How to use Moodle 2.7. Teacher s Manual for the world s most popular LMS. Jaswinder Singh

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1 Teacher s Manual fr the wrld s mst ppular LMS Jaswinder Singh

2 Hw t Use Mdle 2.7 2

3 Hw t use Mdle 2.7, 1 st Editin Teacher s Manual fr the wrld s mst ppular LMS Jaswinder Singh 3

4 This bk is dedicated t my whle family & friends wh kept their cmplete belief in me and my capabilities and helped me t becme a gd human being. 4

5 Table f cntents Table f cntents... 5 Preface Chapter 1: Intrductin What Is a Learning Management System? What Makes Mdle Special? Summary Chapter 2: Hw can I use Mdle What Is a Learning Envirnment? Curse Design Patterns Summary Chapter 3: Mdle Basics Getting Started Creating an Accunt A First Lk at a Curse Adding cntent t the curse: Summary Chapter 4: Managing Cntent in Mdle Adding Cntent t Mdle Managing and updating yur cntent Effective Cntent Practices Summary Chapter 5: Managing Yur Class Understanding and Using Rles: Mdle's Default rles descriptin Assigning Rles in Yur Curse:

6 Remving Students Temprarily Suspending a User Accunt Managing Enrllment Methds fr yur curse Capabilities and Permissins Override Permissins Student Grups Backup and Restre Restre a curse Reprts Summary Chapter 6: Using Mdle Text Editrs Mdle Text Editrs Att HTML editr Equatin editr TinyMCE Editr File Picker File Repsitries Summary Chapter 7: Chat, Messaging and frums Chat Messaging Frums Summary Chapter 8: Quizzes and Questin Bank Standard Questin Types Creative Quiz Strategies Hw t Create a Quiz Managing Quizzes Quiz Capabilities Effective Quiz Practices Quiz Security and Cheating Summary

7 Chapter 9: Assignments Assignment Types: Adding an Assignment activity Assignment capabilities Managing Assignment Submissins Grading Assignment Submissins Effective assignment practices Creative Assignment Practices Summary Chapter 10: Wrkshp Wrkshp phases Adding a new wrkshp activity Using Wrkshp Activity Grading a Wrkshp Activity Wrkshp Capabilities Summary Chapter 11: Glssaries Creative Glssary Uses Creating Glssaries Using Glssary Glssary Categries Autlinking Imprting and Exprting Cmmenting n Entries Printing a glssary Glssary Capabilities Effective Glssary Practices Summary Chapter 12: Lessn Creating a Lessn Activity Building Lessn Planning yur lessn

8 Adding cntent and questins t yur lessn Mving yur lessn frward Ending yur lessn Managing Lessns Lessn capabilities Effective Lessn Practices Creative Lessn uses Summary Chapter 13: Wikis Creating Wikis Creating first page f yur wiki Editing Wiki activity Wiki capabilities Effective Wiki practices Creative wiki practices Summary Chapter 14: Blgs Using Blgs Blg Tags Blg Capabilities Effective Blg Practices Creative Blg Practices Summary Chapter 15: Database Creating Database Adding a database Building Database Editing Templates Add template Managing Databases Database Presets Database activity capabilities

9 Effective database practice Creative Database Practices Summary Chapter 16: Surveys, Chices and Feedback Surveys Chice Activity Feedback Managing Feedback: Feedback Templates: Feedback Capabilities: Summary Chapter 17: SCORM & External Tl (LTI) SCORM Packages External Tls (LTI) Summary Chapter 18: Grades and Scales Grades Interface Editing Set Preferences Grade Categries Grade calculatins Grade letters Student Grade View Scales Using scales Creative Grade Uses Scale Practices Chapter 19: Mdle Administratin Ntificatins Registratins Advanced Features Users

10 Curses Grades Badges Lcatin Language Plugins Security Appearance Frnt Page: Server Reprts Develpment Assignment Upgrade Helper

