Utilizing Winter Forages. Curtis Jones. Commerce TX

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1 Utilizing Winter Forages Curtis Jones Commerce TX

2 Winter Feeding Choices: Hay Hay + Supplementation Stockpiled forage Winter pasture Ryegrass Small grains Legumes Mixtures

3 Soil Testing Annual Testing most effective/recommended Credits natural and carryover nutrients Determines proper annual fertilizer rates Best economic return Sampling depth 0 to 6 inches (standard): best for N,P,K, micros 6 to 12 inches or 6 to 18 inches?

4 Proper Sampling is Critical Composite samples: cores per management area. Mix cores from a field together and ship immediately. Low Sand Feeding

5 Soil Sampling: The Most Important Step

6 Soil Sampling Equipment

7 Essential Elements Found to Limit Plant Growth in the Field Primary Nutrients: Secondary Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur Micronutrients: Copper, Iron, Manganese, Zinc

8 Nutrient Uptake by Ryegrass and Wheat Nutrient Primary Secondary Micro s Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Sulfur Copper Zinc Pounds/Ton (DM)

9 Cool-Season Annual Forages Over-seed bermudagrass pastures Cereal grains, ryegrass, and/or clovers Can direct drill cool-season annual combinations into dormant BG sod Cereal grain is usually drilled into short BG sod Ryegrass may be dropped into the exposed seed furrow or broadcast into the pasture

10 Establishment of Small Grains Seeding Rates and Dates Planting Depth Drilled at 100 lbs/acre Broadcast at 100 lbs/acre 1.0 inches Plant to soil moisture Fertilizer SOIL TEST! N+ requirements: 60 lbs N/ton of forage Phosphorous

11 Ryegrass Later maturity Graze short to prevent competition when overseeded into bermudagrass pastures Plant: Sept- Oct (30 lbs/acre) Graze: March-May Varieties: TAM 90 Marshall Passerel Plus

12 Oats More productive in the fall Lacks cold tolerance Apply N after oats are up lb N/ton for forage Graze: Nov-Dec, Feb-Apr Plant: Sept-Oct (100 lbs/acre) Varieties: Heavy Grazer Horizon 474 Dallas

13 Rye Ryegrass Mixture Most cold tolerant More winter forage than other small grains Graze: Dec-April Plant: Sept-Oct (100 lbs/acre) Varieties: Elbon Bates Wintergrazer

14 Wheat Plant: Sept-Oct (100 lbs/acre) Graze: Dec-April Cold tolerant Varieties: Coker Savage Pioneer

15 Cool-Season Annual Grass Traits and Rates Cold Tolerance 1+ Maturity Yield 1+ 4 Seed (lbs/ac) 100 Wheat Oats Ryegrass Rye + = most cold tolerant; earliest maturity; highest yield

16 Varietytesting.tamu.edu

17 Questions

18 Advantages of Legumes Reduction/elimination of inorganic N fertilizer Reduction in winter feeding costs Improved animal performance Lengthened grazing season Improved soil tilth Wildlife (white-tailed deer) programs Weed suppression/reduced herbicide

19 Forage Legumes as Nitrogen Source Nitrogen is the first limiting nutrient for forage production. Forage legumes fix atmospheric N through symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. A healthy stand of arrowleaf or crimson clover overseeded on warm season perennial grass pasture in East Texas: Can provide a nitrogen input of 50 to 100 lbs N/acre/year. This is accomplished through a grazing system with recycling of animal wastes.

20 Legume Pasture Principles Choose the appropriate species. Prepare site Appropriate timing 6-8 weeks prior to first frost Short sod Lightly disk Use best seeding method available Drill first, broadcast second (most common), followed by dragging.

