Social Media Use by Governments

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1 Please cite this paper as: Mickleit, A. (2014), Scial Media Use by Gvernments: A Plicy Primer t Discuss Trends, Identify Plicy Opprtunities and Guide Decisin Makers, OECD Wrking Papers n Public Gvernance, N. 26, OECD Publishing. OECD Wrking Papers n Public Gvernance N. 26 Scial Media Use by Gvernments A POLICY PRIMER TO DISCUSS TRENDS, IDENTIFY POLICY OPPORTUNITIES AND GUIDE DECISION MAKERS Arthur Mickleit

2 OECD Wrking Papers shuld nt be reprted as representing the fficial views f the OECD r f its member cuntries. The pinins expressed and arguments emplyed are thse f the authrs. Wrking Papers describe preliminary results r research in prgress by the authr(s) and are published t stimulate discussin n a brad range f issues n which the OECD wrks. Cmments n Wrking Papers are welcmed, and may be sent t the Public Gvernance and Territrial Develpment Directrate, OECD, 2 rue André-Pascal, Paris Cedex 16, France. OECD Wrking Papers n Public Gvernance N. 26 SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY GOVERNMENTS: A POLICY PRIMER TO DISCUSS TRENDS, IDENTIFY POLICY OPPORTUNITIES AND GUIDE DECISION MAKERS Validated fr publicatin by Rlf Alter, Directr, Public Gvernance and Territrial Develpment Directrate

3 WORKING PAPER SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY GOVERNMENTS: A POLICY PRIMER TO DISCUSS TRENDS, IDENTIFY POLICY OPPORTUNITIES AND GUIDE DECISION MAKERS Arthur Mickleit ABSTRACT This wrking paper takes a cmparative snapsht f scial media use in and by OECD gvernments. The fcus is n gvernment institutins, as ppsed t persnalities, and hw they manage t capture the pprtunities f new scial media platfrms t deliver better public services and t create mre pen plicy prcesses. The analysis is based n a large amunt f empirical data, including a survey f OECD gvernments n plicies and bjectives in this area. Majr challenges are discussed, ntably thse related t the uncertainty f institutins n hw t best leverage scial media beynd crprate cmmunicatins. The paper prpses tls t guide decisin makers: a checklist f issues t be cnsidered by gvernment institutins, a set f ptential indicatrs t appraise impacts, and a range f ptins fr mre in-depth plicy analysis. 1

4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Presence and activity n scial media is n lnger a questin f chice fr mst gvernments as thse new platfrms empwer individuals and nn-traditinal interest grups. Pliticians were first t react t these changes by using platfrms such as Twitter, Facebk and blgs t rally supprt. Gvernment institutins are slwly catching up and increasingly experiment with scial media. Gvernments are witnessing hw scial media empwer individuals, as well as traditinal and newly-frmed interest grups t influence plitical agendas and plicy prcesses. Mst prminent tpics discussed n scial media include electins and plitical campaigns, disaster and emergency situatins, plitical unrest. But scial media are mre than just a glbal place fr discussins, they have becme a vehicle fr the rganisatin f cllective actin. Plitical persnalities, e.g. heads f state r heads f gvernment, quickly adapted t these changes. Scial media are tday a standard cmpnent f a pliticians tlkit fr campaigning, rallying and fund-raising. Sme state r gvernment leaders are very successful, as illustrated by high levels f ppularity n scial media achieved by the President f the United States r the President f Ecuadr bth interact with cmmunities f Twitter fllwers that crrespnd t mre than 10% f the dmestic ppulatin. Gvernment institutins are slwly becming mre represented and active n scial media. The main executive institutins in 26 ut f 34 OECD member cuntries perate a Twitter accunt; and they maintain a Facebk page in 21 ut f 34 cuntries. Many ministries and specialised agencies perate n scial media; as d institutins at reginal and lcal levels f gvernment. Data suggests that sme f the scial media activities by gvernment institutins are met with interest. Fr example the tp executive institutins in Ecuadr the United Kingdm and Chile managed t build a cmmunity f Twitter fllwers that is equivalent t ver 4% f the dmestic ppulatin. Tweets by the United States White Huse are re-tweeted ver 270 times n average, which can be interpreted as a sign f interest and perceived relevance by scial media users. The purpse and returns f scial media use by institutins are nt as clear as they are fr plitical persnalities. This leads t uncertainty amng gvernment institutins abut hw t best leverage scial media and abut the implicatins fr strategic bjectives and day-t-day peratins. Plitical leaders, i.e. heads f state and heads f gvernment, are mre ppular n scial media than the institutins they represent. On Twitter the average gvernment leader cunts at least fur times mre fllwers than the average institutinal accunt fr the head f state r gvernment. Higher scial media ppularity f persnalities versus institutins relates t the expectatin f many scial media users t interact with real, i.e. identifiable, peple. But it als illustrates uncertainty and a lack f creativity n the side f institutins. Plitical leaders are able t reap measurable returns n scial media use, e.g. thrugh scial media campaigns that lead t mre funds, supprt r vtes. Many gvernment institutins in turn are still lking fr the right recipe amng the ptins fr using scial media: prviding public infrmatin, prviding 2

5 crprate infrmatin, prmting public services in general r prmting specific delivery channels, cnsulting and invlving the ppulatin. Gd practices f purpseful and missin-riented institutinal use f scial media exist. The Spanish natinal plice has fr example becme a glbal reference fr plice wrk n and with scial media. Such cases prvide guidance n hw scial media help transfrm public services and help build trusted relatinships with citizens. But the verall uncertainty is cnfirmed by the fact that few natinal gvernments in OECD cuntries have a dedicated strategy r verarching plan fr institutinal use f scial media. Amng thse gvernments that d, mst cnsider scial media as being mainly an additinal tl t imprve public cmmunicatins. Only few gvernments try t genuinely leverage scial media fr mre advanced purpses like invlving citizens in public plicy prcesses r transfrming and re-designing public service delivery. Scial media have the ptential t make plicy prcesses mre inclusive and thereby rebuild sme cnfidence between gvernments and citizens. But there are n ne size fits all appraches and gvernment strategies need t seriusly cnsider cntext and demand factrs t be effective. Scial media ffer new pprtunities t reduce plitical exclusin, e.g. by allwing ad-hc and diffuse interest grups t place items n the plitical agenda. Especially when cmbined with petitins, empirical evidence and n-the-grund actins, scial media have prven their ptential t escalate issues and alter riginal decisins made by established actrs in the plitical system. Gvernments can leverage this ptential t design public plicies and services in mre iterative, cllabrative and respnsive ways. It des, hwever, require dedicating resurces t participative develpment and establishing credible fllw-up prcedures t integrate feedback received via new channels and platfrms. Empirical evidence suggests that scial media can bridge access and take-up gaps still faced by many traditinal nline gvernment services. But the characteristics f scial media users and nn-users can be very different frm cuntry t cuntry, as well as within cuntries. Scial media d nt autmatically level the playing field in the sense f empwering all scietal grups equally. This might be the case in sme cuntries, e.g. in Germany, Austria r sme Nrdic nes where scial media take-up and use d nt depend n educatinal attainment. But in cuntries like Spain, the United Kingdm, Hungary, Prtugal, Greece and Turkey scial media use is much mre prminent amng parts f the ppulatin with high educatin levels than amng thse with n r lw levels f educatin. The uptake gap can be as large as 50 percentage pints. Neither d scial media guarantee mre attentin r participatin f yunger, disenchanted peple. General scial media use is f curse very high amng yung peple in almst all OECD cuntries. But just ver 30% f yung Dutch seem t use scial media t discuss plitical r civic issues. The Netherlands in fact lead this Eurpean cmparisn, which is trailed by Austria where less than 10% f year lds reprt using scial media that way. Lw rates f yung peple using scial media t discuss plitical r civic issues are nt just an expressin f disinterest. They als result frm lw levels f capacity and cmmitment by many gvernment institutins t use this channel t engage yung peple. This is particularly wrrisme in abut a dzen Eurpean cuntries that als suffer frm very high rates f vter abstentin amng yung peple. Gvernments in thse cuntries are nt able t realise the ptential f scial media t make prcesses mre inclusive f yung peple. Nn-gvernment 3

6 actrs ften fill the gap by shwing creative ptins and using scial media t fster inclusin, as fr example the Bite the Ballt campaign fr yung vter registratin in the United Kingdm. Scial media drive innvatin in public service delivery and gvernment peratins. They amplify sme f the demcratisatin effects f the Internet n public infrmatin and services; and they prvide pprtunities t deliver n expectatins that are nt met by traditinal nline gvernment services. But institutins need t be aware f risks, fr instance in terms f prtectin f privacy, quality f infrmatin and public perceptin. Scial media allw gvernments t crwd-surce ideas, suggestins and critical remarks. Public institutins increasingly create r participate n cllabrative platfrms. One such example is GitHub, an pen surce cllabratin platfrm that hlds re-usable surce cdes fr (United States), (United Kingdm) and many ther prjects. The gvernment categry f the platfrm s repsitry has seen rapid grwth since Where gvernments fail t r are slw t use thse platfrms t imprve and deliver public services, peple and rganisatins step in and pressure fr change. The impacts f bttmup prcesses tend t increase where scial media are cmbined with nline petitins, mbile applicatins, pen (gvernment) data analytics, crwd-funding initiatives, and cllective ffline actin such as prtests. Better targeted and mre efficient public service delivery is ne f the expectatins gvernments have twards scial media. That expectatin eches the early days f e-gvernment. It is therefre imprtant t make sure institutinal use f scial media is directed twards the realizatin f tangible benefits fr users, sciety and gvernment. Analysis f specific gvernment sectrs helps illustrate the ptential, e.g. in healthcare r emplyment services. Digital pprtunities in healthcare are a pririty fr many cuntries. But even in the mst advanced cuntries nly 50-60% f peple use the Internet as a surce fr healthcare-related infrmatin. This has t d with the imprtance f interpersnal relatinships between practitiners and patients. But it is als an illustratin f the perceived lack f reliable and credible infrmatin. Senirs (ver 65 year lds) are fr example a fast-grwing grup f Internet and scial media users mre than half f them are Internet users in Japan and the United States; and at least ne in five senirs are scial media users in Krea, Iceland, Nrway and the United Kingdm. Public healthcare prviders are still hesitant t use Internet frums r scial media applicatins t accmpany this segment f the ppulatin and t better integrate healthcare infrmatin int elderly peple s daily lives. Lking fr emplyment has lng been transfrmed by the Internet and is under full transfrmatin by scial media. In sme cuntries public emplyment services and cmmercial nline service prviders cmplement each ther well, e.g. in Germany r Sweden where the majrity f jb seekers use the Internet t lk fr a jb and cnsult the natinal emplyment agency. Germany s Bundesagentur für Arbeit fr example supprts jb seekers and emplyers by cllabrating with the nline prfessinal netwrk Xing. In several ther cuntries, hwever, the perceived relevance f public emplyment agencies is declining, which shuld give the cncerned institutins incentives t re-invent their service delivery in this new cntext. As scial media becme mre pervasive, they allw gvernments t use new surces f infrmatin t understand peple s needs and behaviurs. Gvernments can mine scial media activities t btain insights fr better quality f services acrss all plicy areas. But this is als an area f grwing public attentin, resentment t privacy breaches and perceived surveillance 4

7 by gvernments. The number f gvernment requests abut individual users infrmatin frm platfrms such as Facebk, Twitter and Ggle is steadily grwing. While these requests are, in principle, in line with natinal legislatin and ften cncern criminal investigatins, the numbers and reasns are nt always well cmmunicated by gvernments and can lead t unfavurable public perceptin. Gvernment institutins need t better understand the impacts they can achieve thrugh scial media in rder t help priritise targets and establish effective plicies. They need t adapt t, learn frm and preferably shape the ways in which scial media transfrm public value creatin. Scial media can help gvernments imprve cmmunicatins, bth regular and emergency. But much ptential is still undiscvered when it cmes t using scial media t transfrm plicy prcesses, make decisins mre transparent and prcesses mre inclusive, and develp mre respnsive and mre efficient public services. Few recipes are ready ff the shelf but iterative interactins with users can start a prcess f mutual learning n hw t best apply scial media in a given area. There is little guidance n hw gvernment institutins can appraise the impact f scial media n peple s satisfactin with public services, n efficiency f gvernment peratins and n greater penness verall. Only a small minrity f gvernments systematically mnitr r measure the impacts. Sme quantifiable infrmatin can be utilised t measure presence r ppularity f an institutin n scial media. But mre qualitative infrmatin, e.g. case stries abut a better utcme fr an individual r a cmmunity, are needed t appraise penetratin, perceptin and purpse-rientatin f institutinal scial media use. Sme gvernment institutins take up the challenge f develping skills and capacities. This includes develping prgrammes t attract, develp and retain the skills sets needed amng civil servants. The Australian Public Service has lng had a systematic apprach t develping skills and capacities fr digital gvernment refrms; and the framewrk is being adapted t include scial media and cllabrative appraches. Gvernments need t build cmmunities f interest arund their scial media experiences. There are sme centrally crdinated exchange mechanisms, e.g. the Scial Media Cmmunity f Practice supprted by the United States GSA. Such cmmunities help vercme sme f the hesitatin and uncertainty that individual ministries r agencies express when it cmes t questins abut if and hw t take up scial media in their wrk. The wide variety f practices mentined in this reprt pint t the benefits f further analysing the plicy implicatins f scial media, identifying gd examples and develping missinriented guidance fr the public sectr. A checklist fr institutins is prpsed belw. The reprt develps a set f ptential metrics and indicatrs fr impact measurement; and it utlines ptins fr mre in-depth analysis. 5

8 A checklist fr purpse-riented use f scial media in the public sectr Issue Objectives and expectatins Gvernance mdes and guidelines What is the cre missin f my institutin? Questins t be raised and answered What are the mst imprtant infrmatin and services prvided by my institutin? Hw imprtant is public cmmunicatin fr achieving my institutin s cre bjectives? Hw can scial media supprt my institutin s cre missin? What are examples frm similar institutins dmestically r internatinally? Can scial media enable utside actrs t supprt selected activities f my institutin, e.g. intermediaries r individuals fr which my institutin can prvide a platfrm fr cllabratin? Is there a central versight bdy fr scial media use acrss gvernment r is the preferred perating mde ne f dispersed innvatin? Hw can different rganisatinal units in my institutin leverage scial media, e.g. the public relatins department, the IT department, the plicy making department, the service delivery department? Is there a need fr scial media guidelines fr civil servants, including fr persnal use? Is there a need fr scial media guidelines fr fficial institutinal accunts, e.g. Facebk presence f a given ministry? Wh, if anybdy, sets guidelines fr scial media use by pliticians r appinted high-ranking civil servants representing an institutin? Legal cmpliance What are the specific legal and regulatry prvisins that may have an impact n hw my institutin uses scial media? Are scial media cvered r excluded frm fficial recrd-keeping? What disclaimers shuld be added t the scial media presence? What infrmatin is my institutin allwed t re-use when it cmes t privacy prtectin r cmpliance with intellectual prperty laws? Hw t ensure that my institutin s scial media use meets requirements fr accessibility f infrmatin and services? Skills and resurces Cllabratin and cmmunitybuilding Managing risks f scial media use Mnitring and measuring scial media impacts What human resurces are available r can be mbilized t achieve sustainable impacts? Are scial media skills addressed by wider (digital) skills strategies at my institutin r gvernment? Hw are scial media expenses accunted fr? Can they be extracted frm verall cmmunicatins expenses in rder t calculate specific csts? D gvernment cmmunities exist where I can exchange scial media experiences? What crdinatin r cllabratin mechanisms wuld help my institutin understand and maximize the impact f scial media? Hw damaging wuld reputatinal risks be fr my institutin? Des my institutin need t wrry abut unintentinal disclsure f infrmatin? What share f civil servants uses scial media in their persnal capacity? Are scial media risks addressed by verarching strategies fr managing risks in my institutin r gvernment? Hw advanced are my scial media indicatrs? What d they actually measure: presence, ppularity, penetratin, perceptin r purpse? Des my institutin use indicatrs that evaluate the cntributin t actual cre bjectives? What wuld be an ideal set f metrics fr my institutin s use f scial media? What infrmatin surces can I use t mve frm the current metrics t an ideal set f purpse-riented indicatrs? 6

9 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION... 8 Ratinale... 8 Structure... 9 Scpe and methdlgy TAKING STOCK OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE IN GOVERNMENT Current strategies Presence Ppularity Cmparing gvernment institutins t gvernment leaders Activity levels Interactin and cntent POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE IN GOVERNMENT Plicy prcesses: mre pen, inclusive and participatry Marginalised and hard-t-reach grups Yunger peple Public service delivery: mre agile, iterative and respnsive Healthcare service delivery Public emplyment services MANAGING THE NECESSARY CHANGE IN GOVERNMENT TO CREATE... IMPACT Frmulating bjectives and expectatins Gvernance and guidelines Legal cmpliance Skills and resurces Cllabratin and cmmunities Managing scial media risks Mnitring and measuring impact CONCLUSION Next steps twards better guidance and data cllectin