11 Preface What is Mdle Mdle is an pen surce Learning Management System (LMS) that universities, cmmunity clleges, K 12 schls, businesses, and even individual instructrs use t add web technlgy t their curses. Mre than 30,000 educatinal rganizatins arund the wrld currently use Mdle t deliver nline curses and t supplement traditinal face-t-face curses. Mdle is available fr free n the Web (http://www.mdle.rg), s anyne can dwnlad and install it. Mre n that later in this preface. The name Mdle has tw meanings. First, it s an acrnym (what isn t these days?) fr Mdular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Envirnment. Mdle is als a verb that describes the prcess f lazily meandering thrugh smething, ding things as it ccurs t yu t d them, an enjyable tinkering that ften leads t insight and creativity. Mdle was created by Martin Dugiamas, a cmputer scientist and educatr wh spent time supprting a LMS at a university in Perth, Australia. He grew frustrated with the system and learned that engineers, nt educatrs, had built it. Martin realized that a system built by smene wh started with the educatinal prcess, rather than an engineering prcess, wuld be infinitely better than what he had t wrk with. He put his pstgraduate degrees in Educatin and Cmputer Science t wrk and started develping Mdle as an alternative. Martin nw wrks n Mdle full-time. A cmmunity f dedicated pen surce develpers frm arund the wrld wrk with him in a cllabrative effrt t make Mdle the best LMS available. Martin lives in Australia with his wife, daughter, and sn. Wh Is This Bk Fr? This bk is fr peple wh want t teach a curse using Mdle. Yu can use Mdle t teach a fully nline curse r t supplement a face-t-face curse in a traditinal setting. It desn t matter if yu teach at a primary schl, a secndary schl, in higher educatin, r in a crprate setting; yu can use the tls and features available in Mdle t create an effective class. Prerequisites What D Yu Need Befre Yu Start? T use this bk, yu will need the fllwing: Mdle installed and cnfigured n a server. Yu can dwnlad Mdle via and can find installatin instructins in the Mdle dcumentatin at OR Yu can als install Mdle n yur persnal cmputer by first dwnlading the latest Mdle release frm https://dwnlad.mdle.rg/releases/latest/ and then installing it as per the fllwing instructins: 11

12 Mdle n windws: https://dcs.mdle.rg/27/en/windws_installatin_using_xampp Cmplete Installatin package: https://dcs.mdle.rg/27/en/cmplete_install_packages_fr_win dws Mdle n MAC: https://dcs.mdle.rg/27/en/step_by_step_installatin_n_a_m ac_os_x_server Mdle n Mac OS X server: A cmputer with Internet access. Latest web brwser such as Internet Explrer 9 r abve, Mzilla Firefx 25 r abve, Ggle Chrme 30 r abve, r Safari 6 r abve. Teacher access t a curse n Mdle, r administratr access t the Mdle site. Hw t Use This Bk This bk is written fr instructrs learning hw t use Mdle. It s nt just a hw-t manual, hwever. Using Mdle wn t make yur curse better by itself. Only by applying effective educatinal practices can yu truly leverage the pwer f Mdle. The Mdle interface can be custmized a great deal. The descriptins and screenshts in this bk illustrate the default interface withut any custmizatin. If yu have changed the rder f the blcks in yur curse r if the system administratr has changed the lk and feel f the main interface, yur system will lk different frm the screenshts here. Chapter 1 discusses what Learning Management Systems have t ffer and what features makes Mdle special fr elearning. Chapter 2 gets us started using Mdle. We ll sign up fr an accunt, review the basic interface, get used t sme f the cnventins, and start a curse. Chapter 3 cvers hw t add static cntent (named as resurce in Mdle) t yur curse. 12

13 Chapter 4 delves int Learning Management, including understanding and using rles, arranging students int grups, and hw t btain reprts f student activity Chapter 5 gets us familiarized with the text editrs in Mdle. Chapter 6 t 16 cvers individual tls in the basic Mdle package. We ll discuss hw and when t use frums, hld chat sessins, send messages, give quizzes, set assignments, develp shared glssaries and databases, create pathed lessns, cllabratively develp web pages, create blgs, set up surveys and plls, and recrd student grades. Each chapter cvers hw t add the tl t yur curse, discusses the ptins available, and gives yu sme creative ideas fr effectively using the tl in yur class. Chapter 17 pls all the disparate tls int a cmprehensive whle and shws sme f the creative ways teachers have used Mdle. Chapter 18 cvers hw t administer an entire Mdle site. A system administratr usually handles these functins, but if yu re n yur wn, there s a lt f pwer behind the curtain. Yu can use this bk in a cuple f different ways. First, yu can read it cver t cver. Hpefully, yu ll find it s cmpelling that yu wn t be able t put it dwn until yu ve finished it. Or yu can use it like a reference manual. The beginning f each tl chapter cvers the hw-t s and the ptins. If yu get lst, flip t the apprpriate chapter and take it frm the beginning. Happy Mdling!!! Cnventins used in this bk The fllwing typgraphical cnventins are used in this bk: Italic Indicates new terms, URLs, addresses, filenames, and file extensins. Cnstant width Used fr prgram listings, as well as within paragraphs t refer t prgram elements such as variable r functin names, databases, data types, envirnment variables, statements, and keywrds. 13

