Report for the Food Standards Agency. Nutrition and Public Health Intervention Research Unit London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

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1 Cmparisn f cmpsitin (nutrients and ther substances) f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs: a systematic review f the available literature Reprt fr the Fd Standards Agency Nutritin and Public Health Interventin Research Unit Lndn Schl f Hygiene & Trpical Medicine Cntract number: PAU221 Submissin date: July 2009 Review authrs: Dr. Alan Dangur (lead) Ms. Sakhi Ddhia Ms. Arabella Hayter Ms. Andrea Aikenhead Dr. Elizabeth Allen Dr. Karen Lck Prfessr Ricard Uauy

2 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs There is currently n independent authritative statement n the nature and imprtance f differences in cntent f nutrients and ther nutritinally relevant substances (nutrients and ther substances) in rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs. This systematic review f the available published literature was designed t seek t determine the size and relevance t health f any differences in cntent f nutrients and ther substances in rganically and cnventinally prduced crps and livestck prducts. This review des nt address cntaminant cntent (such as herbicide, pesticide and fungicide residues) f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs r the envirnmental impacts f rganic and cnventinal agricultural practices. The systematic review search prcess identified 162 relevant articles published, with an English abstract, in peer-reviewed jurnals since 1 st January 1958 until 29 th February A ttal f 3558 cmparisns f cntent f nutrients and ther substances in rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs were etracted fr analysis. Articles included in the review were assessed fr study quality (satisfactry quality studies prvided clear statements n material and nutrients analysed, labratry and statistical methds and a clear definitin f rganic agricultural practices), and ne third f all studies (n=55; 34%) met the pre-defined satisfactry quality criteria. Analysis was cnducted n nutrients r nutrient grups fr which numeric data were prvided in at least 10 f the 137 crp studies identified by the review. In analysis including all studies (independent f quality), n evidence f a difference in cntent was detected between rganically and cnventinally prduced crps fr the fllwing nutrients and ther substances: vitamin C, calcium, phsphrus, ptassium, ttal sluble slids, titratable acidity, cpper, irn, nitrates, manganese, ash, specific prteins, sdium, plant nn-digestible carbhydrates, β-cartene and sulphur. Significant differences in cntent between rganically and cnventinally prduced crps were fund in sme minerals (nitrgen higher in cnventinal crps; magnesium and zinc higher in rganic crps), phytchemicals (phenlic cmpunds and flavnids higher in rganic crps) and sugars (higher in rganic crps). In analysis restricted t satisfactry quality studies, significant differences in cntent between rganically and cnventinally prduced crps were fund nly in nitrgen cntent (higher in cnventinal crps), phsphrus (higher in rganic crps) and titratable acidity (higher in rganic crps). 1

3 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs Analysis f differences in cntent f nutrients and ther substances in livestck prducts (meat, dairy, eggs) was mre limited given the smaller evidence base. Analysis was cnducted n nutrients r nutrient grups fr which numeric data were prvided in at least 5 f the 25 livestck prduct studies identified by the review. In analysis including all studies (independent f quality), n evidence f a difference in cntent was detected between rganically and cnventinally prduced livestck prducts fr the fllwing nutrients and ther substances: saturated fatty acids, mnunsaturated fatty acids (cis), n- 6 plyunsaturated fatty acids, fats (unspecified), n-3 plyunsaturated fatty acids, nitrgen and ash. Significant differences in cntent between rganically and cnventinally prduced livestck prducts were fund in sme fats (plyunsaturated fatty acids [unspecified], trans fatty acids and fatty acids [unspecified] higher in rganic livestck prducts). In analysis restricted t satisfactry quality studies, significant differences in cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced livestck prducts were fund nly in nitrgen cntent (higher in rganic livestck prducts). N evidence f a difference in cntent f nutrients and ther substances between rganically and cnventinally prduced crps and livestck prducts was detected fr the majrity f nutrients assessed in this review suggesting that rganically and cnventinally prduced crps and livestck prducts are bradly cmparable in their nutrient cntent. The differences detected in cntent f nutrients and ther substances between rganically and cnventinally prduced crps and livestck prducts are bilgically plausible and mst likely relate t differences in crp r animal management, and sil quality. It shuld be nted that these cnclusins relate t the evidence base currently available, which cntains limitatins in the design and in the cmparability f studies. There is n gd evidence that increased dietary intake, f the nutrients identified in this review t be present in larger amunts in rganically than in cnventinally prduced crps and livestck prducts, wuld be f benefit t individuals cnsuming a nrmal varied diet, and it is therefre unlikely that these differences in nutrient cntent are relevant t cnsumer health. 2