10 1. INTRODUCTION Ratinale Gvernments all ver the wrld are using scial media. There are a multitude f cases fr any cuntry, any sectr and any level f gvernment. New gvernment representatives and institutins are jining every day, mainly because the entry csts are relatively lw and because the lst pprtunities f nt being there are perceived as being high. But what is actually the added value fr gvernments f embracing scial media? Is it a technlgy trend likely t end up as hype r is it a scietal develpment that requires full attentin? Experimentatin is surely an ptin since initial entry csts are lw. At the same time sustainable peratins and tangible impacts d require dedicated resurces human, financial, rganisatinal. And at times when demands fr gvernments t be mre pen, transparent and accuntable cincide with demands t be mre efficient and effective in the prvisin f public gds and services the freedm t experiment is mre ften than nt limited by the need t shw explicit returns. It is relatively undisputed that scial media make cmmunicatins mre effective. This includes regular cmmunicatins by pliticians, civil servants and gvernment institutins. And it als includes cmmunicatins in sudden crisis and emergency situatins, e.g. in respnse t natural disasters, where each new crisis in the recent past shwed the wrld new aspects f hw scial media can and cannt make a difference (cf. Wendling et al., 2013). But public sectr institutins need and want t g beynd imprving cmmunicatins. Mre and mre institutins are making the effrt t re-think the ways in which they prvide infrmatin and deliver services, the ways in which they let stakehlders participate in plicy prcesses, the ways in which they surce ideas, respnd t requests and cllabrate with internal and external partners. Digital technlgies, including scial media, have tday becme a crnerstne f such refrms and gvernments find guidance fr purpse-riented use in the OECD Recmmendatin n Digital Gvernment Strategies (OECD, 2014). But the full ptential and the risks f scial media use fr gvernment are nt yet fully understd, let alne prven. That is different in the private sectr where the cntributin f scial media t drive revenues r reduce csts is quite clearly articulated, measured and expsed (see Figure 1 fr cmmercial value prpsitins by Facebk and Ggle+). Take the example f Blendtec, a manufacturer f prfessinal fd blenders. The cmpany s YuTube campaign f blending husehld items like mbile phnes, laptps and glf balls became viral n scial media and let t a 700% sales increase ver a year (ScialMediaTday, 2013). 8

11 Figure 1. Cmmercial value prpsitins fr scial media use, Facebk and Ggle+ Surce: Adapted by authr, based n infrmatin retrieved frm Facebk and Ggle websites, Octber Such sales-riented value prpsitins might actually apply t thse parts f gvernment where cmmunicatins and selling f sme srt is a primary bjective. Think f plitical leaders that need t cnvince vters, funders and ther partners f their plicies. Scial media have indeed becme mainstream in these areas. But the starting pint is quite different fr mst public sectr institutins. There are certainly institutins whse main functin is t prvide the public with credible and high-quality infrmatin. This is part f regular peratins and can als incur csts n users f that infrmatin, e.g. access t data held by natinal registries r statistical ffices. It is als part f infrmatin management during emergency peratins, e.g. that f law enfrcement agencies during a crisis (cf. Wendling et al., 2013). In many f these areas, scial media can be utilised as a tl fr infrmatin diffusin and neway cmmunicatins. But the functins f public sectr institutins g wider than that and therefre require a mre sphisticated apprach t scial media t explit its ptential. Many institutins actually give services away withut direct payments in return where this cmplies with plicy and with individual needs. Other institutins primarily cllect payments withut any direct returns, e.g. agencies cllecting taxes r scial security cntributins. Still ther gvernment departments services fcus n prviding services in the back-ffice f the state administratin, e.g. agencies respnsible fr public prcurement, human resurces and infrastructure management. Just these few examples illustrate that business case appraches fr scial media use in the cmmercial area d nt easily transfer t the public sectr. The challenge is therefre ne f establishing methdlgies that allw public sectr decisin makers t identify which scial media investments lead t expected returns. Despite much enthusiasm fr gvernment experimentatin in this area, tugh questins are already being asked abut whether resurces spent n scial media cntribute t achievement f missin-riented bjectives. Structure This paper aims t supprt decisin-makers in creating slid value prpsitins fr the diverse areas where scial media have the ptential t supprt cre gvernment bjectives. Making references t wrk dne elsewhere, this paper explres and t the degree this is pssible at this stage cmpares trends in gvernment use f scial media accrding t the fllwing structure: 9

12 Chapter 2 uses empirical infrmatin t depict the current internatinal landscape f gvernment use f scial media. It cmpares and analyses the strategies frmulated by gvernment, the levels f activity n selected scial netwrks, the interest and feedback these activities trigger within the general ppulatin. Chapter 3 analyses the pprtunities and challenges f scial media t help re-build mutual trust between gvernments and their citizens, and t imprve gvernment respnsiveness t demands fr mre effective and efficient public services. The chapter draws n empirical evidence arund the inclusin f marginalised peple and yunger peple. It als discusses specific applicatin pprtunities in the sectrs f healthcare and public emplyment service prvisin. Chapter 4 then utlines what gvernments are ding t manage the changes necessary t adapt t the rapid diffusin f scial media int all spheres f public, persnal and cmmercial life. The chapter cites gvernment practices where they exist and where they can inspire similar initiatives in ther cuntries. The cnclusin develps a preliminary checklist fr gvernment institutins t fllw when designing scial media strategies. This checklist is the starting pint f a cmprehensive analytical framewrk and data cllectin methdlgy presented in the cncluding chapter. The framewrk structures further analytical wrk arund gvernment use f scial media. Scpe and methdlgy T clearly frame this paper tw key terms need t be qualified right away: scial media and gvernment. Scial media tday encmpass a vast array f platfrms with different purpses, features and target audiences. Different taxnmies and categrisatins exist, but their use wuld add n majr value t this analysis. This paper takes the pragmatic apprach f fcusing n the leading generalist platfrms tday instead f attempting t be exhaustive in its cverage f scial media platfrms. Reference t purpse-specific platfrms will be made where this adds value. Facebk and Twitter are by far the mst ppular scial media platfrms wrldwide. In 2014 Facebk had ver 1 billin active users wrldwide, which is the equivalent f arund 15% f the wrld s ppulatin. 1 Twitter s mre than 270 millin active users emit mre than half a billin Twitter messages ( tweets ) per day. 2 T facilitate research and mining f this vast reserve f data, the US Library f Cngress agreed t archive all public tweets starting 2006 and int the future. 3 Reginal differences in the ppularity f scial netwrks certainly exist. Ggle+, fr example, is much mre ppular in the United States and in India than in the rest f the wrld. Naver applicatins have great ppularity in Krea. Qzne and Weib are the leading scial netwrks in China, where access t Facebk, Twitter and Ggle+ is severely limited. Orkut is a leading scial media platfrm in Brazil, vkntakte an imprtant ne in Russia. 1 Fr mre infrmatin see 2 Fr mre infrmatin see 3 Fr mre infrmatin see 10

13 There are als platfrms that fcus n a very specific functinality such as YuTube fr sharing vides, Pinterest fr web cntent curatin, Instagram fr sharing pictures, WhatsApp fr instant messaging. Their ffer and character is, hwever, cnstantly in flux as new functins are being added and as cmpanies are being merged r acquired. Blgs can be cnsidered a scial media categry f its wn. They have demcratised creatin f written cntent similar t the way that YuTube demcratised creatin f filmed cntent. Wrdpress, a leading blgging service, each mnths sees ver 400 millin visitrs each mnth t ver 70 millin registered blgs ( Scial media trends are f curse mutually reinfrcing with ther majr technlgy develpments. In particular, the mbile Internet and pen data trends are imprtant drivers and beneficiaries f scial media diffusin, including fr gvernment (cf. OECD & ITU, 2011; Ubaldi, 2013). Other technlgy trends such as clud cmputing, machine-t-machine cmmunicatins and big data are clsely related as well (cf. OECD, 2012a). Gvernment in this paper primarily refers t the highest executive institutins in the natinal public administratin: the ffices f the president, prime minister r gvernment as a whle. Plitical leaders, as well as intermediary rganisatins such as parties, trade unins r business assciatins, will nly be discussed spradically where cmparisns prvide specific insights. S the analysis in this paper fcuses n the scial media activities f ffices rather than the persnalities hlding the ffice, e.g. rather r rather The fcus n institutins enables better cmparability acrss cuntries. But there are als reasns pertaining t the subject matter itself that speak in favur f cmparing what public sectr institutins, rather than individual persnalities, d with scial media. Fr ne, institutins cnstitute the main interface with the state in the day-t-day lives f individuals, rganisatins, and businesses. The institutinal fcus will help identify plicy pprtunities that are mre directly linked t the cre missin f the state. Mrever, institutins typically remain lnger in place than the peple hlding an ffice, which makes ver-time cmparisns mre meaningful. S the bjective is t cntribute t the relatively scarce bdy f analysis available abut the impacts f gvernment institutins use f scial media. T supprt the analysis the OECD cnducted a survey f scial media use amng central gvernment institutins. During September and Octber 2013, 24 ut f 34 member cuntries (i.e. a 70% return rate) plus ne partner cuntry, Clmbia, prvided infrmatin that fr the first time allws a crss-cuntry cmparisn f bjectives, strategies, plicies and rules set by natinal centres f gvernment in this area. 11

14 2. TAKING STOCK OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE IN GOVERNMENT This sectin takes stck f empirical data t establish a first set f baselines n gvernment scial media use. The main surces fr cmparisn are the OECD survey f scial media use in gvernments and publicly available data frm the main scial netwrking platfrms. 4 Current strategies The current use f scial media at natinal gvernments is largely ne f laissez faire and experimentatin. Only ne quarter f the respnding gvernments (7 ut f 25) have a dedicated scial media strategy (Figure 2): Australia, Austria, Belgium, Chile (see Bx 1), Clmbia, Krea and the Netherlands. Other well-knwn examples are f curse the United States where scial media is an integral part f the gvernment strategy t engage and cnnect and the United Kingdm where scial media are deeply embedded in the gvernment s digital strategy. 5 Figure 2. A minrity f gvernments have a dedicated scial media strategy, OECD, 2013 Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. 4 There is a slight bias twards using Twitter data in this sectin because a very exhaustive dataset n gvernment activities is peridically cllected and made public by Bursn-Marsteller under the Twiplmacy label ( N such data cllectin exists fr Facebk yet. 5 Fr mre infrmatin see and 12

15 Bx 1. Chile s scial media strategy: hitting the right enjys a relatively high ppularity n Twitter with ver 550,000 fllwers, which translates int rughly 3% f the ppulatin (cf. Mickleit, 2013). The gvernment early n develped a practive strategy twards scial media. Key elements t get the strategy ging were: An fficial circular in 2010 that explicitly encuraged the use f scial media acrss the Chilean gvernment (archived at Integratin f scial media as a key cmpnent in the natinal e-gvernment strategy and its three pillars: pen gvernment, gvernment clse t its cnstituents, and efficient gvernment ( A digital guide (Guía digital) that prvides strategic and technical assistance n gvernment use f new technlgies. It includes infrmatin n the precnditins, capacities and skills necessary t make the best use f scial media ( The Chilean gvernment reprts that the cllabrative and iterative develpment f these dcuments was critical fr their prductin. Stakehlders are engaged in the evlutin f the strategy and develpment f key dcuments. The e-gvernment strategy, fr example, went thrugh several public iteratins befre it reached its final state in Scial media facilitated these iterative and cllabrative effrts. If nt full-fledged strategies, arund half f the respnding gvernments (12 ut f 25) frmulate explicit bjectives r expectatins fr the use f scial media (Figure 3): Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Clmbia, Finland, France, Ireland, Krea, Netherlands, Turkey. Figure 3. Arund half f gvernments have specific bjectives r expectatins fr scial media use, OECD, 2013 Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. The primary bjective fr gvernments is t imprve cmmunicatins, fllwed by stakehlder engagement and service delivery imprvements (Figure 4). In a sense this illustrates that scial media are as f tday still mainly regarded as means t diffuse infrmatin and nly secndarily t imprve cnsultatin r even active participatin as part f better gvernment-citizen relatins (cf. OECD, 2001). 13

16 Figure 4. Imprving public cmmunicatins is the mst prminent bjective, OECD, 2013 Nte: Respnses frm 12 cuntries that indicated having specific bjectives r expectatins fr gvernment scial media use; up t three answer ptins allwed. Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. The primary fcus f gvernment scial media use tday n diffusing infrmatin is cnfirmed by varius surveys. A survey f US public authrities at different levels f gvernment shws that 85% f thse using scial media d s t distribute infrmatin (GvLp, 2013). Similarly, a 2012 survey f lcal gvernment authrities in the United Kingdm finds that virtually all lcal cuncils use scial media fr external cmmunicatins (BDO, 2012). It shuld be nted that the infrmatin diffusin functin can refer bth t the disseminatin f neutral infrmatin, e.g. statistics, that are a resurces in decisin-making prcesses. But they can als refer t purpse-riented messaging as part f gvernment peratins, e.g. t raise awareness f an issue r t prvke specific actin by recipients. Presence Even thugh nly half f OECD gvernments have specific bjectives r expectatins and even fewer have a strategy a large majrity f them have an fficial scial media presence (Table 1). Twitter is used by 26 ut f 34 OECD gvernments t represent the highest state institutin (i.e. the ffice f the head f state, head f gvernment r the gvernment ffice). Facebk is slightly less ppular, but still used by 18 ut f 34 OECD gvernments as a means t present themselves n the Internet. Wrldwide, at least three ut f fur gvernments have sme srt f Twitter presence. 6 6 Infrmatin shared by Jerôme Tmassini, Twitter France, at OECD cnference The Pwer f Scial Media, 20 February 2014, 14

17 Table 1. Institutinal Twitter and Facebk accunts fr head f state, head f gvernment r gvernment as a whle, OECD cuntries Cuntry Twitter Facebk Australia Austria Belgium Canada PMwebupdates Chile GbierndeChile GbierndeChile Czech Republic Strakvka Uradvlady Denmark Estnia Stenbckimaja Estniangvt Stenbckimaja Finland Valtineuvst Fingvernment Tpkanslia France Germany Elysee Matignn Fil_guv Regsprecher Bundesreg Elysee.Fr Matignn.Fr Greece PrimeministerGR GvGR Hungary Krmany_HU Krmanyzat Iceland Ireland Gvdtie Merrinstreet Merrinstreet Israel IsraeliPM IsraeliPM_ar IsraeliPM IsraeliPM_heb Italy Palazz_chigi Quirinalestampa Japan Kantei_saigai Kantei Jpn_PMO Bluehusekrea PrimeministerKR Gvkrea Japan.PMO Surikantei Krea PrimeministerKR Gvkrea Chengwadae Luxemburg Curgrandducale Curgrandducale Mexic PresidenciaMX Gbrep PresidenciaMX Netherlands Khtweets Rijksverheid Ministerpresident MinPres New Zealand Nrway Krnprinsparet Regjeringen Kngehuset Pland PremierRP PrezydentPL PlandgvPL Prtugal Presidencia PresidenciadaRepublicaPrtuguesa Slvak Republic Slvenia VladaRS GvSlvenia Spain DesdelaMncla CasaReal PalacidelaMncla Sweden Kungahuset Switzerland BR_sprecher 15

18 Cuntry Twitter Facebk Turkey Tccankaya Trpresidency Tccankaya Trpresidency United Kingdm BritishMnarchy Number10gv TheBritishMnarchy 10DwningStreet United States WhiteHuse LaCasaBlanca WhiteHuse WhiteHuse.Espanl Surce: Authr s cmpilatin, based n publicly available data. Nte: The statistical data fr Israel are supplied by and under the respnsibility f the relevant Israeli authrities. The use f such data by the OECD is withut prejudice t the status f the Glan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms f internatinal law. But even thse OECD cuntries that d nt have an fficial accunt fr the highest state institutins are usually in ne way r the ther present n either f the tw majr scial media platfrms: Australia has n institutinal accunt fr the centre f gvernment as such but the gvernment s main web prtal prvides links t a large list f scial media presences fr gvernment departments, public service agencies and sub-natinal authrities. 7 Austria has a drmant institutinal accunt fr the federal which has emitted n tweet since Nvember Sweden has n institutinal accunts fr the highest gvernment institutins. Instead it has Freign Minister Carl Bildt wh has been singled ut as the mst Twitter savvy plitician in Sweden, in Eurpe and prbably wrldwide. 8 And the cuntry is hme t a unique experiment where the accunt is curated by a different citizen each week. Several OECD cuntries have a scial media presence fr their natinal service prtals, e.g. Belgium s Scial media use is by n means exclusive t the tp executive institutins. Individual ministries, departments r prgrammes als have strng levels f scial media presence in sme cuntries. In the United States, a 2012 census shwed that the rughly 700 federal departments, agencies and initiatives had a stck f arund 3,000 Facebk pages, 1,000 Twitter accunts, 700 YuTube channels and 500 Flickr pages (Mergel, 2013). This ften includes accunts fr specific public service areas that are better recgnised by the public. Law enfrcement services, fr example, typically have a presence f their wn, apart frm the institutins they frmally belng t, e.g. ministries f interir. Sub-natinal gvernment authrities are als increasingly represented n scial media. The fllwing data prvide sme illustratins: In the United States tw thirds f cunties and municipalities had an fficial scial media presence as early as Facebk is the preferred channel with ver 90%, fllwed by Twitter with arund 70% and blgs, which were used by arund 20% f US lcal authrities (ICMA, 2011). In the United Kingdm a 2012 survey reprted that ver 90% f lcal cuncils have a Twitter accunt, ver 80% a Facebk accunt, ver 50% a Flickr accunt t share pictures; nly 3% f lcal cuncils reprted having n scial media presence at all (BDO, 2012). 7 Fr mre infrmatin see 8 Fr mre infrmatin see 16