14 *** Used fr significant tip, suggestin r general nte. Acknwledgments Jaswinder Singh: I am indebted t the Jasn Cle & Helen Fster fr writing the Using Mdle bk. The wrk in this bk is based n the Bk Using Mdle 2 nd Editin and Mdle dcumentatin. I am als indebted t the whle Mdle Cmmunity fr creating such a nice LMS which is s much ppular and especially Martin Dugiamas fr creating it. This bk is a wrk f the whle Mdle cmmunity wh has written the dcumentatin all ver the years. I am als indebted t Mr. Jai Gupta at Vidya Mantra EduSystems Pvt. Ltd.and Mr. Vikram Slia at Ballistic Learning fr intrducing me t Mdle and encuraging me t write this bk. This is my effrt t pay the cmmunity my small bit f share. 14

15 Chapter 1: Intrductin If yu teach, yu ve prbably heard fr years abut the revlutin the Internet was suppsed t bring t teaching and learning. As with s many prmises f revlutin, the changes haven t materialized. Instead, there has been a slw evlutin tward using the Web t enhance teaching and learning. A suite f tls called Learning Management Systems (LMSs) supprts this new practice. Yu can use LMSs t enhance yur teaching by taking advantage f the Internet withut replacing the need fr a teacher. What Is a Learning Management System? LMSs are web applicatins, meaning that they run n a server and are accessed by using a web brwser. Yur Mdle server is prbably lcated in yur university r department, but it can be anywhere in the wrld. Yu and yur students can access the system frm any place with an Internet cnnectin. At their mst basic, LMSs give educatrs tls t create a curse web site and prvide access cntrl s nly enrlled students can view it. LMSs als ffer a wide variety f tls that can make yur curse mre effective. They prvide an easy way t uplad and share materials, hld nline discussins and chats, give quizzes and surveys, gather and review assignments, and recrd grades. Let s take a quick lk at each f these features and hw they might be useful: Uplading and sharing materials: Mst LMSs prvide tls t easily publish cntent. Instead f using an HTML editr and then sending yur dcuments t a server via FTP, yu simply use a web frm t stre yur syllabus n the server. Many instructrs uplad their syllabus, lecture ntes, reading assignments, and articles fr students t access whenever they want. Frums and chats: Online frums and chats prvide a means f cmmunicatin utside f classrm meetings. Frums give yur students mre time t generate their respnses and can lead t mre thughtful discussins. Chats, n the ther hand, give yu a way t quickly and easily cmmunicate with remte students. They can be used fr prject discussins between grups f students r fr last-minute questins the day befre an exam. 15

16 Quizzes: Online quizzes can be graded instantaneusly. They are a great tl fr giving students rapid feedback n their perfrmance and fr gauging their cmprehensin f materials. Many publishers nw prvide banks f test questins tied t bk chapters. Gathering and reviewing assignments: Online assignment submissins are an easy way t track and grade student assignments. In additin t grading student assignments yurself, research 1 indicates that using an nline envirnment fr student peer reviews increases student mtivatin and perfrmance. Recrding grades: An nline gradebk can give yur students up-t-date infrmatin abut their perfrmances in yur curse. Online grades can als help yu cmply with new privacy rules that prhibit psting grades with persnal identifiers in public places. LMS gradebks allw students t see nly their wn grades, never anther student s. Yu can als dwnlad the grades int Excel fr advanced calculatins. While yu culd find r write prgrams t d all f these things n yur wn site, a LMS cmbines all f these features in ne integrated package. Once yu ve learned hw t use a LMS, yu ll be free t cncentrate n teaching and learning instead f writing and maintaining yur wn sftware. Over the past years, LMS systems have matured rapidly and are nw cnsidered critical sftware fr many clleges and universities. The LMS market is nw a multimillin dllar market and is grwing quickly. Why Shuld Yu Use a LMS? Gd questin. After all, we ve run classes fr thusands f years withut the use f cmputers and the Web. Chalk and talk is still the predminant methd f delivering instructin. While traditinal face-t-face meetings can still be effective, applying the tls listed abve pens up new pssibilities fr learning that weren t pssible twenty years ag. Currently, there is a lt f research int hw t effectively cmbine nline learning and face-t-face meetings in what are called hybrid curses r blended learning. 1 J. Brindley, C. Walti & Lisa Blaschke: Creating Effective Cllabrative Learning Grups in an Online Envirnment June