4 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs 2.0 CONTENTS 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CONTENTS INTRODUCTION METHODS Review prcess Search strategy Study designs Publicatin selectin Data etractin Study quality Nutrients and ther substances Data analysis RESULTS Search results Evidence base fr analysis Study quality Cmparisn f cntent f nutrients and ther substances in crps Cmparisn f cntent f nutrients and ther substances in livestck prducts DISCUSSION Review prcess Study quality Findings frm crp studies Minerals Overall summary fr mineral differences in crps Phytchemicals Overall summary fr phytchemical differences in crps Other Findings frm livestck prducts studies Minerals Fats Review limitatins CONCLUSION REFERENCES

5 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs List f Appendices Appendi 1 Nutrient and Other Substances Search Terms Appendi 2 Fields Used t Recrd Data frm Crp Studies Appendi 3 Fields Used t Recrd Data frm Livestck Prduct Studies Appendi 4 Nutrient Categries in Crp Studies Appendi 5 Nutrient Categries in Livestck Prduct Studies Appendi 6 Ecluded and Unbtainable Studies Appendi 7 Studies Included in Review Appendi 8 Abstracts f Included Studies Appendi 9 Quality Criteria in Included Studies Appendi 10 Frequency f Numeric Nutrient Cmparisns in Crp Studies Appendi 11 Frequency f Numeric Nutrient Cmparisns in Livestck Prduct Studies Appendi 12 Individual Nutrient Cmparisns fr Crp studies Appendi 13 Individual Nutrient Cmparisns fr Livestck Prduct Studies Appendi 14 Included and Ecluded Nutrient Cmparisns frm Crps Studies Appendi 15 Included and Ecluded Nutrient Cmparisn frm Livestck Prduct Studies 4

6 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs 3.0 INTRODUCTION Currently there is uncertainty abut the degree f difference in nutrient cmpsitin between cnventinally and rganically prduced fdstuffs. Organic fdstuffs are thse that are prduced accrding t specified standards which, amng ther things, cntrl the use f chemicals and medicines in crp and animal prductin, and emphasise prtectin f the envirnment. Recently published nn-systematic reviews cmparing nutrient cmpsitin f rganically and cnventinally prduced fds have cme t cntrasting cnclusins. Sme have reprted that rganically prduced fdstuffs have higher nutrient cntent than cnventinally prduced fdstuffs (1-3), while ther reviews have cncluded that there were n cnsistent differences in nutrient cntent between prductin methd (4, 5). The glbal demand fr rganically prduced fd is rising. In 2007 the rganic fd market in the UK was estimated t be wrth ver 2 billin an increase f 22% since 2005 (6). The UK rganic market is nw the third largest in Eurpe after Germany and Italy. Fruit and vegetables cmprise the largest sectr f rganic fds in the UK, clsely fllwed by dairy prducts. The shift in demand amng cnsumers frm cnventinally t rganically prduced fdstuffs appears t have arisen at least in part frm a belief that rganically prduced fdstuffs are healthier (7-10) and have a superir nutrient prfile (11, 12) than cnventinally prduced fdstuffs. T date, there has been n eplicitly systematic review f the available literature n this tpic. In cntrast t nn-systematic reviews which can be biased and incmplete, the prime purpse f systematic reviews f literature is t prvide a cmprehensive display f all available evidence in a cmmn frmat. Systematic reviews have clear principles fr their cnduct. First, the prcess f the review shuld be carried ut accrding t a prespecified methd. Secnd, the prpsed methd shuld be pen t public scrutiny and peer review. Third, the review shuld be cmprehensive within its pre-specified criteria. A systematic apprach ffers clear advantages in terms f reducing bias, where fr instance inclusin r eclusin f studies may be influenced by precnceived ideas f the investigatrs. Systematic reviews cannt imprve the quality f published data, but can prvide details f the characteristics and quality f studies. All natural prducts vary in their cmpsitin f nutrients and ther nutritinally relevant substances depending n a wide range f factrs (13). Different varieties f the same 5