19 In Sweden each f the 21 reginal cuncils (Landstinget) has a Facebk accunt and 11 f them use Twitter. Lcal municipalities are t 80% represented n Facebk, and 43% n Twitter; half f them reprt using blgs. 9 But these examples shuld nt lead t a rapid cnclusin that all lcal gvernments use scial media. Overall uptake and the chice f particular platfrms vary a lt depending n the natinal r lcal cntext. In 2012, a survey f 75 larger municipalities acrss Eurpe fund that nly 32% had a Twitter accunt, 30% were n YuTube, and nly 16% n Facebk. At the same time, ver half f these municipalities perated a blg (Bnsón et al., 2012). Ppularity An imminent questin is whether ppulatins are interested and engage with the scial media presence f their gvernments. Clearly, sme gvernment institutins managed t build sizeable cmmunities arund their scial media presence. The United and United clearly stand ut with several millin fllwers n Twitter; their equivalents n Facebk als have very high numbers f fans. But quantifying ppularity and cmparing it acrss different scial media presences remains a matter f much discussin. Unfrtunately, fake fllwers and likes can be btained and purchased quite easily; ther ways t cheat in terms f quantifiable scial media impact are plentiful. And althugh services exist that suppsedly audit scial media presences against sme f these practices, their methdlgies still have t prve they can be applied mre generally. 10 In the absence f a perfect measure, scial media ppularity f gvernment accunts will be illustrated using tw prxy variables: A harmnised measure fr the number f fllwers r likes n Twitter r Facebk, respectively. This measure pints twards the interest f the wider ppulatin and rganisatins in the cntent prvided by gvernment institutins n scial media. T enable internatinal cmparisns, the abslute numbers will be divided by the size f the respective ppulatin. A harmnised measure fr re-tweets, i.e. the re-diffusin f riginal gvernment cntent by ther scial media users. This measure indicates the degree f relevance that scial media users attribute t the cntent emitted by gvernment institutins. The greater this number, the greater the ptential snwball effect because a re-tweet is seen by all the fllwers f the Twitter user wh des the re-tweet. T enable cmparisn, the number f re-tweets btained by a gvernment accunt will be divided by the number f tweets it riginally emitted. Regarding the first variable (fllwership), the relatively small gvernments f Mnac and Andrra lead the cmparisn (Table 2 and Figure 5). Amng OECD cuntries, the United Kingdm cmes first (and fifth glbally) with a reach f 4.2% f the ppulatin. Reaching the equivalent f 3.5% f its dmestic ppulatin, Chile turns ut t be the secnd mst ppular gvernment Twitter accunt in the OECD (cf. Mickleit, 2013). The gvernments f Ecuadr, Csta Rica, Turkey, Mntenegr and Venezuela cmplete the glbal tp 10 by Twitter ppularity. The United has a reach f 1.6% f the dmestic ppulatin and cmes eleventh glbally. 9 Fr mre infrmatin see 10 Fr mre details n fake accunts and interactins and hw t detect them, see fr example 17

20 Table 2. Mst fllwed gvernment institutins n Twitter, 2014 Cuntry Gvernment Twitter accunt Fllwers Fllwers as share f ppulatin 10, % 5, % 7, % 659, % United 2,676, % 616, % Csta 108, % 1,520, % 11, % 506, % Surce: Authr s calculatins based n Twiplmacy, 2014, and Wrld Bank ppulatin data fr Figure 5. Mst fllwed gvernment institutins n Twitter, 2014 Number f fllwers divided by dmestic ppulatin Surce: Authr s calculatins based n Twiplmacy, 2014, and Wrld Bank ppulatin data fr 2013 Nte: The statistical data fr Israel are supplied by and under the respnsibility f the relevant Israeli authrities. The use f such data by the OECD is withut prejudice t the status f the Glan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms f internatinal law. 18

21 Regarding the secnd ppularity variable (re-diffusin f riginal cntent), the Spanish Mnarch leads the glbal cmparisn (Table 3). Each f its riginal Twitter messages is replicated by an average f 782 ther scial media users, i.e. seen by the accumulated fllwership f these scial media users. Very high re-diffusin numbers are als achieved by the United and Japan Table 3. Mst re-tweeted gvernment institutins n Twitter, 2014 Ordered by average re-tweets btained fr every tweet emitted Cuntry Gvernment Twitter accunt Ttal re-tweets Average re-tweets per tweet 49, United 614, , United 197, , , , Russian 111, , Venezuela, 84, , Krea, 86, , , , , , United 66, , Eurpean 48, Surce: Based n Twiplmacy, Nte: The statistical data fr Israel are supplied by and under the respnsibility f the relevant Israeli authrities. The use f such data by the OECD is withut prejudice t the status f the Glan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms f internatinal law. Cmparing gvernment institutins t gvernment leaders Ntwithstanding impressive rates fr gvernment institutins, actual plitical persnalities are mre ppular n scial media. The tp ten mst ppular plitical leaders n Twitter reach the equivalent f up t 50% f the dmestic ppulatin (Table 4). And in terms f re-diffusin f their messages, sme f these gvernment leaders btain up t 2,000 direct re-tweets (cnsider, hwever, their relatively high ppularity utside the cuntry they represent). 19

22 Table 4. Mst ppular gvernment and state leaders n Twitter, 2014 Cuntry Gvernment leader accunt Fllwers as share f ppulatin Average re-tweets per tweet 49.6% 183 United Arab 31.1% 557 United 13.8% % % % 305 Venezuela, 6.7% % % % 599 Surce: Authr s calculatins based n Twiplmacy, 2014, and Wrld Bank ppulatin data fr In cmparing the numbers, plitical leaders are clearly mre ppular n scial media than the institutins they represent. Take, fr example, the Facebk accunt f US President Barack Obama, which has 17 times mre fans than the White Huse s Facebk accunt; n Twitter with arund eight times mre fllwers This ppularity bnus is a fact arund the wrld: the average gvernment leader has at least fur times mre fllwers n Twitter than the average gvernment institutin (Figure 6). Figure 6. Fllwership bnus f gvernment leaders versus gvernment institutins n Twitter, 2014 Average fllwership f gvernment leaders cmpared t gvernment institutins, divided by dmestic ppulatin size 4x Nte: The figure cmpares the average ppularity f persnal Twitter accunts perated by state and gvernment leaders frm 98 cuntries (i.e. presidents and prime ministers) t that f Twitter accunts perated by the highest gvernment institutins in 109 cuntries (i.e. ffices f president, prime minister r gvernment). The average ppularity level represented here is harmnised by using dmestic ppulatin as denminatr. Surce: OECD calculatins, based n Twiplmacy, 2014, and Wrld Bank ppulatin data fr It is easy t explain the greater scial media ppularity f plitical leaders. In a way they need t sell their messages in rder t btain vtes r t raise funds. Cnsidering that expectatin f 20

23 increased sales is ne f the main drivers f scial media adptin in the private sectr, it is nt surprising that scial media are a widely-deplyed and effective lever f pliticians campaigning, rallying and fund-raising t. Anther factr t cnsider is the predminance f interpersnal relatinships n scial media, which makes it smewhat mre difficult fr institutinal presences t netwrk with individuals (see discussin f push, pull and netwrking strategies further belw). This raises the questin whether gvernment institutins shuld at all aim fr higher ppularity scres n scial media, e.g. by turning their presence mre persnal. After all, institutins are the main interface f day-t-day interactins between the state and its citizens; they deliver public infrmatin, gds and services. This, and the fact that scial media uptake amng many parts f the ppulatin is very high, culd make the case fr gvernment institutins explring mre effective ways f using scial media (see next chapter fr an verview f pprtunities and challenges). Activity levels It seems wrthwhile t explre whether greater activity, i.e. mre infrmatin emitted by gvernments, can lead t greater ppularity. Activity levels f gvernments n scial media are very hetergeneus in internatinal cmparisns. Sme gvernment institutins emit ver 70 Twitter messages every day n average like Mexic s presidency and Mexic s federal gvernment (Table 5). Several ther Latin American gvernments are high-frequency tweeters t, e.g. the Dminican Republic, Clmbia, Venezuela, Blivia, Ecuadr. Table 5. High-frequency gvernment institutin tweeters, 2014 Cuntry Twitter accunt Name Tweets/day Presidencia Méxic Gbiern República Dminican PresidenciaRD Presidencia Clmbia Venezuela, Prensa Presidencial Min. de Cmunicacin Кабмін України Vlada R. Hrvatske rtcmkz Presidencia Ecuadr Eurpean Eurpean Cmmissin Csta Casa Presidencial CR Gbiern de Chile United The White Huse El Casa Presidencial Istana untuk Rakyat Sekretariat Kabinet Russian Правительство России Prgrama Prshenka rtcmkze Surce: Based n Twiplmacy,

24 But the vast majrity f scial media accunts f central gvernment institutins and fficehlders are much less active. The average number f messages emitted by the 170 gvernment institutins in the sample is six. And nly 23 f them emit mre than ten messages a day. Cmparable data n Facebk activity is nt readily available. Given the specific characteristics f the tw platfrms thugh, average activity levels n Facebk are likely t be lwer. It is quite clear that high levels f activity d nt necessarily lead t higher ppularity f gvernment institutins n scial media. Figure 7 shws that there is n crrelatin at all between the frequency at which gvernment institutins publicise cntent n Twitter and the public attentin they receive in return. Half f the ten mst ppular gvernments wrldwide n Twitter are actually quite mdest in their cmmunicatins, emitting n mre than five messages n an average day: Mnac, Andrra, United Kingdm, Turkey and Mntenegr. Figure 7. Frequency f cntent psting cmpared t relative ppularity n Twitter, 2014 Nte: The chart plts frequency f emitting tweets against the relative ppularity f 168 institutinal gvernment Twitter accunts. Surce: Authr s calculatins based n Twiplmacy, Additinal examples cnfirm frequency f messaging n scial media des nt determine ppularity. Take the fficial Twitter accunts f the gvernments f Ukraine Kazakhstan rtcmkze), Indnesia r the Eurpean Cmmissin Each f them emits ver 10 Twitter messages n an average day. Yet their reach is practically null, equivalent t 0.0% f the respective dmestic ppulatin. 11 Fr an inverse case ne can cite Turkey s presidential Twitter 11 Interestingly, the uptake rate fr the Ukrainian Twitter accunts did nt grw in any significant way during the dramatic events in 2014 despite heavy scial media use all arund. 22

25 which emits less than tw Twitter messages per day but reaches 2% f the dmestic ppulatin, making it rank eighth in glbal cmparisn (see Table 2 earlier). 12 Only in Latin America des there seems t be a strng crrelatin between high gvernment activity and their ppularity n scial media. Several Latin American gvernments shw very high frequencies f scial media messaging; and they als reap significant returns in terms f fllwership. The fllwing examples are taken frm the glbal tp 20 list f gvernments with the highest Twitter fllwership (Figure 5): Ecuadr 18 tweets/day n average, 4.2% share f fllwers/ppulatin), Chile 15, 3.5%), Csta Rica 16, 2.2%), Venezuela 39, 1.7%), Dminican Republic 57, 1.5%), Uruguay 11, 1.3%), and Mexic 79, 0.9%). This illustratin frm Latin America indicates the imprtance f cntext when determining scial media strategies and cmparing the ptential impact gvernment institutins can expect. Scial media are hugely ppular acrss Latin America. 13 In fact, Latin Americans beat the rest f the wrld in terms f time spent n scial media (eight hurs/mnth versus five hurs/mnth); and half f the glbal tp 10 cuntries fr time spent n scial media are in the regin: Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Mexic. 14 These factrs explain sme f the scial media ppularity f gvernment institutins in the regin. Interactin and cntent S if quantity f messaging des nt determine ppularity, ne needs t lk clser at the quality f gvernments scial media use, i.e. their strategies and cntent. It has been argued that gvernments which pursue a push strategy, i.e. using scial media t simply bradcast messages, reach much smaller audiences than thse that pursue a pull r netwrking strategy, i.e. using scial media t actively interact with stakehlders (cf. Mergel, 2010). Empirical evidence indeed suggests that gvernment institutins that actively invite interactin achieve higher fllwership rates n scial media. A simple crrelatin analysis f the cmplete cntents emitted by selected gvernment Twitter accunts during six mnths in 2012 shws that use f interactive elements (hashtags, replies, mentins) t sme degree crrelates with greater ppularity (crrelatin factr R 2 = ) (Figure 8). The crrelatin factr R 2 rises t 0.42 when the tw utliers, Chile and Germany, are excluded frm the analysis. 12 Turkey s case is als ntewrthy because in 2014 the gvernment effectively blcked access t Twitter frm within the cuntry fr arund tw weeks. Despite this, all the cuntry s institutinal and persnal accunts included in the Twiplmacy sample remain active until this day, and sme f them enjy a remarkable fllwership t. 13 Fr mre infrmatin see fr facts n general scial media uptake and use acrss the cntinent. 14 Fr mre infrmatin see Desktp-Scial-Netwrking-Engagement. 23

26 Figure 8. Gvernment use f interactive tweets cmpared t their fllwership n Twitter, 2012 Nte: Based n an analysis f all tweets emitted by each f the accunts during January t May 2012; relative ppularity as f September Interactive tweets are defined as thse having at least ne f the fllwing characteristics: hashtag, mentin, reply, retweet. Surce: Authr s data cllectin, using But the use f technical means t invite interactin has its limits. Despite using technical means t incite interactin, sme gvernments simply d nt achieve high ppularity rates n scial media. Take the fficial accunt f Germany s federal In the sample used fr Figure 8 abve, 80% f its Twitter messages use at least ne interactivity feature. Yet the accunt reached the equivalent f just 0.1% f Germany s ppulatin. Cntent f scial media messages arguably plays a majr rle in determining ppularity f gvernments scial media effrts. The start f this chapter ( current strategies ) clarified that gvernments currently fcus n using scial media as a lever f their cmmunicatins strategies. S it is nt entirely surprising that scial media messages frm sme gvernment institutins fcus n the persn hlding ffice and his/her agenda: 15 Mre than half (55%) f the Twitter messages emitted between January and May 2014 cntain the term Obama ; ne third (33%) cntain the term President. This persn-rientatin f the institutinal accunt has nt changed significantly since 2012, when the term Obama appeared in 41% f tweets and the term President in 32%. 40% f Twitter messages emitted between January and May 2014 cntain the term PM, i.e. refer t the Prime Minister and his agenda. The persnrientatin was just as strng in 2012 when the term PM appeared in 41% f tweets 15 Authr s calculatins based n semantic analysis f tweets emitted ver the perid January May 2014 (2,223 tweets and 676 tweets, respectively) and ver the perid January May 2012 (1,504 tweets and 517 tweets, respectively). Data extracted using 24

27 Hwever, nt all gvernment institutins have a strng fcus n cmmunicating their fficehlders agendas. The Chilean gvernment s is very ppular n scial media, as described earlier. Yet, nly 13% f its tweets cntain the terms Presidente r Presidenta, i.e. relate t the activities f the president. And nly 15% f tweets cntain Ministr r Ministra, i.e. cmmunicate the agenda r activities f individual ministers. What is mre, the accunt decreased its persn-rientatin quite significantly since 2012 when the term Presidente ccurred in 22% f the tweets and the terms Ministr r Ministra in 26%. A clear chice was made t use the institutinal accunt primarily fr institutinal purpses. Wrld cluds can be used t visualise the frequency f certain terms in scial media messages by gvernment institutins. Figure 9 displays the wrd cluds fr The strng press release rientatin f the frmer tw is visible because the few terms that clearly stand ut relate t the persn hlding ffice. This is different in Chile where the frequencies f different terms are mre balanced, which pints t an apprach that fcuses less n individual pliticians agendas and mre n specific tpics f interest. Figure 9. Recurrent terms in gvernment institutins scial media (United (United Kingdm) 25

28 @Gbierndechile (Chile) Nte: Semantic analysis f all tweets emitted by the respective accunt between January and May The sample cntains 2,223 tweets 676 tweets and 2,269 tweets The wrd cluds cntain the fifty mst recurrent terms in each sample. The frequency f each term is indicated in parentheses. Surce: Authr s data extractin using Wrd cluds created using Where the primary bjective f gvernments is t use scial media fr ne-way cmmunicatins akin t press releases n specific tactics r methds are necessary. But the questin is increasingly raised whether the public sectr can and shuld leverage scial media fr mre than just bradcasting its messages. The aim f the fllwing sectins is t understand if and hw scial media can becme a tl t supprt and ptentially transfrm the public sectr s cre business, i.e. interactin with peple and delivery f public services. 26