17 Hybrid curses cmbine the best f bth wrlds. Imagine mving mst f yur cntent delivery t an nline envirnment and saving yur curse time fr discussin, questins, and prblem slving. Many instructrs have fund they can save time and increase student learning by allwing students t engage in the material utside f class. This allws them t use face-t-face time fr trubleshting. Online discussins give many students the pprtunity t express themselves in ways they culdn t in a regular class. Many students are reluctant t speak in class because f shyness, uncertainty, r language issues. It s a bn t many students t have the ability t take their time t cmpse questins and answers in an nline discussin, and instructrs reprt much higher participatin levels nline than in class. There are a number f ther reasns t think abut using a LMS in yur curses: Student demand Students are becming mre technically savvy, and they want t get many f their curse materials ff the Web. Once nline, they can access the latest infrmatin at any time and make as many cpies f the materials as they need. Having grwn up with instant messaging and ther Internet cmmunicatin tls, many students find that nline cmmunicatin is secnd nature. Student schedules With rising tuitin, many students are wrking mre hurs t make ends meet while they are in schl. Abut half f all students nw wrk at least 20 hurs a week t meet schl expenses. With a LMS, they can cmmunicate with the instructr r their peers whenever their schedules permit. They can als take quizzes r read curse material during their lunch breaks. Wrking students need flexible access t curses, and a LMS is a pwerful way t give them what they need. Better curses If used well, LMSs can make yur classes mre effective and efficient. By mving sme parts f yur curse nline, yu can mre effectively take advantage f scheduled face-t-face time t engage students questins and ideas. Fr example, if yu mve yur cntent delivery frm an in-class lecture t an nline dcument, yu can then use lecture time t ask students abut what they didn t understand. If yu als use an nline frum, yu can bring the best ideas and questins frm the frum int yur classrm. We ll discuss lts f strategies and case studies fr effective practice thrughut the bk. 17

18 Yu prbably heard all f this in the early 90s. S, what s changed? Tday, LMSs are mre mature and easier t use than they ve been at any time in the past. The underlying technlgy is becming mre rbust, and prgrammers are writing gd web applicatins. In the past, mst systems were built as departmental r even persnal prjects and then cmmercialized. The leading cmmercial package, Blackbard, started ut as a small cllege prject and has since grwn t be a market leader. Hwever, market leadership des nt autmatically mean that a given applicatin is the best r mst reliable piece f sftware. Driven by the need fr increased prfitability, the market leader has struggled t manage its grwth, and sme wuld argue that prduct quality has suffered as a result. What Makes Mdle Special? I had tested a lt f LMS's (Learning Management Systems) especially the pen surce nes but Mdle stands ut at a tall height because f the sund educatinal philsphy, great cmmunity and the mst imprtantly always eager t imprve upn the mistakes based n the feedbacks by a lt f cmmunity members arund the wrld. Mdle is Open Surce S, what is the big fuss abut the pen surce. There are a lt f ther sftware s available which are als Open Surce. The Answer is: Mdle is free t use fr everyne and yu needn't t pay even a single penny fr using Mdle n yur servers. N ne can take it away frm yu, increase the license cst, r make yu pay fr upgrades. N ne can frce yu t upgrade, adpt features yu dn t want, r tell yu hw many users yu can have. They can t take the surce cde back frm users, and if Martin Dugiamas decides t stp develping Mdle, there is a dedicated cmmunity f develpers wh will keep the prject ging. S, it is always ging t be an nging prject. Sund Educatinal Philsphy Martin s backgrund in educatin led him t adpt scial cnstructinism as a cre thery behind Mdle. This is revlutinary, as mst LMS systems have been built arund tl sets, nt pedaggy. Mst cmmercial LMS systems are tl-centered, whereas Mdle is learning-centered. While tl-centric LMSs give yu a list f tls as the interface, Mdle builds the tls int an interface that makes the learning task central. Yu can rganize yur Mdle curse by week, tpic, r scial arrangement. Additinally, while ther LMSs supprt a cntent mdel that encurages instructrs t uplad a lt f static cntent, Mdle fcuses n tls fr discussin and sharing artifacts. The fcus isn t n delivering infrmatin; it s n sharing ideas and engaging in the cnstructin f knwledge. 18