7 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs crp may differ in nutrient cmpsitin, and their nutrient cntent may als vary with fertiliser regime, grwing cnditins and seasn (amng ther things). Similarly, the nutrient cmpsitin f meat, milk and eggs is affected by several factrs including age and breed f the animal, feeding regime and seasn. This inherent variability in nutrient cntent may then be further increased during the strage, transprtatin and preparatin f the fdstuffs prir t reaching the plate f the cnsumer. An understanding f the varius factrs that affect nutrient variability in crps and livestck prducts is imprtant fr the design and interpretatin f research in this area, and it shuld als serve t identify critical gaps in ur knwledge and thus the intrinsic limitatins f any analysis. An intuitive cnceptual framewrk highlighting sme f the factrs that cntribute t the variability in nutrient cntent in crps, livestck prducts and prcessed fds is presented in Figure 1. Given the large and increasing demand fr rganic fdstuffs in the UK and elsewhere, an up-t-date bjective independent statement n the nutrient and ther nutritinally relevant substance cmpsitin f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs is needed fr bth public plicy and cnsumer advice. The aim f this reprt is t systematically review and cmpare the cmpsitin f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs, fcusing nly n nutrients and ther nutritinally relevant substances (nutrients and ther substances). This review specifically des nt address cntaminant cntent (such as herbicide, pesticide and fungicide residues) f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs r the envirnmental impacts f rganic and cnventinal agricultural practices. 6

8 Figure 1: Cnceptual framewrk utlining factrs affecting nutrient variability Crps Cultivar, Perid f agricultural practice n crp, Gegraphic rigin f seed sample Perid f agricultural practice n sil, Sil type, Sil misture, Sil nutrient cntent, Sil fertility Tilling methd Sil Characteristics Seed Input Length f fallw, Previus crp Sil Histry Irrigatin/water, Type & amunt f fertilisers, Pest & Weed cntrl, Length f grwing seasn, Time f planting/harvest, Methd f harvesting, Climate Crp Inputs (cntrllable) Nutrient Variability f Fd Prduce Lcatin, Weather, Seasn, Pllutin Crp Inputs (uncntrllable) Age at which picked, Transprtatin Type & duratin f strage Prcessing, preparatin &, Packaging Testing f Crp Crp Handling Surce f samples, Sample size, Age at which tested, Dry weight/ fresh, Mde f sampling, Methd f analysis, Which nutrients tested Livestck Species, Breed, Se, Age, Nature f hldings Animal Characteristics & Origins Type, Cmpsitin, Grazing, Nutrient density in feed Feeding Practices Care f Animals Livestck farming system, Herd management Weaning, Fattening perid, Final weight Meat Handling Testing f Meat Age at slaughter Methd f slaughter, Prcessing, preparatin & transprtatin Strage f meat N. f samples tested, Strage f sample, Age f meat at testing, Cut f meat, Mde f sampling Methd f analysis, Which nutrients tested Cking - methd - temperature - length Cutting, Which part used, Milling, Blanching, Liquefying, Pureeing Age at which tested Age at which eaten Degradatin Testing Methd f testing, Mde f sampling, Methd f analysis, Which nutrients tested, N. f samples tested Bacterial, Viral, Fungal Refrigeratin, Freezing, Irradiatin, High pressure fd preservatin, Drying, Smking, Curing, Freeze-drying, Biling, Pickling, Salting, Sugar, Fermenting, Emulsificatin, Pasteurisatin, Hmgenisatin, Carbnatin, Hydrgenatin, Nantechnlgy, Pulsed electrical field prcessing Preparatin Preservatin Vacuum packing, Inductin sealing, Canning Packaging Nutrient Variability f Fd n the Plate Health Effects f Fd Envirnmental epsures Cntaminatin Additins t fd Heat, Light, Humidity Preservatives Additives, Natural acids, Cluring agents, Flavur enhancers, Emulsifiers, Stabilisers, Raising Agents, Frtificants 7