29 3. POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE IN GOVERNMENT This sectin utlines current directins gvernments take fr the use f scial media. While gvernments are still mstly experimenting with this new medium, the empirical verview in the previus chapter cnfirmed that many gvernment institutins still use the channel in a rather traditinal cmmunicatins sense, i.e. mainly t bradcast messages that are in fact re-packaged press releases. But scial media can prvide gvernments mre value than simply imprving cmmunicatins. In the current glbal sci-ecnmic cntext it seems pprtune t analyse the ptential f this channel t re-build mutual trust between gvernments and their cnstituents, and t imprve gvernment s respnsiveness t citizens. Plicy prcesses: mre pen, inclusive and participatry Mutual trust between gvernments and their cnstituents is being shaken the wrld ver. Glbal surveys shw that acrss OECD cuntries nly 40% f the ppulatin have trust in their natinal gvernment, dwn frm 45% in 2007 (Gallup Wrld Pll, cited OECD, 2013a). And the tail f cuntries reprting a lss in cnfidence is lnger than the head f cuntries that reprted gains. The reasns fr lack and decline in cnfidence are multifaceted. Deterirating ecnmic circumstances certainly prvide a starting pint fr explanatins, but are nt enugh. Other plitical and scietal factrs are als at play. Over the past decade technlgy, in particular, has becme a majr facilitatr t express disenchantment. Mass ings were used as early as 1999 t stage massive prtests against the WTO Minister s meeting in Seattle r against the meeting f G8 heads f state in Gena in The rle f technlgy as a catalyst f discntent has nly accelerated since then arguably faster than gvernments capacities t use technlgy t channel discntent twards cnstructive transfrmatin. Tday, technlgy, and in particular scial media, make it easier than ever fr peple t: btain and diffuse infrmatin, including leaking f infrmatin nt intended fr public audiences; diffuse false infrmatin (deliberately r nt); analyse, interpret and present cmplex plicy materials in ways that can be understd by nn-expert audiences; channel diffuse interests arund cmmn issues and place these issues n decisin makers agendas, e.g. thrugh nline petitins. The questin is thugh whether gvernments can als use thse technlgies refrm existing prcesses and make them mre pen, inclusive and participatry. Prmising applicatins f scial media t this purpse are their use t empwer peple, t enable gvernments and t strengthen transparency and accuntability f gvernment. Empwering peple. Scial media have prven t be a pwerful vehicle t help diffuse pinins and desire fr actin achieve critical mass, which in turn attracts the attentin f mainstream media and decisin makers. Obviusly, channelling diffuse interests and rallying fr actin is nt new in itself; it is what established interest grups such as lbbies and unins have been ding fr a lng time. But the Internet and scial media nw empwer less rganised and less established grups and give them relatively inexpensive means t rally ad hc supprt arund cmmn causes. With these tls in hand, frmerly diffuse individuals r less resurceful grups btain greater agenda-setting pwer. 27

30 A prminent example f hw scial media empwer peple that had n effective recurse t existing intermediaries befre is the Never Secnds blg in Sctland (United Kingdm). A nine-year ld schlgirl and her parents repeatedly alerted their schl and lcal authrities t the lw nutritinal value f schl meals. When their demands were ignred, they set up a blg in May 2012 where the family wuld pst a pht f the day s schl meal, taken with a digital camera, and rate the meal s perceived quality. 16 The pst immediately strke a nerve natinally and internatinally and triggered many high-prfile respnses, including by the UK Prime Minister. 17 At the same time, mre traditinal resurces and pwer distributins in plicy-making prcesses remain f great imprtance and nt all attempts at citizen activism lead t success. A cunter-example t the Never Secnds blg is the partial privatisatin f parts f the Danish cmpany, DONG Energy, t Gldman Sachs in early The plitical cnsensus was met with fierce ppsitin by the general ppulatin. Using scial media and attentin in ther media, almst signatures were cllected via a dedicated nline petitin (equivalent t almst 4% f the ppulatin), and large prtests were rganised. 18 Althugh the ad hc interest grup was extremely successful in escalating the issue, placing it n the natinal plitical agenda fr several weeks and achieving the resignatin f ministers, the actual decisin was nt altered and the privatisatin went ahead as planned. Enabling gvernment. The previus tw examples shw that scial media als enable gvernment t be mre respnsive and t be quicker in respnding t demands frm stakehlders. But they als shw that the specific plitical r administrative cntext still remains a determining factr f whether the messages, demands r pressures received thrugh crwd-based actin are actually transfrmed int plitical decisins. It is bvius that scial media enable gvernments t bypass r cmplement traditinal means fr gauging public sentiment such as pinin plls and rganised interest grups. Using scial media fr active listening can help gvernment de-escalate issues r satisfy demands befre they becme the issues f majr discntent. As an example, the #elephantintherm campaign by several NGOs in the United Kingdm was quickly picked up by the UK Treasurer Gerge Osbrne wh put the discussin n the impacts f tax evasin n develpment n the agenda f a G7 minister s meeting (see Figure 10 fr the Minister s respnse). 19 Figure 10. UK Treasurer respnds t scial media campaign by NGO calitin Surce: See first blg pst at 17 Fr mre infrmatin see 18 The nline petitin is available at 19 Mre details at 28

31 But the multiplicatin f pprtunities t place issues n the gvernment agenda als pses capacity and selectin prblems t gvernment. Hw can r shuld institutins respnd t a grwing number f requests? Hw can they understand if well-rganised scial media campaigns actually refer t severe and real prblems? Hw can decisin-makers knw if they are facing demands frmulated by legitimate representatives f diffuse pinins? Nne f these questins can be fully answered yet. Hwever, there are pinters as t hw scial media and crwd activism can be channelled in ways that gvernments can handle. Online petitins have, fr example, grwn t becme a pwerful tl. Cmbined with reasnable threshlds, they can help gvernments priritise issues raised n the Internet. T cite a case frm the legislative arm f the state, the Latvian parliament in 2011 accepted the nline petitin platfrm as a valid means fr the public t prpse new legislatin. The parliament accepted a new rule f prcedure whereby a threshld f valid citizen signatures (equivalent t arund 0.5% f the ppulatin) bliges parliament t put the prpsal n its legislative agenda. S far, twelve ut f ver 650 prpsals have achieved that threshld and were discussed in parliament. Sme made it int actual legislatin, e.g. the right f judicial authrities t access infrmatin n civil servants ffshre accunts. But petitins have als made their ways int executive decisin-making. In Marseille (France), a small grup f peple launched an nline petitin via t ppse the municipal cuncil s decisin t disburse a subsidy f EUR fr an pen air cncert that als benefited frm the prvisin f rent-free municipal facilities and had cncert-gers buy tickets. Over signatures were cllected, which put enugh pressure n the municipality t revke the subsidy. 20 Supprting gvernment transparency and accuntability effrts. Gvernments are increasingly trying t prvide easy and pen access t gvernment infrmatin, e.g. thrugh pen gvernment data plicies (cf. Ubaldi, 2013). This is an imprtant step twards greater transparency f decisin-making as the value f the infrmatin pened up by gvernments increases as mre peple use and re-use that infrmatin. A gd illustratin f this are gvernment budgets. In mst OECD cuntries, budget allcatin and spending infrmatin has lng been available fr public cnsultatin. But nly mre recently has this infrmatin becme mre easy and affrdable t access, e.g. by remving cumbersme access prvisins and wrking with stakehlders t find mre suitable frmats fr diffusin. The impact f the vernacularisatin f gvernment budgets is huge as data visualisatins and analyses such as thse presented at https://penspending.rg are regularly picked up by mainstream media, thus helping t better infrm public pinin. 21 At the same time, transparency and accuntability are being challenged as gvernments use scial media t investigate crime and enfrce legislatin. This is bviusly a critical part f plice wrk. But in the current cntext where any reprt f (perceived) gvernment miscnduct r surveillance receive great public attentin, gvernments culd arguably d better in cmmunicating if and hw they use scial media as a means fr intelligence. Otherwise there is a risk that the negative image f state authrities handling f scial media utweighs the many psitive and laudable initiatives f gvernment t use scial media fr greater transparency and accuntability (see Bx 2). 20 Fr mre infrmatin see 21 See fr example Le Mnde (2012), PLF : des avins au buclier fiscal, la java des amendements, 16 Octber, ] 29

32 Bx 2. Gvernment infrmatin requests t scial media platfrms a risk t plicy cherence? Gvernment agencies, ntably law enfrcement agencies, have a mandate t enquire abut individuals as part f their wrk. As the Internet and scial media have becme majr areas f illicit and illegal activities the imprtance f gvernment being able t act and re-act in this medium is f great imprtance t natinal security. At the same time, gvernment requests fr infrmatin frm scial media services can have an impact n perceived penness and transparency. The numbers f individual scial media users that are subject f gvernment infrmatin requests have becme the tpic f public debate since majr scial netwrk peratrs started publishing statistics n the diverse requests received (see During 2013, United States gvernment authrities issued infrmatin requests cncerning ver individual users f Ggle, Facebk and Twitter services (see Figure belw). Gvernment authrities in India, Germany, the United Kingdm, France, Italy, Brazil and ther cuntries issued less verall requests, but they still cncerned thusands f individual users in Such requests are, in principle, in line with natinal legislatin and typically cncern criminal investigatins. Nevertheless, public perceptin f the grwing number f requests is nt always favurable. Imprved cmmunicatins n the reasns fr the rise in requests culd help gvernments maintain the legitimacy f this intelligence tl. Ttal number f users referenced in gvernment infrmatin requests t scial netwrks, 2013 Surce: Authr s calculatins based n publicly available crprate transparency reprts by Ggle, Facebk, Twitter. Nte: The statistical data fr Israel are supplied by and under the respnsibility f the relevant Israeli authrities. The use f such data by the OECD is withut prejudice t the status f the Glan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms f internatinal law. S if scial media can spur participatin, it is pprtune t explre pprtunities fr engaging tw particular grups: marginalised peple in sciety and yunger peple. They certainly represent high-impact target grups fr many gvernments in the current cntext. 30

33 Marginalised and hard-t-reach grups Scial media can play a rle in empwering peple that face systematic risks f exclusin frm plitical and ecnmic prcesses in mdern scieties. In fact, scial media might have the ptential t alleviate sme f the difficulties gvernments still encunter when reaching ut thrugh cnventinal nline channels as uptake rates fr digital gvernment services remain belw expectatins in many cuntries (OECD, 2013a). Sme sci-ecnmic factrs, ntably educatin and incme levels, still have a strng determining impact n nline interactin rates with public authrities: mre than tw thirds (68%) f Eurpeans with high frmal educatin interact nline with public authrities, but nly ne in five (21%) with n r lw frmal educatin level des s. 22 Other access and use divides exist, althugh sme f them are less prnunced. Urban-rural divides cntinue are a majr issue in cuntries with larger territries such as France r Pland. Gender differences have mstly disappeared as a determining factr fr uptake f digital gvernment services in Eurpe, althugh Cratia, Austria and Turkey cntinue t see e-gvernment uptake rates amng men being at least 10 percentage pints higher than amng wmen. 23 Scial media can help address sme f thse traditinal access and use divides fr digital gvernment. Empirical evidence fr the United States, fr example, suggests that scial media uptake is very similar acrss different ethnic minrities, educatin and incme grups (cf. PewInternet, 2012). In that cntext, gvernments can cnsider using scial media t alleviate sme f the existing imbalances in supply and uptake f municipal nline services, especially where the imbalances crrelate with sci-ecnmic factrs such as distributin f ethnic grups, educatin and incme levels in the municipality (Ahn, 2010; Reddick et al., 2013). A majr issue is that access and use f scial media is nt yet universal. While an individual s level f educatin makes virtually n difference in Germany, Nrway, Denmark, Finland r Austria, there is a large grup f Eurpean cuntries where educatin des determine a persn s likeliness t use scial media (Figure 11). Acrss the EU, 53% f peple with high levels f educatin use scial media, but nly 31% f peple with a lw level f educatin a gap f 22 percentage pints. The gap ges beynd 30 percentage pints in Spain, the United Kingdm, Hungary, Prtugal, Greece; and ver 50 percentages pints in Turkey. This cnfirms the cntinued need t address digital access and use divides n thse new platfrms data fr EU-27, extracted frm Eurstat Infrmatin Sciety statistics, indicatr Individuals using the Internet fr interactin with public authrities (tin00012) data fr EU-27, extracted frm Eurstat Infrmatin Sciety statistics, indicatr Individuals using the Internet fr interactin with public authrities (tin00012) 31

34 Figure 11. Scial media uptake by level f educatinal attainment, 2013 Surce: Authr s calculatins based n Eurstat, Internet use: participating in scial netwrks (creating user prfile, psting messages r ther cntributins t Facebk, Twitter, etc.) (data fr 2013). Scial media are als a tl that can empwer wmen where they are vulnerable r marginalised. Uptake and use rates are relatively evenly distributed between wmen and men acrss mst OECD cuntries. Interestingly, they are als relatively balanced in many nn-oecd cuntries, which can render gd practices applicable in ther natinal cntexts. An example f such transferability culd be the use f scial media t stimulate interest and activity amng girls and wmen in the science, technlgy, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields a pririty fr many OECD cuntries. The initiative f the Asikana Netwrk in Africa is ne such example (Bx 3). 24 Bx 3. Scial media cmmunities f female techies in Africa: the Asikana Netwrk Althugh t different degrees, OECD member cuntries and African cuntries share the challenge f encuraging girls and wmen t take up educatin and career paths in the fields cmmnly termed as STEM (science, technlgy, engineering, mathematics). The basic challenge accrding t experts is that wmen find it particularly difficult t make their way in the IT field whether due t glass ceilings in the UK r the glass ladders in Lusaka (http://apprpriatingtechnlgy.rg/?q=nde/8). The Asikana Netwrk is an example f using scial media t actively address this issue acrss Africa. The Asikana Netwrk aims t empwer yung wmen and teach them essential infrmatin and cmmunicatin technlgy (ICT) skills. It has three main target grups: 1) girls in high schls members f the Asikana netwrk create clubs where girls can meet and receive mentrship frm wmen wrking in the field; 2) cllege students and graduates particularly thse that are either studying IT r wh wuld like t develp in that sectr; 3) wmen wh already wrk in the IT sectr r have related skills here the Asikana Netwrk prvides a platfrm t share their knwledge and pick up skills and career develpment pprtunities. Scial media are catalysing the success f the Asikana Netwrk acrss Africa. Of curse the Netwrk actively uses Twitter and Facebk ( t create thse cmmunities f shared interest. But anther significant cmpnent is the creatin f a crwd-surced map f wmen tech hubs in Africa: The map pinpints initiatives acrss Africa and lets the members f the netwrk interact with each ther. At the end f 2013, 48 rganisatins and initiatives acrss 15 African cuntries were mapped that encurage girls and wmen t take up active rles in the STEM and IT fields. Surce: Adapted frm Chisenga Muyya (2014), The Asikana Netwrk, in Feminist Africa 18: e-spaces / e-plitics, 24 See als OECD plicy wiki dedicated t gender issues, 32

35 The ptential fr gvernments t use scial media t reach vulnerable grups is certainly there, but is heavily dependent n lcal cntext. Gvernments need t avid falling fr precnceived ntins that suggest scial media are per se a tl t empwer vulnerable grups f sciety. Ensuring that initiatives are targeted and purpse-riented is just as critical as making sure that the inputs received by peple thrugh these new channels actually influence decisin-making prcesses. Yunger peple Yung peple are particularly expsed t the impacts f the ecnmic crisis. Yuth unemplyment and yuth drpping ut f educatin r training are a cmmn cncern amng OECD member cuntries. In the United Kingdm, at least half f yung peple feel disillusined by the state f the current jbs market (UK Prince s Trust, 2013). Other factrs cntributing t a lack f cnfidence in gvernment have been arund lnger, ntably declining rates f yung vter turnut and party membership in many cuntries. Given that yung peple are s familiar with technlgy tday, it seems intuitive that gvernments culd use scial media t genuinely engage them. Unfrtunately, the reality is smewhat different. If past experiences are anything t g by, gvernments are nt very successful in linking up with yung peple ver the Internet: nly 40% n average f yung Eurpeans interact nline with the public administratin; and the share can reach as lw as 20% in Italy (Figure 12). Thse cuntries with relatively lw uptake shares amng the yung seem like a cnfirmatin that this statement made in 2007 still largely hlds true tday: yung peple are ften psitined by even the mst well-meaning public sectr sites nt as citizens but as citizens-in-waiting (Livingstn, S. et al., 2007). Figure 12. Yung peple s use f the Internet t interact with the public administratin, 2013 Surce: Eurstat, Internet use: psting messages t scial media sites r instant messaging and Internet use: interactin with public authrities (last 12 mnths) (2013 data). Sme analysts and prbably sme decisin-makers t take the easy rad by cnsidering that lw digital gvernment uptake amng year lds is nrmal because this grup f peple has less need r fewer bligatins cncerning administrative prcedures. 25 This assumptin is f curse 25 See last accessed in August

36 incrrect since yung peple have many needs and bligatins which require cntact with the public administratin, e.g. issues related t educatin, residence, citizenship, scial benefits, emplyment. What is crrect thugh is that sme cuntries are able t design nline services in a way that appeals and makes sense t yung peple, e.g. Slvenia, Iceland, Nrway and Sweden where the uptake rates are between 70 and 80% fr this age grup. S the questin is nt whether yung peple need t get in tuch with gvernment, but whether they want t, i.e. whether the services and infrmatin ffers appear relevant t them. There is little data t illustrate the rle f scial media t imprve participatin f yung peple in gvernment prcesses. But ne data pint that is available draws a rather disillusining picture: despite the fact that virtually all yung Eurpeans use scial media (85% n average), nly a minrity f them (18%) are interested in using scial media t engage in anything f plitical r civic nature (Figure 13). In Austria, nt even 10% f year lds are interested in using scial media fr thse purpses, which is a wrrying finding when cmbined with the fact that vter abstentin is very high t (see further belw). Figure 13. Yung peple s use f scial media in general versus their use t discuss plitical r civic issues, 2013 Surce: Eurstat, Internet use: psting pinins n civic r plitical issues via websites (e.g. blgs, scial netwrks, etc.) (2013 data). Sme gvernments might therefre wnder if it is wrthy allcating resurces t scial media as a tl t enable participatin if nly a minrity f yung peple are ptentially interested. It des seem wrth the effrt thugh cnsidering that the prspect f engaging arund ne in five yung peple culd already be a success in cuntries like France, Spain, Italy r Iceland which have a generatin f yung peple frustrated abut their ecnmic situatin and future pprtunities, but which als have sme f the highest shares f yung peple interested in plitical r civic discussins n the web (Figure 13). Mrever, scial media can be instrumental in encuraging yung peple t vte. Vting abstentin amng yung peple is a serius issue as surveys reprt that n average 21% f yung 34