19 Mdle s design philsphy makes this a uniquely teacher-friendly package that represents the first generatin f educatinal tls that are truly useful. Scial cnstructivism is a scilgical thery f knwledge that applies the general philsphical cnstructivism int scial settings, wherein grups cnstruct knwledge fr ne anther, cllabratively creating a small culture f shared artifacts with shared meanings. When ne is immersed within a culture f this srt, ne is learning all the time abut hw t be a part f that culture n many levels. It is emphasized that culture plays a large rle in the cgnitive develpment f a persn. The set f imprtant features that cnstructivist learning thery seems t be built arund are: Knwledge cnstructin and nt knwledge reprductin is paramunt Authentic tasks such as prblem-slving are used t situate learning in a meaningful cntext are encuraged Reflectin n prir experience is encuraged Cllabrative wrk fr learning is encuraged Autnmy in learning is encuraged Mdle s design philsphy makes this a uniquely teacher-friendly package that represents the first generatin f educatinal tls that are truly useful. The essential cnstituents f Mdle s philsphy are: Cnstructivism Frm a cnstructivist pint f view, peple actively cnstruct new knwledge as they interact with their envirnments. All f us are ptential teachers as well as learners - in a true cllabrative envirnment we are bth. Cnstructinism Cnstructinism asserts that learning is particularly effective when cnstructing smething fr thers t experience. We learn particularly well frm the act f creating r expressing smething fr thers t see. Scial cnstructivism Scial cnstructivism extends cnstructivism int scial settings, wherein grups cnstruct knwledge fr ne anther, cllabratively creating a small culture f shared artifacts with shared meanings. When ne is immersed within a culture like this, ne is learning all the time abut hw t be a part f that culture, n many levels. We learn a lt by just bserving the activity f ur peers. 19

20 Cnnected and separate This idea lks deeper int the mtivatins f individuals within a discussin: Separate behavir is when smene tries t remain 'bjective' and 'factual', and tends t defend their wn ideas using lgic t find hles in their ppnent's ideas. Cnnected behavir is a mre empathic apprach that accepts subjectivity, trying t listen and ask questins in an effrt t understand the ther pint f view. Cnstructed behavir is when a persn is sensitive t bth f these appraches and is able t chse either f them as apprpriate t the current situatin. Cmmunity Supprt Mdle has the biggest cmmunity f develpers, teachers, and designers wrking all arund the glbe fr making imprvements t the prduct named Mdle. They are mre than willing t keep n adding new features, enhancing the existing nes, helping yu t trublesht prblems and the mst basic in starting Using Mdle. The Mdle cmmunity has been indispensable t the success f the system. With s many glbal users, there is always smene wh can answer a questin r give advice. At the same time, the Mdle develpers and users wrk tgether t ensure quality, add new mdules and features, and suggest new ideas fr develpment. Martin and his cre team are respnsible fr deciding what features are mature enugh fr fficial releases and where t g next. Because users are free t experiment, many peple use and test new features, acting as a large quality cntrl department. Great dcumentatin One f the basic things missing in mst f the ther pen surce LMS's is the lack f apprpriate dcumentatin whereas Mdle is the winner in terms f the dcumentatin als. Yu will find tnes f dcuments n each and every tpic related t Mdle and if by chance yu are nt able t find any relevant tpic then yu can ask the cmmunity members t help yu ut thrugh Mdle frums. Great Cllectin f Mdules Mdle has gt a large database f Mdules t enhance the learning requirements f each individual. Yu can find mdules fr changing the Curse frmats, Add different activities, Blcks, themes etc. Language Optins Mdle is available in all f the ppular languages s that yu can teach students in yur wn language. Even yu can als cntribute t translate the Mdle int yur wn 20