21 Autumn Buy coated/inoculated seed Summer pastures must be short by late Sept Small seeded legumes (ball, white) Medium seeded legumes (arrowleaf, crimson) Best planted on the surface Best planted ¼ to ½ in. deep Large seeded (vetch) Best planted about 1 in. deep

22 After planting DO NOT apply N fertilizer to a pure legume stand Ryegrass-legume mixture: 60 lb N/acre applied ~ Thanksgiving If over-seeding an undisturbed sod: Graze until daily low temps ~40 F

23 6 months before Limit or omit N fertilization Select legumes adapted to your soils

24 Blacklands and Cross Timbers Medics Hairy Vetch Broad soil adaptation Rose Clover Uplands Burr Medic Barrel Medic Uplands Berseem Clover Bottomland Poor cold tolerance

25 Pineywoods Crimson clover Arrowleaf clover Uplands Hairy vetch Bottomland Rose clover Seed availability White clover Uplands Ball clover Bottomland to uplands Photosensitization Alfalfa Not for everyone or every site

26 ph Texture Drainage Maturity Cold Tolerance Bloat potential Reseeding potential Pure stand seeding rates Arrowleaf Sand, loam Good Late Good Low High 8-10 Ball Sand, loam, clay loam Far Medium Good High High 2-3 Berseem Loam, clay Poor Medium Poor Low Low Crimson Sand, loam Good Early Good Medium Low Red Loam, clay Good Late Good Low Low Rose Sand, loam, clay Good Medium Good Low High White Loam, clay Poor Late Good High High 3-4 Vetch, hairy Sand, loam, clay Good Medium Good low Low overton.tamu.edu

27 Soil Test Report Fertilizer Recommendation Which nutrients to apply Proper Rate Soil Chemical Condition Soil acidity ph Salinity

28 Planting Methods Prepared seedbed (clean-tilled) Disk to remove existing vegetation Roll (firm seedbed) Drill seed or broadcast Roll again (good seed-soil contact)

29 Planting Methods Over-seeding (non-tilled) Remove existing vegetation Grazing close or haying Light disking Drill or broadcast seed

30 Arrowleaf Clover Can be managed for reseeding Apache Arrowleaf (TAMU-Overton) Plant: 8-10 lbs/ac Prefers well drained soils

31 Crimson Clover Best combination of cold tolerance and early spring forage production Can be managed for reseeding Plant: lbs/ac Prefers well drained soils

32 Rose Clover Overton R18 High hard seed % Planting rate can be reduced to 8 lb/ac Good choice for reliable reseeding on upland sites Not adapted to wet, poorly drained sites

33 Ball Clover Soil type: loam, clay-loam Adapted to wetter sites High bloat potential Use: over-seeding pastures 2-3 lb/acre Excellent reseeding

34 Berseem Clover Soil type: loam, clay-loam Low bloat potential Tolerates flooding and wet soils; low drought tolerance Lacks reseeding potential and cold tolerance Best use South of I-20

35 White Clover Best adapted to bottomland sites (wet, poorly drained) Generally a reseeding annual in east Texas Late spring forage production Economical establishment (3-4 lbs/ac)

36 Vetch Broad soil adaptation Use: over-seeding pastures lb/ac Grazing tolerance poor Reseeding not reliable Great cover crop

37 Grazing vs. Hay Most of the nutrients (70-90%) of N, P and K are recycled through the animals and back to the soil.

38 Any Questions????

39 Pasture Herbicides to Consider Legume Program 2,4-D Weedmaster Outlaw (Agri Star) Range Star (Agri Star) Generic Weedmaster Non-Legume Program GrazonNext (Dow) Milestone (Dow) Grazon P+D (Dow) Gunslinger (Agri Star) Generic Grazon P+D Cimarron anything (Du Pont) Redeem (Dow) Clopyralid + Triclopyr

40 Reasons Pasture Weed Control Programs Don t Work Spraying too early Misidentification of the weed Bad environmental conditions Sprayed at the wrong growth stage Used the wrong product Didn t calibrate sprayer Didn t read the label

41 The Best Weed Management Program is a Good Forage Stand! Fertilize according to soil test recommendations Take care of weed problems early Control stock density and grazing Leave standing stubble for faster regrowth

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