37 Eurpeans did nt participate in any electin during the past three years despite being eligible (TNS, 2013). In sme cuntries up t ne third abstains, e.g. in the United Kingdm (36%) 26, in Hungary (35%), in Austria (31%) and in the Slvak Republic (30%). While there is nt enugh evidence t establish a causal link between scial media use and vter turnut, an interesting pattern emerges when crss-tabulating yung vters abstentin rates with their rates f scial media use t discuss civic and plitical issues (Figure 14). Figure 14. Pltting yung peple s vting abstentin rates and interest f discussing plitics nline, EU, Nt interested and nt vting United Kingdm, Hungary, Lithuania, Austria, Slvakia, Prtugal, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slvenia, Pland Germany, Ireland, Rmania Nt interested, but vting Cratia, Malta, Latvia, Greece, Cyprus, Belgium Sweden Interested and vting Netherlands, France, Spain, Italy, Denmark Ntes: Vertical axis: Share f 15 t 30 year lds wh reprted they did nt vte in any electins (natinal r sub-natinal) during the last three years despite being eligible. Hrizntal axis: Share f 16 t 24 year lds wh used the Internet r scial media t discuss plitical r civic issues in Vting is cmpulsry fr at least sme electins in Belgium, Cyprus, Luxemburg and Greece. The vting age is 18 fr mst f the electins in the EU Member States and in Cratia, except fr Austria where the vting age is 16. Surce: Authr s calculatins based n data by TNS, 2012 (vertical axis) and Eurstat, 2013, Internet use: psting pinins n civic r plitical issues via websites (e.g. blgs, scial netwrks, etc.) (hrizntal axis). Plicy-relevant findings emerging frm the evidence presented in Figure 14 are: Yung Eurpeans wh are interested in discussing plitics r civic issues n the web als tend t vte cuntries in the lwer right quadrant, gruped as interested and vting. 26 In the United Kingdm s 2010 parliamentary electins the abstentin rate f 18 t 24 year lds was reprted t have reached as high as 56% (accrding t 27 Nte by Turkey: The infrmatin in this dcument with reference t Cyprus relates t the suthern part f the Island. There is n single authrity representing bth Turkish and Greek Cyprit peple n the Island. Turkey recgnizes the Turkish Republic f Nrthern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable slutin is fund within the cntext f United Natins, Turkey shall preserve its psitin cncerning the Cyprus issue. Nte by all the Eurpean Unin Member States f the OECD and the Eurpean Unin: The Republic f Cyprus is recgnized by all members f the United Natins with the exceptin f Turkey. The infrmatin in this dcument relates t the area under the effective cntrl f the Gvernment f the Republic f Cyprus. 35

38 This grup f cuntries includes Italy and Spain, where yung peple feel the severe impacts f the ecnmic crisis. At the same time, at least 20% f yung peple there engage in plitical discussins nline and vting abstentin amng the yung is relatively lw, less than 20%. Gvernments in these cuntries have an pprtunity t invlve yung peple via scial media with a view t imprving their cnfidence in their gvernment, their situatin and surely als in themselves. Yung Eurpeans wh d nt vte als tend t abstain frm discussing plitics r civic issues nline cuntries in the upper left quadrant, gruped as nt interested and nt vting. This grup includes several Central and Eastern Eurpean cuntries where pst- Sviet transitin has generated disenchantment, ntably due t persistent crruptin. But this grup als includes cuntries like the United Kingdm, Austria and Prtugal. Gvernments there face an uphill struggle when it cmes t invlving yung peple int plitical and plicy prcesses. In fact, that challenge might be s high that gvernments might need the help f trusted intermediaries and partners t get yung peple invlved. Sme relatively successful initiatives are the Bite the Ballt campaign in the United Kingdm r the Rck the Vte campaign in the United States. 28 There are sme cuntries where yung peple d nt discuss plitics r civic issues n the web but they nevertheless vte cuntries in the lwer left quadrant, gruped as nt interested but vting. Gvernments in this grup (Cratia, Malta, Latvia, Greece, Cyprus and Belgium) might need t make greater attempts t reach ut t yung peple, but nt slely via scial media, in rder t anticipate and address their cncerns utside f electin cycles. Finally, the cases f Estnia and Luxemburg (circle in Figure 14) indicate that sme cuntries d nt fit either categry and represent cases f their wn. The ntin that gvernments in sme cuntries can indeed turn twards scial media t invlve yung peple is cnfirmed by taking a lk at the mst prminent tpics discussed n Facebk ver the curse f a year (Tables 6 and 7): In Argentina, plitical and civic issues represented seven f the ten mst talked abut tpics n Facebk in They cvered natural disasters (La Plata, Inundacines), natinal electins, legislatin and pliticians. In 2014, Argentina is again amng thse cuntries where civic and plitical issues are mst discussed n Facebk. In Australia, electin themes and candidates represented half f the tp 10 mst discussed tpics n Facebk in In 2014 there was less fcus n plitical and civic issues. In Italy and Spain, half f the mst talked abut tpics n Facebk in 2013 were f plitical r civic nature, which cincides with the earlier finding that yung peple in these tw cuntries are relatively interested in using scial media t get invlved in plitical prcesses in the wider sense. This is, hwever, nly partly cnfirmed in 2014 where Spanish Facebk discussins still seem t have strng plitical and civic rientatin, but less s in Italy. 28 The Bite the Ballt campaign in the United Kingdm made massive use f scial media during the natinal vter registratin day n 5 February The hashtag #nvrd became a trending Twitter tpic that day. 36

39 There is relatively lw representatin f civic r plitical issues in the United Kingdm s tp ten Facebk discussins. Only tw tpics in 2013 and three in This cincides with the earlier finding that yung peple in the UK and the risk f their alienatin frm plitical prcesses. In Japan and Krea nly few civic and plitical issues make it t the tp 10 f mst discussed Facebk tpics. Hwever, this finding must be relativized by a very strng penetratin f alternative scial netwrks in thse cuntries, e.g. Mixi r Line in Japan, Me2Day, Naver Cafe r Kaka Talk in Krea. An analysis f discussins n thse netwrks wuld be necessary t arrive at mre slid findings. Facebk s ppularity in Brazil was rivalled by the scial netwrk Orkut until the service was discntinued by its wner, Ggle, in A thrugh analysis f trends until 2014 shuld take dynamics n that platfrm int accunt. Despite the fact that nly little cmparable data is available, the findings s far clearly shw that yung peple is nt a hmgenus categry. Steretypical appraches t scial media that fcus n establishing a gvernment presence withut due cnsideratin fr cntext factrs are unlikely t address the real challenges f yung peple. As a matter f example, a study f yung peple s attitudes in the UK twards slving their prblems finds that arund tw thirds prefer t talk t smene in persn rather than nline; it als reprts that ne quarter f unemplyed yung peple are uncmfrtable filling in jb applicatins nline (UK Prince s Trust, 2013). This is the kind f cntext data that decisin-makers need t cnsider when designing scial media strategies and guidelines that are suppsed t address yung peple s cncerns. 37

40 Table 6. Mst discussed tpics n Facebk, individual cuntries, 2013 Cuntries rdered by ttal number f tpics that relate t current plitical r civic issues (highlighted). Argentina Australia Italy Spain Brazil France Germany United States Canada Mexic Pland United Kingdm 1 La Plata Vte Lampedusa Real Madrid Carnaval PSG FC Bayern Super Bwl Maple Buen Fin Harlem Shake Andy Murray Leafs 2 Justin Bieber Princess Kate Elezini Plitiche Linel Messi Neymar GTAV Hchwasser Gvernment Shutdwn Harlem Shake Ola K Ase Pwódz w Warszawie Margaret Thatcher 3 Papa Francisc Cricket Mari Barca Rck in Ri Tur de BVB Bstn Miley Cyrus N Se Aceptan Papiez UEFA Baltelli France Marathn Twerk Devlucines Franciszek Champins League 4 Eleccines Kevin Rudd Ryal Baby Sanidad Papa Francisc Mali Bundestagswahl Syria Crisis Bstn Marathn Bebe Real Referendum w Warszawie Prince Gerge 5 Inundacines Grand final Margherita Hack Cristian Rnald Mensalã Harlem shake Champins League Finale Harlem Shake Rb Frd Refrma Educativa Papiez Benedykt Sir Alex Fergusn 6 de Kirchner Electin Giuli Andretti Erasmus 7 Ley de Medis GST Meterite Madrid Crte Lins Aument Crisis Suprema dell'iva Ecnómica 9 Sergi Massa Tny Papa Infanta Abbtt Benedett Cristina 10 Linel Messi Big Brther Csta Cncrdia Tds cn Santiag Cpa das Cnfederações Maracanã #vemprarua Petróplis Bate Kiss Rland Garrs Mariage hmsexuel Manif pur Tus Pape Francis Stephane Hessel Ppe Francis Gerge Zimmerman Ryal Baby Nelsn Mandela Presidential inauguratin Ryal Baby Prince Gerge Justin Trudeau Lance Armstrng Ppe Francis Chris Hadfield Elba Esther Grdill Papa Francisc Nstrs Ls Nbles Bzz & Aristegui El Tri Miley Cyrus Odświeżenie rządu Twerk Wielka Orkiestra What des the fx say * Nte: current plitical r civic tpics include electins, plitical scandals, public manifestatins, natinal emergencies; and persnalities that can be directly traced back t any f thse issues emerging in that years, i.e. thught leaders, prfessinal r elected pliticians. Excluded are ther persnalities even if they are knwn fr engaging in civic issues but are nt related t a specific plitical r civic event in 2013, e.g. the Ppe, Nelsn Mandela, Prince Gerge r Princess Kate. * Fr Germany nly tp 5 are available, s value is extraplated. Surce: Authr s cmpilatin based n crprate infrmatin by Facebk, 2013: Call f Duty:Ghsts England Cricket X-Factr The "Bedrm Tax" GTA 5 38

41 Table 7. Mst discussed tpics n Facebk, individual cuntries, 2014 Cuntries rdered by ttal number f tpics that relate t current plitical r civic issues (highlighted). Argentina Mexic United Spain Australia Brazil Germany India United France Italy Japan Krea States Kingdm 1 Cpa Cpa Ebla Virus La Liga Rbin Eleições Fussball WM 2014 Scttish Cupe du Mndiali di ウマ 김연아 Mundial Mundial Williams electin Referendum Mnde Calci 2 Linel Messi Jaquín "El Chap" Guzmán Ice bucket challenge Pabl Iglesias Tny Abbtt Cpa d Mund Bundesliga Premier league Ice bucket challenge Françis Hllande Pasqua アイス バケツ チャレンジ 밸런타인데 이 3 Gustav Cerati Papa Francisc Rbin Williams Cpa Mundial Malaysia Airlines Carnaval Helene Fischer Wrld Cup Wrld Cup Pharrell Williams Papa Francesc ソチオリン ピック 에볼라 출혈열 4 Dieg Maradna Enrique Peña Niet 5 Daniel Scili Gustav Cerati 6 Cristina Fernández de Kirchner 7 Cnflict en Gaza Cristian Rnald Cnflict en Gaza Super Bwl Ebla Ice bucket challenge Michael Brwn & Fergusn Wrld Cup Cnflict in Gaza 8 Ebla Linel Messi Mid-term electins 9 Ice bucket challenge Aytzinapa (Cas Iguala) Malaysia Airlines Champins League Abdicación & Crnación Rbin Williams Cnflict en Gaza Adlf Suárez 10 ISIS Ebla ISIS Ice bucket challenge Game f Thrnes Dia das Mães Neymar Jr. Champins League Rbin Williams Ebla virus Vírus Ebla Gaza- Knflikt Cnflict in Gaza Suth Sidney Rabbiths Wrld cup Melburne Cup Bruna Marquezine Cnflit em Gaza Claudia Leitte Desafi d Balde de Gel Mars rbiter missin Kashmir flds Xiami Premier League Cnflict in Gaza Rbin Williams Ebla-Virus Alia Bhatt Luis van Gaal Ice bucket challenge Malaysia Airlines ISIS Mary Km bipic Malaysia Airlines Cnflict in Gaza Ebla Virus Champins League First Wrld War Olympique de Marseille Matte Renzi マクドナル ド 2014년 동계 올림픽 Strmae Carnevale 火 山 교황 Game f Thrnes D-Day 70 ans Rbin Williams Cnflit à Gaza Ice bucket challenge Festival Sanrem マレーシア 航 空 슈퍼볼 Vasc Rssi エボラ 出 血 熱 박지성 Rbin 乙 女 ゲーム MTV 비디오 Williams 뮤직 어워드 Serie A 錦 織 圭 만우절 Virus Ebla 日 本 料 理 아시안 게임 Nte: see Nte under Table 6. Surce: Authr s cmpilatin based n crprate infrmatin by Facebk, 2014: 39

42 Public service delivery: mre agile, iterative and respnsive Scial media have the ptential t bst the peratinal capacities and respnsiveness f gvernments in ways that traditinal appraches t digital gvernment have nt been able. Althugh digital channels and infrastructures are nw integral t public sectr activities, there remain t many unanswered questins as t the returns n investments, e.g. arund lwer than expected uptake rates f digital public services in sme cuntries. 29 The questin is therefre if and hw scial media can make public services mre accessible and respnsive, f better quality and mre efficient t deliver. By prviding real-time pprtunities fr participatin and feedback, scial media are starting t blur the lines between plicy develpment and service delivery. They give gvernments new tls t pilt, experiment, evaluate, and re-design services ahead f their full rll-ut. This can make gvernments quicker t react t citizen needs, as well as mre evidence-based in the design f service delivery strategies. At the same time, sme scial media activities raise privacy and trust cncerns that gvernments have t address. Sme f the pprtunities t transfrm public service delivery that are ften cited and merit clser examinatin are: prviding new pssibly mre efficient channels t deliver public infrmatin, gds and services; identifying new means and resurces fr cllabratin in the creatin and delivery f public gds and services; pening up new ways t understand and anticipate user needs at varius stages in the service design and delivery prcess, and t re-design services in mre iterative ways. Scial netwrks as additinal service delivery channels. Scial media can bridge sme f the cmmn digital divides, prvided that the limitatins discussed earlier are duly cnsidered. The relative ease f reaching ut t individual users helps gvernments segment ppulatins, tailr service delivery t individual needs and ptentially even reduce the csts f service delivery. Chile s multi-channel strategy ChileAtiende ( Chile at yur service ) is an example f a natinal gvernment using scial media t supprt a wider service delivery strategy. The gvernment uses its fficial Facebk and Twitter presences t respnd t service users and direct them twards specific service delivery channels, ntably digital channels which have the lwest delivery csts. Directing service users away frm cstly persn-t-persn transactins twards digital transactins is in fact a cmmn bjective acrss OECD gvernments. It is understandable given the different csts incurred: in the United Kingdm the average cst incurred by cmpleting an nline transactin is GBP 0.32, cmpared t almst GBP 3 fr phne-based transactins and ver GBP 7 fr face-t-face transactins with the public administratin (BDO, 2012). Many scial media pprtunities t supprt multi-channel delivery can be fund at sub-natinal levels f gvernment. Lcal authrities are ften the primary interface between citizens and the state; and they are typically subject t very tight budgets. In that cntext scial media, cupled with trends such as pen gvernment data and the advance f smart devices, are leading t a great amunt f service delivery innvatin. Applicatins such as FixMyStreet r SeeClickFix are nw cmmn means fr peple t submit reprts abut the state f the public space t lcal authrities. And indeed, mst lcal cuncils in the United Kingdm expect returns n scial media use in the fllwing areas (cf. BDO, 2012): delivery f envirnmental services (81% f lcal cuncils), delivery f leisure and parks services (74%), delivery f public rad maintenance services (72%). 29 Analytical wrk is underway at the OECD n digital gvernment prductivity; see als Uptake f nline public services in OECD, 2013a. 40

