become a four-headed arrow. 3. Drag the slice away from the chart 4. Release the mouse button The slice is exploded. 5. OPTIONAL: To explode more slices, repeat steps 2 4 Adding Shadows Adding shadows to your chart items brings depth to your chart. A chart item that has a shadow seems to rise away from the page, which is useful to denote significance. For this reason, use shadows sparingly

24 Adding 3-D Effects 3-D effects can give your chart the effect of roundness, texture, and depth. Where shadows give the appearance of information rising off the chart area, bevels give the appearance of information standing taller than other material on the chart area. Chart items with a 3-D effect appear to be more significant than items without a 3-D effect. For this reason, use 3-D effects sparingly. Adjusting Chart Fonts You may customize the type specifications (e.g., font, size, color) of your chart elements. 1. Right click the text you want to format The Mini Toolbar appears. 2. Make your formatting changes Working with Chart Elements Adding titles, legends, axes, labels, tables, and gridlines to your chart can give it a helpful visual boost. Learning how to use these charting features in Excel 2007 can make your charts more efficient. This document will explain several options on how to add more features to your chart. Adding a Chart Title Chart titles should provide a concise summary of the information displayed. 1. Click the chart 2. From the Layout command tab, in the Labels group, click CHART TITLE» select a location for the title The Chart Title text box appears in your chart. 3. In the Chart Title text box, type a name for your chart 4. OPTIONAL: To reposition your chart title a. Click the Chart Title text box

25 b. Move the cursor to the border of the text box so it displays a fourheaded arrow c. Click and drag the text box to the desired location d. Release the mouse button The chart title is repositioned. Working with Axes In charts, axes are the two lines that frame your data. The horizontal line is called the x-axis; the vertical line is called the y-axis. One of them will be a Value axis, which displays numerical values that measure charted categories, and the other will be a Category axis, which displays one or more data series that measured against each other by numerical values. The field created by these intersecting axes contain visual indicators (e.g., bars, columns, dots) that give readers an intuitive understanding of your chart data. Axis labels (automatically assigned by Excel when you create your chart) connect this visual information with specific data categories, providing the context readers need to make sense of your chart. Since axes and axis labels are such important parts of an effective chart, Excel provides extensive formatting options. NOTES: Pie charts do not have axes. When setting up your chart, it is important to understand how Excel will display your worksheet data (e.g., what information will be assigned to which axis). Changing the Interval of the Category Axis Both horizontal and vertical axes can be the Category axis. With the Category axis, you can change the interval of units between the tick marks. NOTE: If your category axis is denoted by words or phrases, the Automatic option will suffice in most cases. 1. Click the chart 2. On the Format tab, in the Current Selection group, from the Chart Elements pull-down list, select select (Category) Axis

26 3. From the Current Selection group, click FORMAT SELECTION The Format Axis dialog box appears. 4. From the Categories list, select Axis Options 5. In the Interval between tick marks text box, type the number of units you want between the tick marks of your chart's x-axis 6. Click CLOSE The scaling is applied. Changing the Interval of the Value Axis Both horizontal and vertical axes can be the Value axis. With the Value axis, you can change the interval of units between the tick marks as well as set a maximum and minimum value for the axis. 1. Click the chart 2. On the Format tab, in the Current Selection group, from the Chart Elements pull-down list, select select (Value) Axis 3. From the Current Selection group, click FORMAT SELECTION The Format Axis dialog box appears 4. To change the minimum value of the y-axis a. For Minimum, select Fixed The Minimum text box becomes accessible. b. In the Minimum text box, type the minimum value you want the y-axis to display 5. To change the maximum value of the y-axis

27 a. For Maximum, select Fixed The Maximum text box becomes accessible. b. In the Maximum text box, type the maximum value you want the y-axis to display 6. To change the number of units between the y-axis tick marks a. For Major unit, select Fixed The Major unit text box becomes accessible. b. In the Major unit text box, type the number of units you want between the y-axis tick marks 7. To change the number of units between the Major units a. For Minor unit, select Fixed The Major unit text box becomes accessible. b. In the Minor unit text box, type the number of units you want between the Major units 8. Click CLOSE The adjustments are applied

28 Adding an Axis Title 1. Click the chart 2. From the Layout command tab, in the Labels group, click AXIS TITLES A pull-down list appears. 3. To create a title for your x-axis, select Primary Horizontal Axis Title OR To create a title for your y-axis, select Primary Vertical Axis Title 4. Click the title location you desire The Axis Title text box appears in the chart. 5. In the Axis Title text box, type a name for the axis 6. OPTIONAL: To reposition your axis title a. Click the Axis Title text box b. Move the cursor to the border of the text box so it displays a fourheaded arrow c. Click and drag the text box to the desired location d. Release the mouse button The axis title is repositioned. Changing the Display of the Axes You can alter chart axes in certain ways through the Layout command tab. Depending what chart you are using, the Value and Category axes will be on either the x- or y- axes (e.g., the x-axis on a column chart is the Category axis, and the x-axis on a bar chart is the Value axis). You can change the order of categories, add or remove axis labels and tick marks, or change the scaling of the Value axis. NOTE: When changing the scaling of the Value axis through the Layout command tab, you may only do so exponentially. 1. Click the chart 2. From the Layout command tab, in the Axes group, click AXES 3. To change the appearance of the x-axis, select Primary Horizontal Axis OR To change the appearance of the y-axis, select Primary Vertical Axis 4. Select the desired option The option is applied