9 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs 4.0 METHODS 4.1 Review prcess In line with accepted guidelines, the review prcess was initiated by the preparatin f a prtcl which pre-specified the methd t be used fr the cnduct f the review. The prtcl was reviewed by an independent review panel. The review panel cmprised a subject epert, Dr. Julie Lvegrve (University f Reading), and a public health clinician with systematic review epertise, Prfessr Martin Wiseman (Wrld Cancer Research Fund Internatinal and University f Suthamptn). The review panel prvided feedback n the prtcl which was incrprated int a final versin, psted n-line n 18 th April 2008 at Relevant subject eperts and eternal bdies were alerted t the review prcess and the availability f the review prtcl. A draft f the final reprt was reviewed and apprved by the independent review panel. 4.2 Search strategy Search strategies were develped with PubMed using Medical Subject Heading [MeSH] and title abstract [tiab] terms t identify relevant epsures (rganic vs. cnventinal prductin methds) and utcmes (cmpsitin f nutrient and ther substances). The epsure terms searched (including all MeSH, headings, subheadings and tiab terms) were rganic, health fd, cnventinal cmbined with fd, agricultural crp, livestck, agriculture. These were cmbined with a list f utcme terms fr nutrients and ther substances (see Appendi 1), mdified frm the Wrld Cancer Research Fund specificatin manual (14). Multi-database searching was used t ensure cmprehensive article retrieval. Searches were cnducted in PubMed, ISI Web f Science and CAB Abstracts 1. The search perid cvered 50 years, frm 1 st January 1958 until 29 th February All languages were included in the searches but nly publicatins with an English abstract were cnsidered fr inclusin in the review. Hand searching f the reference lists f studies included in the review was cnducted t check the cmpleteness f initial electrnic searches. In-press articles were identified by direct cntact with key authrs. Frty authrs were cntacted by ; we received 29 respnses and 36 papers as a result f this crrespndence. 1 The prtcl prpsed the use f 13 databases fr the search. Upn clser inspectin it was decided that the cntent f 10 f the databases were nt directly related t this review. 2 Fifty years was deemed an apprpriate time perid within which t retrieve all relevant literature. 8

10 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs 4.3 Study designs We identified three main study types fr inclusin in the review: Field trials Cmparisns between samples riginating frm rganic and cnventinal agricultural methds n adjacent parcels f land (fields). Strengths: adjacent land minimises variability between samples, greater cntrl ver agricultural inputs. Weaknesses: epensive t cnduct, time-cnsuming (especially if sil must g thrugh a cnversin perid). Farm surveys Cmparisns f samples riginating frm rganic and cnventinal farms which may be matched fr selected variables. Strengths: makes use f eisting agricultural infrastructure, large samples available. Weaknesses: multiple farm sites intrduce variability. Basket surveys Cmparisns f samples f rganically and cnventinally prduced fd as available t the cnsumer frm retail utlets. Strengths: inepensive t cnduct, quick. Weaknesses: n means f determining details f farming methds, little cmparability between samples. 4.4 Publicatin selectin The titles and abstracts f all papers identified in the search prcess were assessed fr relevance by tw reviewers. Grey literature such as dissertatins, cnference prceedings (including peer-reviewed abstracts) and reprts were ecluded. Relevant in-press articles were reprted in the review but ecluded frm the analysis. The full tets f all ptentially relevant articles were retrieved and assessed fr inclusin in duplicate by tw independent reviewers. Articles were ecluded if they: - were nt peer-reviewed - did nt have an English abstract - did nt address cmpsitin f nutrients and ther substances - did nt present a direct cmparisn between rganic and cnventinal prductin systems - were primarily cncerned with impact f different fertiliser regimes 9