43 Scial media bear many pprtunities fr efficiency gains in the functining f lcal authrities. The Open311 system develped thrugh Cde fr America and nw in use acrss majr US cities is at first glance a unified interface fr peple, regardless f whether they cntact the public administratin by phne, SMS, r scial media. But a significant amunt f infrmatin takes place under the hd, i.e. in the management f internal wrkflws. In Chicag, the 311 service tracker lets residents check the status f service requests nline. 30 Since the establishment f this nline ticketing system the city drastically reduced the number f phne enquiries whse nly purpse is t check the status f a service request. Cnsequently, public administratin resurces are freed up. And as all service requests are centrally stred, the city administratin can mine the vast amunts f data fr plicy-relevant patterns. Service design and delivery cllabratin via scial media. Many f the knwledge-intensive ccupatins prevalent in public sectrs tday can benefit frm scial media t imprve individual and cllective prductivity. Take the example f s, arguably ne f the technlgies that has mst dramatically changed mdern wrkplaces and wrkflws. Yet, the verdict is divided n whether s actually achieved the prductivity leaps they were expected t yield. That is because sme majr dwnsides are beginning t take the upper hand as peple in knwledge-intense ccupatins are estimated t spend up t ne quarter f their time reading and writing s (McKinsey, 2012). 31 The perceived unprductivity is leading rganisatins t mre effective ways f cllabratin, ntably scial media see Bx 4 fr a radical step taken by a large healthcare rganisatin in the Netherlands. Bx 4. Dctr's rders: Why I quit and yu shuld, t The fllwing is an extract frm a pst written by Lucien Engelen, Directr at Radbud REshape and Innvatin Center at Radbud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Netherlands. At ur Radbud University Medical Center (RUMC), we send ut sme 750,000 s, every mnth. Mnthly, we send these frm ur apprximately 18,000 addresses. Cnversely, n a mnthly average f 1.2 millin s are being sent t us. (Numbers cleared fr spam and based n 2013.) Imagine that every incming read by smene tk 60 secnds: That wuld quickly add up t as much as 12.5 hurs per mnth. Every mnth that s abut 8 FTEs, in ther wrds 96 peple per year, mind yu: ne minute a mail fr ne persn! Imagine if we culd use that time instead t spend with patients and their family. An analysis f my incming s taught me that sme 70 percent f the infrmatin sent t me culd als be fund n ur intranet. It was als clear that was increasingly used as a kind f chat, and smetimes invked up t 10 ther messages t 10 separate peple. Fr that, I think, we have ther mre apprpriate tls, such as ur UMCN [internal netwrk], Yammer r scial media. I therefre decided t stp . Nt just BCC s r CC s, but everything. Nw, yu might think: ne can t just stp, and that is generally true. But nt fr me; it fits with my affinity fr being a bit f a rebel (with a cause). The ut-f-ffice assistant was set, and cntained a reference t me quitting as well as mentins f my Yammer, Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebk accunts, and asked that everyne refer t my secretaries fr appintments (by r I can firmly tell yu that it already saves me a lt f time, apprximately ne-and-a-half t tw hurs per day. My clleagues are nw surprised that I can find time t grab a cup f cffee, pick up the phne and respnd swiftly t messages sent thrugh ther channels like scial media. Being where yur targeted audience is becming mre imprtant than ever. Fr my jb in healthcare, this is truer than is has ever been befre. There are many great tls that are better fr stimulating cllabratin and c-creatin than . Surce: The pst was riginally published n LinkedIn and is nw available at 30 Fr mre infrmatin see 41

44 Having realised that might nt be an effective tl t prmte cllabratin, public sectr rganisatins increasingly trial scial netwrks. Acrss the OECD, 10 ut f 24 gvernments indicate using scial media fr internal cmmunicatin and cllabratin (Figure 15). This includes use f platfrms that are based n pen standards, e.g. wikis, as well as prprietary platfrms, e.g. Yammer, tiddle, huddle r GvLp. Figure 15. Gvernment-internal use f scial media, OECD, 2013 Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. Further examples f gvernments using scial media internally are: Australia, where the crss-agency cllabratin platfrm GvDex was launched in 2006 and reached arund users in Civil servants use GvDex t establish cmmunities f interest, including n the use f scial media itself as is the case with the Crss Agency Scial Media Frum. 32 Canada, where the Treasury Bard f Canada perates three scial netwrking platfrms since arund 2009: 1.) GCpedia, a wiki-based platfrm t exchange and jintly develp cntent; 2.) GCcnnex, a mre interactin-riented platfrm that mirrrs functinalities f Twitter, blgs and Facebk fr internal public administratin use; 3.) GCfrums, a set f discussin cmmunities arund specific tpics. 33 The United Kingdm, where the Fd Standards Agency (FSA) uses Yammer fr internal sharing f infrmatin and fr cllabratin between emplyees and external stakehlders. 34 Cllabratin via scial media can als unleash prductivity gains in public prcurement, particularly in the area f IT services and slutins. There are many examples f IT prject failures, bth in the public and the private sectrs. A cmmn risk factr is the length f IT prjects because empirical evidence suggests that 25% f a prject s initial requirements are utdated after just ne 32 Infrmatin frm Australia s respnse t OECD survey, 2013; additinal infrmatin: Infrmatin frm Canada s respnse t OECD survey, Fr mre infrmatin see _and_impact_gvernment_plicy. 42

45 year. 35 Such cllabrative appraches t IT prcurement are fully in line with the OECD Recmmendatin n Digital Gvernment Strategies (OECD, 2014; Principle 11). Several gvernments therefre turn t cllabrative platfrms fr the prcurement, design and develpment f (nline) services. The grwing ppularity is illustrated by the rapid grwth f the gvernment categry n GitHub, a majr pen surce cllabratin platfrm (Figure 16). In fact, the surce cdes f the gvernment prtals (United Kingdm) and (United States) are freely available fr re-use and adaptatin. The gvernments f Australia and New Zealand have started re-using that surce cde t re-design their natinal gvernment prtals, thereby taking a drastically different apprach t designing and implementing large-scale IT prjects. 36 Figure 16. Grwth f the "gvernment" categry n GitHub, Surce: Scial media augment the cllabratin and participatin pprtunities in the actual design and delivery f public services. Obviusly, partnerships between the public sectr and ther stakehlders are nthing new per se and pre-date the technlgy trends discussed here (cf. OECD, 2008, 2011). But scial media significantly lwer the barriers t experimentatin and rganic develpment f cllabratin. They stimulate the creatin f platfrms where gvernment is n lnger the exclusive authrity fr delivery f gds, services r infrmatin (cf. O Reilly, 2010). An example f successful platfrm thinking is the city f Chicag, which set up the nline platfrm as a vlunteer-matching service that caters t residents such as the elderly r the disabled that live in areas the municipal services d nt easily r quickly reach after heavy snwfalls. Scial media als have great ptential in areas where c-delivery has a lng traditin. In the wider sense this is the case with plice wrk which always depended n the cnfidence and cperatin f citizens. The Spanish natinal plice illustrates hw genuine and cntinued scial media engagement can be utilised fr missin-critical success in the delivery f public services (see Bx 5). 35 Frm a presentatin by Alexander Budzier, Senir Researcher at Saïd Business Schl, during the OECD E-Leaders 2013 meeting n Octber, Bern, Switzerland, 36 Mre infrmatin at (Australia) and (New Zealand). 43

46 Bx Purpse-riented scial media use at the Spanish natinal plice Plicing heavily depends n peple s cnfidence and c-peratin t deliver an effective public service. The Spanish natinal plice frce (Cuerp Nacinal de Plicía de España) early n identified the ptential f scial media. In 2009 it cmmitted t using scial media as an additinal lever t imprve their services. The cmmitment was backed up with financial and human resurces, ntably the recruitment f a scial media expert, Carls Fernandez, t lead the effrt. Tday, a dedicated team f ten peple interacts n varius scial media platfrms t prevent, dissuade and cmbat crime. The Spanish plice s cnstant and genuine engagement is catching n with the public. At the time f writing, Twitter accunt has ver 1.25 millin fllwers its Facebk page has ver fans (PliciaNacinal) and the vides n its YuTube channel were viewed ver 5.6 millin times (Plicia). A large part f this scial media success is due t a deliberate chice f tpics and style. Unlike many ther gvernment institutins, the Spanish plice des nt use scial media fr crprate cmmunicatins such as relaying the agendas f its leadership r t issue traditinal press releases. It rather uses scial netwrks t supprt the plice s primary missin by sending cntent-rich messages that use plain language, ften humrus r prvcative in rder t attract a large audience (see the figure belw fr a wrd clud f the fifty mst recurrent terms in the plice s scial media messages). Such genuine cmmunity interactin has led t several missin-critical successes. One f thse was the recent arrest f a murderer wh had been n the lse fr mnths after his cnvictin in On 14 January 2014 the Spanish natinal plice launched a c-rdinated media campaign with heavy use f scial media t diffuse phts and infrmatin abut the wanted individual. The psts went viral, i.e. they were replicated and diffused by a very large number f scial media users, and triggered several citizen reprts leading t the arrest f the cnvict later the same day! Recurrent terms in the Spanish natinal plice s scial media messages Nte: Semantic analysis f 3,186 tweets emitted between August 2013 and August The wrd clud cntains the fifty mst recurrent terms. The frequency f each term is indicated in parentheses. Surce: Authr s data extractin using Wrd clud created using Surce: Mickleit, A. (2014); Fernández Guerra, C. (2014). The risk f gvernments nt embracing such platfrm thinking is simple: the barriers are cming dwn fr individuals and nn-gvernment rganisatins t build their wn cmmunities f interest, which means they can increasingly bypass traditinal prcesses and channels. The abve examples, as well as the examples cited earlier in this chapter (the Latvian nline petitin platfrm t prpse new legislatin, the Marseille nline petitin that resulted in the revking f a lcal authrity decisin), clearly shw that peple and rganisatins are ging in that directin. Initiatives such as 44

47 GvCamp in the United Kingdm illustrate hw such actin is als realised by civil servants that are unsatisfied with the status qu. And there seem t be n bundaries t citizen-driven cllabratin it has even prven effective in the develpment f physical infrastructures. In the Dutch city f Rtterdam a cmmunity f citizens created strng scial media buzz t rally fr a pedestrian bridge ver a rute and train tracks. Unsatisfied with the initial lcal authrities reactins, the cmmunity set up a crwd-funding initiative and garnered supprt frm varius public and cmmercial actrs. As a result, cnstructin f the Luchtsingel bridge started in 2012 and is planned t finish in 2014; the prject tday includes funding frm the lcal authrities f Rtterdam. 37 Understanding and anticipating user needs in service design and delivery. Scial media pen up channels t explicitly invlve users in service design and delivery, as utlined abve. But scial media smetimes als make peple implicitly participate in plicy design and evaluatin prcesses in the sense that gvernments mine and analyse scial media interactins fr analytical insights. Dutch gvernment ministries have trialled mnitring activities in public nline frums and scial netwrks. The educatin and envirnmental ministries, as well as the natinal tax agency and the natinal emplyees insurance agency were able t (cf. Bekkers et al., 2013): cmplement, and smetimes cntrast, traditinal methds f perceptin gauging such as surveys r user panels; anticipate emerging issues and cnceive actins t avid escalatin; create a better image f agencies, ntably in the case f the tax and custms agency; achieve perceived efficiency gains, althugh nne f the departments was able t measure thse. Similar trials exist in ther cuntries and ther areas, including in the healthcare sectr (see next sub-sectin). Hwever, a cmmn risk t mnitring and mining scial media data fr plicy intelligence is that f perceived privacy breaches. As utlined earlier, public sensitivities t gvernment investigatin and surveillance are high in many cuntries. 38 Gvernment mining f persnal data can even be resented when that data is suppsedly in the public dmain, e.g. interactins in nline frums r publicatin f infrmatin n scial netwrks. T cunter sme f these resentments gvernments shuld be transparent abut their scial media mnitring and mining plicies (including als use f scial media data as part f law enfrcement, see Bx 5 earlier). Disclaimers that utline what data is being mnitred and t what purpse can greatly imprve cmprehensin by users. Mrever, gvernments can make the effrt t distinguish and categrise different types f persnal infrmatin and the degree f sensitivity peple attach t thse categries f infrmatin (cf. Bekkers et al., 2013). The healthcare and public emplyment service sectrs are further explred here because f their imprtance in natinal refrm and ecnmic stimulus plans acrss OECD cuntries. Crisis and 37 Fr mre infrmatin see 38 In fact, public sensitivities t mining scial media activities cncern nt nly gvernment but als cmpanies as illustrated by nging debates arund experiments by Facebk and OKCupid. See 45

48 emergency cmmunicatins als hld high ptential fr scial media use and are treated in detail in a separate reprt (cf. Wendling et al., 2013). Healthcare service delivery Healthcare prvisin is changing dramatically under the influence f the Internet and related technlgies: 39 lking fr healthcare infrmatin n the Internet has becme a standard activity (44% f Eurpeans d s); 40 nline frums are ppular places fr exchanges arund healthcare; new treatment pprtunities such as remte medicine applicatins benefit frm the rapid diffusin f bradband Internet, mbile and smart devices. Hwever, digital pprtunities are nt equally realised acrss cuntries. There is surely a link between the satisfactin f peple with the natinal healthcare quality and their use f the Internet t lk fr healthcare-related infrmatin (Figure 17). But still, even in cuntries where satisfactin levels are very high, i.e. they surpass 80%, n mre than 50 t 60% f peple use the Internet as a surce fr healthcare infrmatin. The reservatin is partly due t lack f cnfidence in the Internet as a reliable surce fr healthcare infrmatin, as well as the very imprtant patient-practitiner relatinship. Cnsidering, hwever, the strng cst reductin pressures t which natinal healthcare sectrs are submitted, there is arguably still a lt f space fr public healthcare actrs t leverage the Internet as part f their service delivery strategies. Figure 17. Pltting healthcare satisfactin with Internet use t btain healthcare infrmatin, Eurpe, 2013 Surce: Gallup WrldPll, cited in OECD, 2013a (vertical axis); Eurstat, 2013 ( Individuals using the Internet fr seeking health infrmatin (Tin 00130) (hrizntal axis). Scial media have als entered the area f healthcare, althugh this is tday primarily a channel fr exchange between practitiners, experts and crpratins. Cmmercial scial netwrks such as r cunt hundreds f thusands f active members. Cnnecting 39 Fr a mre cmprehensive verview f current trends in ICT and healthcare, see OECD (2013), ICTs and the Health Sectr: Twards Smarter Health and Wellness Mdels, OECD, Paris data fr EU-27, extracted frm Eurstat Infrmatin Sciety statistics, indicatr Individuals using the Internet fr seeking health infrmatin (Tin00130) 46

49 dctrs and patients, hwever, meets a lt f hesitatin. Trials exist, e.g. in the United States where dctrs use scial media t prvide patients explanatins, educate them r imprve individual care (Saleh et al., 2014); r in Denmark, where researchers identified several ptential impact dmains fr scial media at bth the individual and the cllective level f healthcare (Table 8). Table 8. Ptential scial media impacts in healthcare at the individual and the cllective level Individual level Mre effective health infrmatin retrieval Empwered and well-infrmed patients New ways fr fllw-up and patient educatin Increased transparency Practitiners reluctance t pst n scial media due t perceived un-prfessinalism r fear f lawsuit Vilatin f privacy Unintended cnsequences f expsure t healthrelated infrmatin thrugh scial media Cllective level Gains n verall reductin in cst due t crwdsurcing Channel cst savings Cnnecting peers, families and patients in new cnfiguratins Use f the stred data fr research Overall well-being imprvement Surce: Andersen et al., A smetimes verlked target grup in this field are senirs. Given the pressures f ageing sciety thugh, mre and mre digital initiatives fcus n healthcare service delivery t the elderly. And it des indeed make sense, fr example in Japan r the United States where mre than half f ver 65 year lds use the Internet (MIC, 2013; PewInternet, 2012). And the elderly are catching up in scial media use t. Althugh uptake rates are still relatively lw, they are grwing fast and reach 20% and mre fr peple ver 65 in Krea, Iceland, Nrway and the United Kingdm (Figure 18). Numbers are even higher fr 55 t 64 year lds, an age bracket that includes many sn-t-be retired peple. Figure 18. Uptake f scial media by senir age grups, 2013 Nte: Age brackets are different fr Australia (50-64 year lds, ver 65 year lds) and Krea (50 t 59 year lds, ver 60 year lds). Surce: Eurstat, 2013, Internet use: psting messages t scial media sites r instant messaging. Except fr Australia: AIMIA, 2013, Yellw scial media reprt ; and Krea: KISA, 2013, Survey f Internet usage. Overall, hwever, acceptance f scial media use is still lw with bth practitiners and patients. On the side f practitiners, reservatin results frm the uncertainties n ethical and legal cnsequences that scial media interactins with patients can have (cf. Andersen et al., 2012). On the side f patients, reservatin is mainly due t prtectin f privacy and the cntrl ver persnal data. Especially initiatives t mine individuals healthcare data even in aggregated and annymised frms are met with strng ppsitin as recently experienced by the prject in the United 47

50 Kingdm (see als Vlpe et al., 2013). 41 Initiatives t imprve patients cntrl ver data re-use are underway, e.g. the Blue Buttn prject in the United States. Success f such initiatives will t a large degree determine patients cnfidence in scial media and Internet-based healthcare services. Public emplyment services Emplyment services t are underging majr transfrmatins due t the Internet. Half f Eurpe s unemplyed use the Internet t supprt their return t emplyment (Figure 19). In fact, the quasittality f jb seekers use the Internet t lk fr jbs r send applicatins in Sweden (90%); rates are als very high in the Netherlands, Iceland, Nrway, Estnia, Austria and Finland (between 70 and 80%). Figure 19. Share f unemplyed wh use the Internet t lk fr jbs r send an applicatin, Eurpe, 2013 Surce: Eurstat, 2013, Individuals using the Internet fr lking fr a jb r sending a jb applicatin. Scial media are further accelerating the transfrmatin f digital strategies that jb seekers and emplyers devise. Sure enugh, websites like, Mnster and CareerBuilder remain the wrld s mst ppular nline jb platfrms. But their dminance is being challenged by career-riented scial netwrks such as LinkedIn, Xing and viade, as well as generalist scial media such as Facebk and its Scial Jbs Partnership. A survey fr the United States reprts that mst jb seekers (40%) still their find jbs thrugh persnal cnnectins, e.g. referrals; but the secnd-best surces fr finding jbs are t equal degrees nline scial netwrks (21%), nline jb sites (20%) and classified ads (19%) (Jbvite, 2014). This changing reality creates bth pprtunities and challenges fr prviders f public emplyment services (PES), e.g. gvernment jb centres. PES prviders can leverage the Internet and scial media t better activate jb seekers and t prvide emplyers with mre targeted services. But many natinal PES prviders have been slw t adapt t the emergence f tday s digital and multi-actr envirnment. As a result, the perceived relevance f public emplyment agencies varies strngly acrss cuntries: it is very high in Cratia, Lithuania, the Czech Republic, the Slvak Republic and Germany where at least 80% f jb seekers cnsult their natinal public emplyment 41 Fr mre infrmatin n the prject, see 48