29 Adding a Legend A legend will help readers understand the graphical components of your chart. For example, in a bar chart, the legend tells your readers what each bar of a particular color or pattern represents. Without a legend, readers would see categories on one axis (e.g., specific assignments), numerical values another axis (e.g., number of points received), but they would not know what the bars on the graph represent (e.g., individual students). HINT: Legends can be placed anywhere within the chart area, but are commonly located at the right of the chart. NOTES: If you choose to include a data table and have selected the Show Data Table with Legend Keys option, adding a legend will display redundant information. For pie charts, use data labels rather than a legend. Legend descriptions should be as concise as possible. 1. Click the chart 2. From the Layout command tab, in the Labels group, click LEGEND» select legend style you prefer The legend style is applied to the chart. 3. OPTIONAL: To reposition your legend a. Click the legend b. Move the cursor to the border of the text box so it displays a fourheaded arrow c. Click and drag the box to the desired location d. Release the mouse button The legend is repositioned. Adding Data Labels Data labels display the exact measurements of the information used to create the chart beside the bars, columns, lines, and points that represent them. They can be especially useful if you have a wide or tall chart. However, on some charts, data labels may interfere with the chart's readability. Be sure to test data labels on your chart before using them on your final chart. 1. Click the chart

30 2. From the Layout command tab, in the Labels group, click DATA LABELS» select the desired data label location The data label is applied. Adding a Data Table A data table shows the raw data that is used to create a graph. Similar to data labels, they can be especially useful when exactness is required to interpret the chart. However, data tables take up space on the chart area, and will shrink the plot area. You may need to resize the chart after adding a data table. 1. Click the chart 2. From the Layout command tab, in the Labels group, click DATA TABLE» select the desired data table style The data table is added. NOTE: If you select Show Data Table with Legend Keys, adding a legend will display redundant information. Adding Gridlines Gridlines can increase the readability of the chart by helping direct the eye from axis value to the value being charted. This is especially useful if you have a wide or tall chart. You can establish both major and minor gridlines. Generally, major gridlines are sufficient. NOTE: Gridlines cannot be applied to pie charts. 1. Click your chart 2. From the Layout command tab, in the Axes group, click GRIDLINES 3. To access gridlines for the horizontal axis, select Primary Horizontal Gridlines OR To access gridlines for the vertical axis, select Primary Vertical Gridlines 4. Click the desired gridline style The gridline style is applied

31 Charting Extras The extra charting features offered in Excel 2007 can be very useful during the charting process. In this document, these extras include printing options and how to copy charts to Microsoft Word. Printing Chart and Worksheet Data Within Excel, you can print entire worksheets, selected data, or the chart alone. Printing the Data and Chart If you need to print your chart and data together, you can reposition the chart next to or below the data so that both fit on one page. Or, you can use Page Break Preview to see what will be printed on one page. 1. Place the insertion point anywhere within the worksheet to be printed except within the chart 2.» select Print The Print dialog box appears. 3. In the Print what section, verify that Active sheet(s) is selected 4. Click OK The selected worksheet is printed along with the chart. Printing Only the Chart This option allows you to print only the chart, rather than the data table or the entire worksheet. NOTE: When printing only a chart, Excel will resize the chart to fit the page. 1. Click the chart you want to print 2.» select Print The Print dialog box appears. 3. In the Print what section, verify that Selected Chart is selected 4. Click OK The chart is printed

32 Copying Charts to Word When you copy a chart to Word, you can create a link so that if the worksheet is updated, the Word chart will also be updated. 1. In Excel, select the chart to be copied 2. On the Home command tab, in the Clipboard group, click COPY OR Right click the chart» select Copy 3. Open the Word document to which you will add the chart 4. In the Word document, place the insertion point where the chart will be pasted 5. In Word, on the Home command tab, in the Clipboard group, click the on the PASTE button» select Paste Special... The Paste Special dialog box appears. 6. To paste the chart with a link a. Select Paste b. Select Microsoft Office Excel Worksheet Object NOTE: To paste with linking means that when changes are made to the original source chart, the pasted chart will be updated. 7. To paste the chart without a link a. Select Paste b. Select Microsoft Office Graphic Object NOTE: To paste without linking means that when changes are made to the original source chart, the pasted chart will not be updated

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