11 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs - were primarily cncerned with nn-nutrient cntaminant cntent (cadmium, lead and mercury) - were authenticatin studies describing techniques t identify fd prductin methds. 4.5 Data etractin Data were etracted int separate databases fr studies reprting n crps and livestck prducts (including meat, milk and eggs). Etracted data included all relevant infrmatin n study characteristics, methds and results. Data n factrs utlined in the cnceptual framewrk n nutrient variability (Figure 1) were als etracted when available. Fr the first 10 included articles, data etractin was perfrmed in duplicate by tw independent reviewers. Etracted data were cmpared and any incnsistencies nted and crrected as necessary. Fr the remaining articles, ne reviewer entered the data and anther checked all entries; any differences were discussed and a cnsensus agreed. The same tw reviewers cmpleted the entire data etractin prcess. See Appendices 2 and 3 respectively fr a descriptin f data etractin fields fr crp and livestck prduct studies. 4.6 Study quality Study quality was categrised based n cncrdance with five fundamental factrs which were defined a priri as essential t answer the research questin (i.e. cmparisn f nutrient and ther substance cmpsitin f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs). Study quality was gruped int tw categries: satisfactry quality and unsatisfactry quality. Satisfactry quality publicatins prvided the fllwing: - a clear definitin, in the Intrductin r Methds sectin f the paper, f the rganic prductin methds f the crp r livestck prduct analysed (including the name f any certifying bdy) - specificatin f the cultivar f crp, r breed f livestck - a statement f which nutrient(s) and ther substance(s) were assessed fr cntent - a descriptin f the labratry analytical methds used t test fr the cntent f the named nutrients and ther substances - a statement f the statistical methds used fr data analyses. Unsatisfactry quality publicatins were thse that d nt specify all f the abve. 10

12 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs 4.7 Nutrients and ther substances The publicatins included in the review reprted chemical analyses n 100 distinct fdstuffs and presented data n 455 nutrients and ther substances. Statistical analysis by fdstuff was impractical given the large array f different fds (and cultivars/breeds) presented in included publicatins. The review team therefre decided t facilitate analysis and interpretatin f the available infrmatin by categrising the nutrients and ther substances reprted int nutrient grups r families. In sme instances, such as minerals (e.g. zinc, magnesium etc.), analysis was cnducted n the nutrient as reprted. Hwever, in ther instances where this was nt pssible, the nutrients and ther substances were categrised as fllws: - cgnate grups i.e. the vitamin C grup was frmed frm the amalgamatin f the fllwing nutrients as described in the respective publicatins: vitamin C, ascrbic acid, dehydrascrbic acid, ttal vitamin C, ascrbate, dehydrascrbate - bilgical activity grups i.e. the antiidant activity grup was frmed frm the amalgamatin f the fllwing variables as described in the respective publicatins: antiidant activity, ttal antiidant activity, hydrphilic antiidant activity, antiidant capacity, relative antiidant activity, ttal radical scavenging ability, lipphilic antiidant activity - methd f analysis grups i.e. the nitrgen grup was frmed frm the amalgamatin f reprts f nutrients whse cntent was assessed using a labratry methd reliant n estimatin f nitrgen cntent reprted in the respective publicatins as: crude prtein, prtein, nitrgen, ttal nitrgen, prtein nitrgen, true prtein. The full list f nutrient grups and their cnstituent nutrients is reprted in Appendi 4 fr crp studies and in Appendi 5 fr livestck prduct studies. 4.8 Data analysis Cmparisns f the cntent f nutrient and ther substances available fr analysis in this review derive frm publicatins that differ in their study types, test fdstuffs and unit f measurement. Fr eample, calcium was measured in crp studies with the fllwing designs: field trials, farm studies, basket surveys and cmbinatin designs; n the fllwing crps: apple, banana, beetrt, cabbage, carrt, celeriac, grapefruit, kiwifruit, mandarin, at, nin, pea, pear, plum, ptat, pumpkin, rice, rye, savury herb, strawberry, sweet pepper, sweet ptat, sweet crn, tmat, wheat; 11