51 agency; but it is very lw in Italy, Spain and Turkey where less than ne third f jb seekers d s (Figure 20). 42 Figure 20. Share f unemplyed wh cntacted natinal public emplyment services, Eurpe, Q Surce: Eurstat, 2013, Methds used fr seeking wrk: Percentage f unemplyed wh declared having used a given methd: [cntacted natinal public emplyment services]. S the cntext is ne where the Internet is integral t jb seekers and jb advertisers strategies, and where sme natinal public service prviders have lst their exclusive psitin in the market. A crsstabulatin f these tw factrs (use f the Internet by jb seekers; perceived relevance f natinal PES) makes patterns emerge that pint twards different ways in which natinal PES can leverage the Internet and scial media t supprt their cre missin (Figure 21; specific actins, hwever, require careful cnsideratin fr ther cntext factrs that are nt cvered here). 42 Fr mre infrmatin n the perceived relevance f emplyers and jb seekers f a specific natinal PES prvider, Pôle Empli, and n its digital initiatives see chapter n The RGPP and the quality f service in OECD, 2012, Public Gvernance Reviews: France, OECD, Paris. 49

52 Figure 21. Pltting different strategies f the unemplyed cntacting public emplyment services and using the Internet t lk fr a jb, Eurpe, 2013 Surce: Eurstat, 2013, Methds used fr seeking wrk: Percentage f unemplyed wh declared having used a given methd (vertical axis) and Individuals using the Internet fr lking fr a jb r sending a jb applicatin (hrizntal axis). Cuntries in the lwer left quadrant (e.g. Bulgaria, Italy, Turkey) face challenges that scial media are unlikely t alleviate in the shrt term: lw levels f cnsultatin f the natinal PES by jb seekers and lw shares f jb seekers wh use the Internet fr jb searches. Activating jb seekers and increasing the perceived relevance f the PES in this grup f cuntries requires chices that g beynd the scpe f this paper. Cuntries in the upper left quadrant (e.g. Cratia, Lithuania, Pland) have high levels f dmestic PES cnsultatin by the unemplyed. But nly few jb seekers use the Internet as part f their jb searches. This indicates ptential fr the dmestic PES prviders t develp targeted prgrammes that enable and encurage the unemplyed t integrate the Internet and scial media int their jb searches and skills develpment. Cuntries in the lwer right quadrant (e.g. Spain, Netherlands, Iceland) shw belwaverage levels f PES cnsultatin by jb seekers (as lw as 27% in Spain). At the same time, mre than half f the unemplyed in thse cuntries use the Internet t lk fr jbs (as many as 81% in Netherlands and Iceland). In these cuntries there seems t be quite sme ptential fr dmestic PES t use scial media t mre effectively supprt jb seekers. Finally, cuntries in the upper right quadrant (e.g. Germany, Sweden) have relatively high cnsultatin rates f the dmestic PES by jb seekers, as well as high numbers f unemplyed wh use the Internet use t lk fr jbs. These cuntries can be surces fr gd practices n hw PES can leverage scial media t supprt their main missin, i.e. bringing peple int emplyment (see an example frm Germany in Bx 6). 50

53 Bx 6. Public emplyment services 2.0 in Germany: Bundesagentur für Arbeit The German public emplyment service (PES) prvider, Bundesagentur für Arbeit (BA), has shwn gd cntext awareness and purpse rientatin in its chices f scial media use. Instead f allcating many resurces twards a scial media presence that mainly cmmunicates press releases the BA des nt have an rganisatin-specific Facebk page and nly perates a lw-key Twitter accunt t bradcast news items the German PES fund ways t mre effectively use scial media t serve its main clients: jb seekers verall, yung peple specifically, and jb advertisers. The BA displayed particularly gd ut f the bx thinking when entering a c-peratin agreement with the nline prfessinal and careers netwrk Xing in The chice was based n analysis f the lcal cntext: Xing is cnceptually similar t LinkedIn but cunts n a larger user base in German-speaking cuntries than its US-based cmpetitr (arund half f Xing s 13 millin glbal users reside in Germany, Austria and Switzerland). In practical terms the c-peratin between BA and Xing means that emplyers wh pst a vacancy n Xing can pt in t als publish their vacancy at the BA s nline jbs database Jbbörse just by ticking a checkbx. Jb seekers that cnsult these vacancies n the Jbbörse are in turn ruted t Xing where they can use the platfrm s scial netwrking services t engage with ther users, e.g. t enquire abut the vacancy r the emplyer. Surces: 51

54 4. MANAGING THE NECESSARY CHANGE IN GOVERNMENT TO CREATE IMPACT The previus sectins prvided empirical baselines and an explratin f majr pprtunities and challenges in using scial media t supprt the cre missin f public sectr rganisatins. This final sectin befre the cnclusin pinpints the main practical issues gvernments need t cnsider when managing the change twards public administratins that use scial media part f their missin. Frmulating bjectives and expectatins Gvernment institutins shuld nt shy away frm setting bjectives r at least frmulating expectatins they have regarding the impact f their scial media use. This can include explring what similar institutins have dne. Objectives can be adapted alng the way, including thrugh iteratins f feedback gathered frm emplyees and service users (see Bx 1 fr Chile s experience in building a scial media strategy thrugh varius iteratins). A fundamental questin that will arise at sme pint is whether the main bjective is t use scial media fr simple cmmunicatins, i.e. a push strategy, r whether t use them t supprt the cre missin f the institutin, which will typically require ther types f resurces and cmmitment t engagement, i.e. a pull r netwrking strategy (cf. Mergel, 2010). In either case, gvernment institutins shuld nt feel pressured t be present r active in every aspect and n every platfrm. Aggressive branding f an institutin is nt always the best way frward. Scial media can add value by simply encuraging and using cmmunity dynamics, e.g. in the way the German public emplyment agency des thrugh its partnership with the scial netwrk Xing (see Bx 6). Even in the private sectr, crprate scial media effrts are nt always primarily geared twards cmmunicating a brand r crpratin. They smetimes fcus n specific services and leverage cmmunity dynamics instead (See Bx 7 n Apple s scial media tactics). 52

55 Bx 7. Scial Apple fcus n prmting services, nt the crpratin Apple is ne f the mst valued brands and cmpanies in the wrld. It might therefre cme as a surprise that Apple as a cmpany keeps a lw prfile n scial media. There is n fficial crprate Facebk page, just an autmatically generate presence with ver 25 millin likes but n activity at all by the cmpany ( ). N visible crprate accunt exists n Twitter either. Apple nly has a mre active presence n LinkedIn t diffuse jb adverts. Hwever, this shuld nt lead t the cnclusin that Apple des nt use scial media t supprt its business. Sme f the cmpany s atypical use f scial media can be an inspiratin t gvernments given that just like many gvernments, Apple is a relatively large and hetergeneus rganisatin, ffers a wide and diverse range f gds and services, and is part f a cmplex ec-system f clients, suppliers and partners. S, instead f creating a scial media presence arund the crpratin, what Apple has dne is t establish scial media presences f specific services that add value t its business peratins, fr example: AppStre, the cmpany s cntent platfrm fr the iphne, ipad and ther devices. itunes, the cmpany's entertainment platfrm fr digital music, films and ther cntent. Cuntry-specific satellites such as, e.g. itunesjapan. ibks, a dedicated service fr e-bks. itunesu, a platfrm fr educatin-riented services. Anther ntewrthy element is that Apple perates n dedicated scial media presence fr either the iphne r the ipad, tw f its flagship prducts. Instead, Apple uses the marketing f its cntent services t als drive sales f its hardware prducts. Mrever, Apple s main vehicle fr cmmercial messages are individual users and the media, but nt really the crpratin itself. The cmpany creates marketing campaigns that aim fr messages t becme viral, i.e. be replicated by a large number f peple and media utlets nline and ffline. That way, Apple utilises cmmunity dynamics t prmte demand fr its prducts and services. Gvernance and guidelines It is imprtant t define respnsibilities fr scial media use acrss gvernment. Particularly when it cmes t cnflicts that need a clear answer r flws f infrmatin during a crisis situatin, it needs t be clear if individual ministries r agencies reslve this within their authrity r whether there is an verarching gvernance mechanism. The majrity f respnding gvernments exercise little central cntrl and steering f scial media use. 14 ut f 25 gvernments indicate having very dispersed r rather dispersed appraches, which means respnsibilities fr setting and implementing plicies lie with individual gvernment ministries, agencies and departments (Figure 22 and Table 9). 53

56 Figure 22. Central gvernment appraches t cntrl and steering f scial media use Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. Table 9. Central gvernment appraches t cntrl and steering f scial media use Very dispersed Rather dispersed Rather centralised Very centralised Belgium Pland Austria Canada Spain Turkey Estnia Clmbia Switzerland New Zealand Australia Czech Republic Finland Sweden Japan Iceland Chile Denmark Ireland Krea Prtugal Netherlands Slvenia France Nrway Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. But even in cuntries that cnsider their appraches as being centralised ( rather r very ), individual ministries have a great degree f autnmy in designing and implementing scial media plicies. In mst f these cases an ver-arching plicy is develped by an institutin situated at the centre f gvernment and cntains a mix f the fllwing (see als Bx 8): cdes f cnduct fr institutins and/r individuals (i.e. what t d r nt t d when using scial media as an institutin r as an fficial); hands-n guidance, manuals, checklists and similar resurces t supprt scial media plans f individual institutins; guidance fr skills develpment and cmmunity-based exchanges f gd practices. 54

57 Bx 8. Institutinal respnsibilities fr scial media use in OECD cuntries The fllwing sub-set f cuntries indicates having a rather r very centralised apprach t scial media use in gvernment. Respnsibilities are typically shared between an institutin at the centre f gvernment and individual gvernment ministries r departments. Australia: The Australian Public Service Cmmissin (APS) issues a cde f cnduct fr all gvernment fficials ( Beynd that individual departments and agencies tailr scial media plicies t their specific functins and requirements. Austria: Led by the Federal Chancellery, an inter-ministerial wrking grup develps the strategy in cperatin with external scial media experts. Each gvernment institutin remains autnmus as t the implementatin f the strategy. Canada: The Treasury Bard f Canada is respnsible fr issuing plicies and guidelines fr fficial institutinal r persnal accunts. This includes a gvernment-wide standard n scial media accunt management ( and a YuTube vide prviding guidance abut scial media at wrk ( Chile: Central guidelines are issued by the Ministry Secretariat f the Presidency ( They include varius dcuments, including a cde f cnduct and checklists t guide incrpratin f scial media int agencies cmmunicatin strategies. Clmbia: A digital task frce at the Ministry f ICT is respnsible fr develping and verseeing the gvernment s scial media strategy and guidelines, which are available at Estnia: The Gvernment Office under the Prime Minister crdinates all scial media plicy and cmmunicatin acrss the gvernment, e.g. the cde f cnduct fr gvernment fficials. France: The Gvernment Infrmatin Service (Service d infrmatin du Guvernement, SIG) under the Prime Minister issues guidelines fr scial media use by central gvernment institutins. Krea: The Ministry f Security and Public Administratin (MOPAS) is respnsible fr the Gvernment 3.0 Actin Plan, which als cntains the strategy fr scial media use in the public sectr ( Further t that, individual public agencies and lcal gvernments develp custm guidelines fr scial media use. Netherlands: The Minister f General Affairs issues a general set f guidelines fr scial media use that is then adapted by individual ministries. Nrway: Gvernment-wide guidelines are issued by the Nrwegian Agency fr Public Management and e- Gvernance (Difi) under the Ministry f Gvernment Administratin, Refrm and Church Affairs (FAD) (www.difi.n/ssiale-medier/veileder-i-ssiale-medier). Sweden: The egvernment Delegatin issues guidelines that can be further tailred by individual gvernment agencies. Surce: Adapted frm OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. Several gvernments have established central guidelines fr the use f scial media, but t different degrees fr different target grups (Figure 23). A majrity (16 ut f 25) have gvernmentwide guidelines in place fr fficial institutinal accunts, e.g. a Facebk accunts f a specific ministry r department. Fewer (12 ut f 25) have guidelines that determine what individual civil servants are expected t d and nt d when they use scial media in their persnal capacity, e.g. hw t make reference t their situatin as civil servant r hw t treat infrmatin btained as a civil servant. Only a small number f gvernments have guidelines in place fr pliticians, i.e. elected leaders r plitical appintees. 55

58 Figure 23. Scial media guidelines in OECD gvernments Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media ; multiple answers allwed. The cntent f these gvernment scial media guidelines differs frm cuntry t cuntry but a cmmn trait is the fcus n risks and benefits (Figure 24). Aviding and managing ptential risks e.g. t reputatin r t security is a cncern fr mst gvernments tday (13 ut f 16 respndents). Als f imprtance are: utlining benefits (10), stating bjectives (8) and indicating tactics n hw t attain thse bjectives (8). Infrmatin n hw t actually measure the impacts r assess the financial implicatins is hardly included in central gvernment guidelines (mre n this further belw). Figure 24. Cntent f gvernment scial media strategies and guidelines Nte: Out f 16 cuntries that have an explicit strategy r guidelines in place; multiple answers allwed. Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. The way respnsibilities are distributed within individual gvernment ministries r departments can have implicatins n the scial media tactics. Cmparing individual US gvernment departments, Mergel identifies three archetypes fr the lcatin f main scial media respnsibility: 1) IT department, 2) public affairs ffice, 3) plicy ffice. The resulting tactics, use and resurces are quite different and prvide sme guidance fr decisins n the assignment f scial media respnsibilities (Table 10). 56

59 Table 10. Scial media adptin tactics acrss the US federal gvernment Surce: Mergel, 2013b. Legal cmpliance An imprtant issue t cnsider are legal requirements fr gvernment institutins t cmply with when using scial media. Particular issues that frequently arise are: Official recrd keeping. In sme cuntries public sectr institutins are required t keep a recrd f all fficial r external cmmunicatins. Australian state gvernments have such bligatins and needed t review whether and hw they apply t authrities activities n scial media. 43 Smetimes mre general agreements can prvide a shrtcut, e.g. the United States Library f Cngress cmmitment t archive all tweets ever emitted since 2006, which in fact creates an fficial keeper f recrd. Disclaimers. Gvernments shuld clarify what the scial media presence is and is nt abut in rder t address issues f liability ex ante. Especially in sensitive areas such as plicing, healthcare r emergency respnses it is imprtant t indicate, e.g. whether accunts are mnitred 24/7 and whether alerts are treated equal t ther established emergency channels such as phne htlines. Privacy. Persnal data is typically subject t legal and regulatry requirements at dmestic and internatinal levels. It is therefre imprtant t understand the remits within which feedback received via scial media cnstitute such persnal data and what the dmestic requirements are fr prcessing and string such data. Accessibility. Gvernment departments are usually bund t specific accessibility requirements fr services r infrmatin. In sme instances scial media cmmunicatins will need t be adapted t cmply with prvisins fr users with special needs. Intellectual prperty. Use and re-use f third-party cntent needs t be in line with existing legal prvisins fr intellectual prperty prtectin. This requires understanding pssible implicatins fr the re-use f pictures, data r text passages in scial media messaging. 43 Fr mre infrmatin see 57

60 Skills and resurces Entry csts t scial media use are relatively lw, but sustained activity des require dedicatin f human, rganisatinal and financial resurces. A 2013 survey f municipalities in the United Kingdm indicates that 40% f them devte ne full-time equivalent r mre per week t maintain their scial media presence (BDO, 2013). Greater use f scial media als raises questins abut the resurce implicatins and yielded returns. An audit f the United States State Department fund that the institutin spent ver USD fr tw scial media campaigns whse primary purpse was t increase the institutin s fan base n Facebk and Twitter. The audit cnsidered that the effrts had n direct relevance fr the cre missin f the institutin and thus recmmended re-directing resurces twards the supprt f mre specific institutinal bjectives. 44 Identifying and develping the necessary human and financial resurces t supprt a scial media strategy is n easy task. The OECD survey shws that nly 8 ut f 25 respnding gvernments have specific strategies r plans t develp civil servants skills in this area (Figure 25). As fr financial benefits, a survey in the United Kingdm reprts that tw thirds f municipalities believe they achieve financial benefits frm scial media use althugh nne f them has been able t demnstrate thse benefits yet (BDO, 2013). Figure 25. Skills strategies fr gvernment scial media use Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. Develping the right skills sets fr scial media use in the public sectr resnates with wider public sectr challenges arund digital gvernment and human resurces management. Many gvernments face the challenge f develping the right skills and capacities t reap returns n public sectr digitisatin effrts. The accunt f a jb advert by the United Kingdm Department fr Business, Innvatin and Skills (BIS) serves t illustrate the general trend (see Bx 9). 44 The audit reprt is available at 58