13 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs and reprted in the fllwing units: % dry weight, parts per millin (ppm), μg g ¹, mml kg ¹, mg 100g ¹, mg kg ¹, mg L ¹, g kg ¹. Frmal meta-analysis was nt attempted due t the marked hetergeneity f study designs and utcme measures amng the included studies. In rder t eamine differences between rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs in cntent f nutrients and ther substances we therefre calculated the difference in the cntent reprted, and epressed it as a percentage f the cntent in the cnventinally prduced fdstuffs, as fllws: ( Cntent f nutrient in rganically prduced fdstuff Cntent f nutrient in cnventinally prduced fdstuff ) Cntent f nutrient in cnventinally prduced fdstuff This gave us the percentage f the nutrients and ther substances fund in the rganically prduced fdstuff abve r belw that fund in the cnventinally prduced fdstuff, and enabled us t cmbine results frm different studies fr statistical analysis. Psitive differences suggested that there might be mre f particular nutrients and ther substances in rganically prduced fdstuffs, negative differences suggested that there might be mre f particular nutrients and ther substances in cnventinally prduced fdstuffs. We represented the differences n dt plts by study type, mitting etreme values (defined as values where the abslute difference frm the net largest value was at least 1 standard deviatin). It is imprtant t nte that given the differences in the design f studies included in each analysis, the percent difference values are nt translatable int specific nutrient differences. 100% We used t-tests with rbust standard errrs (t accunt fr clustering caused by multiple nutrient cmparisns within studies) t test the null hypthesis f n evidence f a difference between rganically and cnventinally prduced fd in cntent f nutrients and ther substances. P-values were calculated t determine the significance f bserved differences; p-values f less than 0.05 were used as a basis fr evidence f significant differences between rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs. It shuld be nted that a large number f statistical tests were undertaken which increases the pssibility f finding a significant difference where there is in fact n evidence f a difference between rganically and cnventinally prduced fd in cntent f nutrients and ther substances. 12

14 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs T cnvey the ttality f evidence, primary analysis was based n all included studies. A subsequent analysis nly cnsidered satisfactry quality studies. Statistical analysis was cnducted separately fr crps and livestck prducts. A number f studies included in the review reprted sme (n=11) r all (n=24) relevant data nly in graphical frmat; nly numeric data were etracted fr use in analysis. 13

15 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs 5.0 RESULTS 5.1 Search results The literature searches yielded 52,471 citatins. Of these, 292 articles were identified as ptentially relevant. Full cpies f 281 f these papers were btained; full cpies f 6 (2%) ptentially eligible publicatins and 5 (2%) f unknwn eligibility (unknwn peer review status) were unbtainable despite numerus attempts. Eaminatin f full tets resulted in the eclusin f 145 studies fr a variety f reasns including absence f peer review, n relevant utcme measure and lack f direct cmparisn f rganic vs. ther agricultural prductin methd (see Appendi 6). A further 15 relevant papers were identified via hand searching f reference lists, and 11 relevant papers were identified by direct authr cntact. A ttal f 162 publicatins (60 field trials, 76 farm surveys, 23 basket surveys and 3 cmbinatin designs) were identified and included in the review (see Figure 2). Of the included publicatins, 137 reprted n the cmpsitin f crps and 25 reprted n the cmpsitin f livestck prducts. The list f publicatins included in this review is prvided in Appendi 7, and their abstracts are prvided in Appendi 8. Figure 2: Flw chart f study selectin prcess Initial Search N = Additinal studies identified N = 26 Reference lists 15 Cntact with authrs 11 Included (Step 1) N = 292 Ecluded (Step 1) N = Ecluded (Step 2) N = 145 Nt peer reviewed 44 N relevant utcme 36 N direct cmparisn f rganic vs. cnventinal 46 Authenticatin paper 11 Fertiliser study 6 Review 2 Unbtainable paper N = 11 Ptentially relevant 6 Unknwn eligibility 5 Included (Step 2) N = 162 Field trials 60 Farm surveys 76 Basket surveys 23 Cmbined 3 (Step 1) number f articles included/ecluded after viewing title and abstract (Step 2) number f articles included/ecluded after reading full tet 14

16 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs Within the studies included in the review, there was a ntable increase in the number f relevant papers published in the past 10 years (see Figure 3), and 120 (74%) f the papers were published after January Figure 3: Distributin f publicatins included in the review by study type and year Number f Studies Field Farm Basket 10 0 < Year 5.2 Evidence base fr analysis In ttal we etracted 3558 nutrient cntent cmparisns frm 162 studies (3089 frm 137 crp studies, 469 frm 25 livestck prduct studies) which cmpared nutrient cntent in rganically with cnventinally prduced fdstuffs. 5.3 Study quality The 162 studies included in the review were assessed t determine whether they met the quality criteria. All studies (100%) stated which nutrients were analysed, and nearly all studies (99%) stated the labratry methds used fr the analyses. Fewer studies (86%) stated the methds used fr statistical analysis, and ne in five studies (20%) failed t state which plant cultivar r livestck breed was used fr analysis. Finally, mre than half the studies in the review (54%) failed t prvide a clear definitin f the rganic prductin methds used (we required a statement f certifying bdy, althugh if n certifying bdy ear></dates><urls></urls></recrd></cite></endnte> (16). The differential use f cides and fus final quality criterin, largely due t the general lack f certifying bdies at that time, althugh even recent studies ften failed t state the name f the rganic 15

17 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs prductin certifying bdy. In ttal, ne third f studies included in the review (34%) met the pre-defined quality criteria (see Table 1). Infrmatin n the quality f each study included in the review is prvided in Appendi 9. Table 1: Number f studies included in the review meeting quality criteria Criterin N % Nutrients analysed Labratry methds Statistical methds Cultivar/ breed Definitin f rganic Satisfactry Quality Cmparisn f cntent f nutrients and ther substances in crps Analysis was cnducted n all nutrients r nutrient grups fr which numeric data were prvided in at least 10 f the 137 crp studies that reprted cmparisns between rganic and cnventinal crps (see Appendi 10). The fllwing 23 nutrients and ther substances met this criterin (listed in rder f number f studies reprting cmparisns): nitrgen, vitamin C, phenlic cmpunds, magnesium, calcium, phsphrus, ptassium, zinc, ttal sluble slids, titratable acidity 3, cpper, flavnids, irn, sugars, nitrates, manganese, ash, dry matter, specific prteins, sdium, plant nn-digestible carbhydrates, β-cartene and sulphur. Given the reasnable amunt f available data, and the hazards f cnducting analyses n small datasets, it was deemed inapprpriate t cnduct analyses n nutrients r nutrient grups which were nly reprted in a small number f studies. Details f included studies, crps analysed, labratry methds and units f measurement, and dt plts f results, are presented by nutrient categry in Appendi 12. Analyses ecluded etreme utliers and graphically reprted data (listed in Appendi 14). Summary results f the analysis cmparing the cntent f nutrients and ther substances frm rganically and cnventinally prduced crps are presented in Table 2 (results 3 Titratable acidity measures the ttal amunt f prtns available in a slutin, prviding an apprimate measure fr the cncentratin f acidity. 16