61 Bx 9. The challenge f acquiring the right scial media skills, an example frm the UK Gvernment. The fllwing is an extract frm a blg pst published by a recruiting manager at the UK Department fr Business, Innvatin and Skills (BIS) in January It accmpanies the fficial vacancy descriptin and illustrates the challenge many gvernments are facing in recruiting, develping and retaining the right skills t make digital gvernment and scial media initiatives supprt cre gvernment purpses: I m lucky t wrk with a well-runded team: infrmatin publishing, planning, writing, editing, audi, visual, engagement. It's all in there. We have sme useful fficial channels and the ability t create lts f different types f digital cntent in-huse. We ften wrk with external partners r netwrks, t help facilitate the cnversatins we need t have with ur audiences. Twitter Q&As with prfessinal assciatins, riginal cntent n news websites and discussins n LinkedIn are all gd examples. These examples are, hwever, the exceptin rather than the rule. Mre ften than nt we re battling deadlines and a limited capacity within the team, which means we cme t rely n ur crprate channels. We put a lt f effrt int driving peple t BIS s fficial nline presence, when in fact, if my nline behaviur is anything t g by, very few peple want t fllw, like, cmment n, r share an fficial crprate channel. What we need is smene wh can deliver pprtunities t wrk with the cmmunities and types f cntent that ur audiences are really interested in. We want t wrk with frums, blggers, hashtags, influencers and cmmunities, t help get mre peple interested in the plicies that affect them and raise awareness f the infrmatin that Gvernment prvides. Surce: Extracted frm Sme gvernments actively develp the digital and scial media skills f civil servants. In Australia, the APS Cde f Cnduct encurages agencies t d s and the Department f Finance runs scial media curses. 45 These effrts are part f a larger strategy by the Australian Public Service t attract, retain and develp the right peple t drive digital public services refrms. 46 Cllabratin and cmmunities The newness f the medium results in a lt f uncertainty abut the cnditins required t meet bjectives. T deal with these uncertainties, gvernments establish cmmunities f practice that fster exchange and cllabratin acrss institutins. The majrity f gvernments (15 ut f 25 bserved) established sme frmal c-rdinatin mechanism fr gvernment institutins and their scial media practitiners (Figure 26). Bx 10 prvides sme examples. 45 Fr mre infrmatin see and 46 Fr mre infrmatin see 59

62 Figure 26. Gvernment c-rdinatin mechanisms fr exchange f scial media experiences Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. Bx 10. Examples f c-rdinatin mechanisms fr scial media use acrss gvernment Australia: The Crss Agency Scial Media (CASM) Frum lets civil servants share experiences, dcumentatin, advice, and lessns learned. Denmark: C-rdinatin fr scial media use is part f Denmark's participatin in the Open Gvernment Partnership. A yearly Open Gvernment Camp is rganised fr and by stakehlders in the public sectr t meet civil sciety including individual citizens, businesses and NGOs. The respnsibility fr setting up the physical envirnment fr the event is the Ministry f Finance, Agency fr Digitisatin. France: Regular meetings, exchanges and seminars are rganised by the Service d'infrmatin du Guvernement (SIG) lcated at the Prime Minister s ffice. Krea: The nline spkespersn system is in place since In regular meetings rganised by the Ministry f Culture, Sprts and Turism individual ministries and departments share their experiences in using scial media and blgging platfrms. Netherlands: A Dutch netwrk f scial media practitiners exists that is nt actually perated by gvernment. The Civil Servant 2.0 platfrm is a wiki where gvernment emplyees can gather and exchange infrmatin n gd practices ( United States: The US General Services Administratin (GSA) facilitated the launch f the Scial Media Cmmunity f Practice (CP) in June The cmmunity unites mre than 200 federal gvernment scial media managers and aims t spread gd practices fr imprving citizen services and cutting service delivery csts. Surce: Respnses t OECD survey n scial media; fficial GSA infrmatin (United States). Managing scial media risks A majr challenge fr gvernments is t understand hw t navigate the risks f scial media. Aviding and managing ptential risks e.g. t reputatin r t security is a primary cncern fr 60

63 gvernments (see Figure 24 earlier). In fact, 9 ut f 25 gvernments reprt they tackle these risks by blcking selected scial media n gvernment IT equipment (Figure 27). Figure 27. Blcking f scial media n gvernment IT equipment Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. But shutting ut scial media is ging t be less and less effective fr managing security and related risks. Technlgy use in and by gvernments is increasingly ut f the direct cntrl f institutins, e.g. because civil servants use scial media in their persnal lives and are active n their wn devices in parallel t gvernment-wned equipment. Tday institutinal affiliatins can be easily identified n the Internet, which means that every civil servant that uses Twitter, Facebk, a blg r similar can als be traced back t the institutin he r she serves. That renders initiatives such as blcking scial media use quite ineffective in the wider cntext f risk management. This is prbably ne reasn why nly 30% f municipalities in the United Kingdm reprted ding s in 2013, dwn frm 50% in 2012 (BDO, 2013). S gvernments need t acknwledge and maybe manage the fact that scial media turns individual civil servants int perceived nline ambassadrs f their institutin. They als need t realise that the increasing amunt f infrmatin psted nline by rganisatins and individuals facilitates the emergence f scial engineering practices that have already affected private and public sectr rganisatins. 47 It is therefre imprtant t integrate scial media use int wider cnsideratins abut risks t the security and resilience f gvernment services. Mnitring and measuring impact A pivtal cmpnent f successful scial media strategies is t measure the impacts. But this is als where the greatest challenges lie as the vast majrity f gvernments in the OECD have n effective way f measuring, let alne assessing, the returns n their scial media effrts: nly 5 ut f 25 gvernments say they use specific metrics r indicatrs (Figure 28). 47 Fr an impressive article f an individual s data being hacked thrugh scial engineering techniques, see fr an example f a public sectr rganisatin becming victim f scial engineering, see 61

64 Figure 28. Use f metrics r indicatrs t mnitr impacts f gvernment scial media use Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. Part f the prblem is that metrics that are ppular in cmmercial use f scial media d nt easily transfer t the public sectr. Supprt f scial media t drive prduct sales r t reduce marketing csts has n equivalent bjective in mst parts f gvernment. Ppularity metrics e.g. the size f the fan base are usually f little relevance t an institutin s cre missin. The current situatin arund measuring impact therefre resembles what an interlcutr at the United States gvernment called Return n Ignrance rather than Return n Investment (cited in Mergel, 2013a). Ging frward, a hierarchical categrisatin f bjectives prvides a preliminary yardstick t the maturity f scial media measurement (Table 11). These include sme f the simple metrics used in previus chapters, e.g. n presence and ppularity. But they als include indicatrs that require further investigatin t test their feasibility and relevance fr cmparisns, e.g. n penetratin, perceptin and purpse f scial media use in gvernment. Table 11. A categrisatin f gvernment scial media bjectives and ptential indicatrs Objective Indicatr Ptential metrics Presence My institutin is present n scial media. Presence My institutin is active n scial media Number f psts My institutin is ppular n the main Uptake measures, e.g. cunt f Ppularity scial media channels. fllwers, relative share f fllwers in dmestic ppulatin My institutin has reciprcal interactins Measures f tw-way interactin with Penetratin with scial media users users, e.g. number f re-tweets, replies, cmments n blg psts My institutin has a psitive image n scial media. Interactins with psitive sentiment, e.g. favurite r like Perceptin Semantic analysis f interactins t identify expressin f sentiment Klut scre My institutin is a trusted surce f infrmatin and services Interactins with influential users that can act as multipliers. Purpse My institutin uses scial media t reach User mnitring r surveys t identify users it cannt therwise reach interactin with specific user grups My institutin uses scial media t direct public service users t specific channels Click-thrugh rates t digital infrmatin and services ffers 62

65 T be meaningful, thse metrics need t be cmplemented by relevant cntext infrmatin. The OECD survey can, fr example, be used t prvide infrmatin n gvernment strategies and plicies in this area (see Table 12). Further cntext include statistics n use and uptake f scial media, data n digital access r use divides, etc. Using such a diverse set f surces helps t piece tgether a slid framewrk fr measuring the impact f scial media use by gvernments. Natinal gvernment Table 12. Cntext infrmatin abut gvernment scial media strategies and plicies Has a strategy r bjectives? Has capacity develpment plan? Has guidelines fr institutins? Has guidelines fr civil servants? Uses scial media internally? Has a frmal c-rdinatin mechanism? Uses metrics r indicatrs? Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Clmbia Czech Republic + Denmark + Estnia Finland France Iceland + Ireland Japan + Krea Netherlands New Zealand + Nrway + + Pland + Prtugal Slvenia + + Spain + + Sweden + Switzerland + Turkey + Nte: + means Yes, blank cells mean either N r I dn t knw. Surce: OECD (2013b), Survey n gvernment use f scial media. 63

66 5. CONCLUSION This paper analysed if and hw natinal gvernments use scial media tday. It prvides empirical baselines, discusses pprtunities and challenges fr mre pen plicy prcesses and better public service delivery, and it utlines the main issues gvernments need t cnsider when managing the transitin twards peratins in a scial media-rich envirnment. This is clearly a new phenmenn fr gvernments. At the same time there are institutins that have been experimenting with scial media fr quite a while. Early adpters such as gvernment institutins in the United States and the United Kingdm as well as in several Latin American cuntries seem t be yielding sme returns n their practive appraches t this technlgy trend. They figure amng the mst ppular gvernments n scial media, expressed by a large fllwership and high levels f interactin. Yet empirical evidence prves that scial media ppularity is much easier achieved by plitical leaders, i.e. individuals. The relative success f presidents and prime ministers, cmpared t the institutins they represent, is understandable given their need t actively market themselves and their messages t rally fr supprt, funds and vtes. But this als raises the questin whether institutins as the cnstant main interface between citizens and the state shuld aim t d better in using scial media. There are many gd cases f gvernment institutins using scial media t cnsult, t deliver infrmatin r services, t manage wrkflws mre efficiently. Hwever, practices s far result mainly in incremental changes. Only in few places have institutins embraced scial media in a way that actually transfrms plicy-making, decisin-making r service delivery prcesses. The risk f gvernments being slw abut using new channels t pen up is that citizens, civic entrepreneurs, nn-established rganisatins and thers step in t build platfrms that bypass traditinal means f participatin. This can cntribute t adverse lng-term effects, e.g. further declining vter turnut rates amng yung peple. Despite the many changes prvked by scial media, traditinal pwer netwrks and knwn plitical realities still limit the actual influence that crwd-based effrts have n gvernment actins. Scial media certainly help t channel diffuse pinins and create the critical mass t place issues n the agendas f decisin-makers. At the same time, gvernments remain very hierarchical and sil-based rganisatins, which favurs the wrk f traditinal intermediaries such as business lbbies and trade unins (wh bviusly knw hw t utilise scial media t). There is als a lack f capacity t absrb, treat and respnd t the diffuse requests picked up n scial media. Taken tgether, these factrs make it that many gvernment wrkflws tday clash with the flattening and immediate structure f infrmatin n the Internet. In the current plitical climate the scrutiny f gvernment use f scial media is particularly high. General cnfidence in gvernment has declined in many cuntries and gvernments partly expect scial media t help them regain trust f the ppulatin. The prblem is that gvernments are nt always transparent enugh abut if and hw they use scial media t derive plicy intelligence, be it abut individuals r abut sciety as a whle. Resentments f the general ppulatin t have their data used by gvernment as well as fr cmmercial r research purpses are relatively high in sme places and can have a negative impact n the perceptin f ther uses f scial media by public sectr institutins. 64

67 Finally, access and use challenges need t be addressed t make scial media an effective channel fr reaching ut t specific parts f the ppulatin. Tday, lw levels f educatin and incme are hampering factrs fr uptake f scial in many cuntries. This limits the inclusin ptential f using these channels t encurage participatin r imprve public service delivery. Mrever, the fact that almst all yung peple in OECD cuntries are active scial media users des nt yet make scial netwrks a means fr gvernment t reach thse yung peple. Current statistics indicate extremely lw levels f interest fr using scial media t engage in any discussins f plitical r civic issues n the Internet. Cupled with relatively high vter abstentin rates amng yung peple, several cuntries face a majr challenge in making sure yung peple are nt excluded frm participatin in plicy prcesses. In this rapidly evlving field the full and detailed value prpsitin fr scial media use in gvernment institutins has yet t emerge. It is necessary t clearly identify and state the added value fr any institutin in the public sectr whse main purpse is nt t raise its prfile thrugh cmmunicatins but t deliver better services and t develp better plicies. Next steps twards better guidance and data cllectin Gvernments can hardly affrd t sit back and wait fr that value prpsitin t emerge. In the current scial media-rich cntext, gvernment institutins are expected t use scial media and adapt their wrkflws t make best use f the new pprtunities. This means taking an active rle and managing the change taking place in public sectrs. A checklist f issues t raise and address is prpsed in Table 13. Table 13. A checklist fr purpse-riented scial media use in gvernment Issue Objectives and expectatins Gvernance mdes and guidelines Legal cmpliance What is the cre missin f my institutin? Questins t be raised and answered What are the mst imprtant infrmatin and services prvided by my institutin? Hw imprtant is public cmmunicatin fr achieving my institutin s cre bjectives? Hw can scial media supprt my institutin s cre missin? What are examples frm similar institutins dmestically r internatinally? Can scial media enable utside actrs t supprt selected activities f my institutin, e.g. intermediaries r individuals fr which my institutin can prvide a platfrm fr cllabratin? Is there a central versight bdy fr scial media use acrss gvernment r is the preferred perating mde ne f dispersed innvatin? Hw can different rganisatinal units in my institutin leverage scial media, e.g. the public relatins department, the IT department, the plicy making department, the service delivery department? Is there a need fr scial media guidelines fr civil servants, including fr persnal use? Is there a need fr scial media guidelines fr fficial institutinal accunts, e.g. Facebk presence f a given ministry? Wh, if anybdy, sets guidelines fr scial media use by pliticians r appinted high-ranking civil servants representing an institutin? What are the specific legal and regulatry prvisins that may have an impact n hw my institutin uses scial media? Are scial media cvered r excluded frm fficial recrd-keeping? What disclaimers shuld be added t the scial media presence? What infrmatin is my institutin allwed t re-use when it cmes t privacy prtectin r cmpliance with intellectual prperty laws? Hw t ensure that my institutin s scial media use meets requirements fr accessibility f infrmatin and services? 65

68 Issue Skills and resurces Cllabratin and cmmunitybuilding Managing risks f scial media use Mnitring and measuring scial media impacts Questins t be raised and answered What human resurces are available r can be mbilized t achieve sustainable impacts? Are scial media skills addressed by wider (digital) skills strategies at my institutin r gvernment? Hw are scial media expenses accunted fr? Can they be extracted frm verall cmmunicatins expenses in rder t calculate specific csts? D gvernment cmmunities exist where I can exchange scial media experiences? What crdinatin r cllabratin mechanisms wuld help my institutin understand and maximize the impact f scial media? Hw damaging wuld reputatinal risks be fr my institutin? Des my institutin need t wrry abut unintentinal disclsure f infrmatin? What share f civil servants uses scial media in their persnal capacity? Are scial media risks addressed by verarching strategies fr managing risks in my institutin r gvernment? Hw advanced are my scial media indicatrs? What d they actually measure: presence, ppularity, penetratin, perceptin r purpse? Des my institutin use indicatrs that evaluate the cntributin t actual cre bjectives? What wuld be an ideal set f metrics fr my institutin s use f scial media? What infrmatin surces can I use t mve frm the current indicatrs t an ideal set f purpseriented indicatrs? Indicatrs are needed t accmpany this change but take time t develp. This paper prpses a set f metrics that range frm simple measures f scial media presence and ppularity t indicatrs that mre clsely relate t the missin and purpse f gvernment institutins (see Table 11 earlier). Additinal cntext infrmatin need t cmplement these indicatrs, e.g. infrmatin n natinal plicy pririties and resurces dedicated t scial media (see Table 12). The OECD s analytical wrk in this area has three main bjectives: taking stck, assessing and guiding decisin makers. Bth quantitative and qualitative data is necessary t achieve thse bjectives, albeit t different degrees in each phase (see als Figure 29): Taking stck is mainly driven by empirical analysis as dne in the secnd chapter. The wealth f data and tls t describe Internet and scial media trends is grwing expnentially and much f the Internet-generated data is readily available and can be harmnised fr internatinal cmparisns. Sme qualitative infrmatin is instrumental t understand the cntext in which scial media use takes place. Gvernment surveys such as the ne used here prvide an verview f effrts and resurces dedicated t scial media use. Impact assessments use a mre balanced mix f quantitative and qualitative data. It is imprtant t generate mre empirical infrmatin t analyse whether scial media practices in gvernments cntribute t the cre missin bjectives. But qualitative analysis is very imprtant here t, e.g. t discuss individual gvernment initiatives and study their impacts. This can include cases f using scial media t deliver public services, as well as their use t imprve internal wrkflws and prcesses. Guidance fr gvernments derives frm cmparative benchmarks, pssibly even cmpsite indicatrs. But plicy-relevant guidance is als btained frm targeted case studies that clearly line up the success and risk factrs f selected gd practices. In-depth analyses allw testing the transferability f thse practices t cntext that shw cmparable features, as identified during stck-taking. 66

69 Figure 29. Analytical and data cllectin framewrk fr gvernment use f scial media This framewrk fr the analysis f gvernment use f scial media is relatively flexible. It can be used t analyse and cllect data n scial media use in specific gvernment sectrs, e.g. t expand the discussin f pprtunities and challenges in the healthcare and public emplyment services in Chapter 3. Similarly, the framewrk enables identificatin and analysis f gd scial media practices t transfrm internal gvernment wrkflws. Chapter 3 pinted t ways in which scial media enhance cllabratin and fster prductivity in public sectr institutins. Finally, there is great ptential in applying this framewrk t sub-natinal levels f gvernment. Reginal and municipal authrities are the places where citizens mst frequently interact with the state, and it is als where a lt f scial media innvatin takes place. At the same time, budget and ther pressures t becme mre effective and efficient are prbably hardest felt at thse levels. This increases the need fr slid value prpsitins and gd practices that can be transferred t this part f gvernment. 67


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