18 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs presented fr all studies and fr satisfactry quality studies separately). The analyses cmparing all available data suggest that there is n evidence f a difference between rganically and cnventinally prduced crps in their cntent f 16 f the 23 nutrient categries analysed: vitamin C, calcium, phsphrus, ptassium, ttal sluble slids, titratable acidity, cpper, irn, nitrates, manganese, ash, specific prteins, sdium, plant nn-digestible carbhydrates, β-cartene and sulphur. Cnventinally prduced crps were fund t have significantly higher levels f nitrgen than rganically prduced crps. Organically prduced crps were fund t have significantly higher levels f sugars, magnesium, zinc, dry matter, phenlic cmpunds and flavnids than cnventinally prduced crps. Analysis including data nly frm satisfactry quality studies fund n evidence f a difference in cntent fr 20 f the 23 nutrient categries analysed. In these analyses, cnventinally prduced crps were fund t have significantly higher levels f nitrgen than rganically prduced crps, while rganically prduced crps were fund t have significantly higher levels f phsphrus and higher titratable acidity than cnventinally prduced crps. 5.5 Cmparisn f cntent f nutrients and ther substances in livestck prducts The small number f livestck prduct studies identified in the review necessitated the use f mre mdest criteria fr nutrient selectin. Analysis was cnducted n all nutrients r nutrient grups fr which numeric data were prvided in at least 5 f the 25 livestck prduct studies which reprted cmparisns between rganic and cnventinal livestck prducts (see Appendi 11). The fllwing 10 nutrients and ther substances met these criteria (listed in rder f number f studies reprting cmparisns): saturated fatty acids, mnunsaturated fatty acids (cis), n-6 plyunsaturated fatty acids, fats (unspecified), n-3 plyunsaturated fatty acids, plyunsaturated fatty acids (unspecified), trans fatty acids, nitrgen, fatty acids (unspecified) and ash. Details f included studies, livestck prducts analysed, labratry methds and units f measurement, and dt plts f results, are presented by nutrient categry in Appendi 13. Analyses ecluded etreme utliers and graphically reprted data (listed in Appendi 15). Summary results f the analysis cmparing the cntent f nutrients and ther substances frm rganically and cnventinally prduced livestck prducts are presented in Table 3 (results presented fr all studies and fr satisfactry quality studies separately). The 17

19 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs analyses cmparing all available data suggest that there is n evidence f a difference between rganically and cnventinally prduced livestck prducts in their cntent f 7 f the 10 nutrient categries analysed: saturated fatty acids, mnunsaturated fatty acids (cis), n-6 plyunsaturated fatty acids, fats (unspecified), n-3 plyunsaturated fatty acids, nitrgen and ash. Organically prduced livestck prducts were fund t have significantly higher levels f plyunsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids and fatty acids (unspecified) than cnventinally prduced livestck prducts. In analysis including data nly frm satisfactry quality studies, there was ne nutrient and ther substance that differed significantly in its cntent between rganically and cnventinally prduced livestck prducts. In these analyses, rganically prduced livestck prducts were fund t have significantly higher levels f nitrgen than cnventinally prduced livestck prducts. 18

20 Nutrient cntent f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs Table 2: Cmparisn f cntent f nutrients and ther substances in rganically and cnventinally prduced crps 1 All Studies Satisfactry Quality Studies Only Nutrient categry Studies (n) Cmparisns (n) Statistically higher levels in Studies (n) Cmparisns (n) Statistically higher levels in Nitrgen Cnventinal Cnventinal Vitamin C N difference N difference Phenlic cmpunds Organic N difference Magnesium Organic N difference Calcium N difference N difference Phsphrus N difference Organic Ptassium N difference N difference Zinc Organic N difference Ttal sluble slids N difference N difference Titratable acidity N difference Organic Cpper N difference N difference Flavnids Organic 4 48 N difference Irn N difference 8 25 N difference Sugars Organic 7 32 N difference Nitrates N difference 7 23 N difference Manganese N difference 9 29 N difference Ash N difference 5 22 N difference Dry matter Organic 2 2 N difference Specific prteins N difference 7 43 N difference Sdium N difference 6 17 N difference Plant nn-digestible carbhydrates N difference 3 18 N difference β-cartene N difference 3 9 N difference Sulphur N difference 6 17 N difference 1 Standardised percentage difference and rbust standard errr are presented in Appendi 12 19

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