21 language. As n date Mdle has been translated int 126 languages fr Mdle 2.7 Versin. Respnsive Interface Design Since the latest LTS versin Mdle has intrduced the respnsive design f themes based n the Btstrap framewrk which makes all themes are cmpatible n all devices. Yu need nt t wrry abut the lk and feel f yur Mdle site n varius devices used by the students. If yu are still thinking abut the features then yu shuld give it a try t delve deep int the vast sea f Mdle. In the rest f the bk, we ll discuss hw yu can use Mdle s many features t enhance yur teaching and prvide yur students with a pwerful learning envirnment. Summary In this chapter, we ve taken a brief intrductin abut the Learning management systems (LMS) and their usage. We ve als becme cnversant with special features f Mdle which makes it the mst ppular pen surce LMS. In the next chapter we will take a lk n the basics f Mdle like interface, creating an accunt n Mdle site and curse frmats etc. 21

22 Chapter 2: Hw can I use Mdle Nw that we ve taken a lk at all the special features f Mdle, and it has certainly raised yur expectatins level t a much higher level. Mdle has a lt f nifty capabilities, but they are nly useful if they are applied in the service f effective curse design. In this chapter we will explre different ways in which yu can deply Mdle t develp an effective curse design. If yu are a prfessr in higher educatin, yu are an expert in yur field. Yu knw mre abut yur discipline than 99 percent f the rest f humanity. Universities d a great jb helping peple becme dmain experts and researchers. They d a pr jb f teaching thse experts hw t teach. Unfrtunately, the very prcess f becming an expert makes it mre difficult t teach nvices. Cgnitive research has shwn that as peple becme mre expert, they lse the ability t explain why and hw they d certain basic tasks. The higher the level f expertise, the less cnscius access yu tend t have t the fundamentals f what yu d. T achieve expertise, yu need t develp a level f autmatic perfrmance fr basic skills s yu can cncentrate yur mental resurces n the mre difficult tasks. Much f ur preparatin f teachers assumes teaching cmes naturally. Since we ve all been t schl, we must knw hw t teach. Unfrtunately, this isn t the case. Creating effective learning envirnments requires training and careful preparatin. In this chapter, we hpe t give yu sme ideas and backgrund frm which yu can develp yur curses. We ll spend sme time talking abut learning envirnments in general, and then we ll talk abut hw t apply everything yu ve learned s far t yur curses. We ll als prvide sme design patterns fr different types f curses that research and experience have shwn t be successful. What is a Learning Envirnment? Since we re develping an instructinal envirnment, it wuld be a gd idea t have a definitin f what we re hping t develp. What makes a web-based learning envirnment different frm a web site? Hw is a web learning envirnment different frm Amazn r Wikipedia? The answer is: learning gals and feedback. Learning envirnments have very specific gals fr students. Mst ther web envirnments are there fr users t achieve their wn gals. They prvide infrmatin, 22

23 a way t buy things, r a way t cnnect with ther peple. Peple cme t these envirnments f their wn vlitin and can participate at whatever level they chse. Learning envirnments are unique because they prvide gals fr students t achieve, gals they are currently unable t meet n their wn. Yur curse bjectives define a set f gals fr students, gals they wuld nt nrmally set fr themselves. These gals define hw students will interact with the material, ther students, and yu. Fr example, if yu are teaching a large survey curse, the curse gal will be t intrduce the main cncepts f the field t yur students. In an advanced thery curse, yu will want students t demnstrate the ability t reasn critically abut advanced tpics, and pssibly synthesize their wn ideas. These gals shuld be just beynd what yur students can achieve right nw. They may nt even knw what gals t set fr themselves, s yu need t at least suggest gals and perfrmance levels fr them. The secnd defining feature f learning envirnments is feedback. Feedback is critical fr students t mnitr their prgress as they pursue the curse gals. Gal-riented feedback is ne f the critical defining aspects f a learning envirnment. If a student desn t receive feedback, he has n way f knwing if he is clser t achieving the gals f the class r nt. Other types f infrmatin envirnments can t prvide feedback t their users because the users, nt the envirnment, define their wn gals. The nly exceptin is an nline game, which defines external gals and measures the player s prgress tward them. Feedback in a learning envirnment can take many frms. Tests and quizzes are frequently used tls fr measuring student prgress. They can prvide feedback t students in the frm f right and wrng answers r a percentage scre. Hmewrk can als prvide feedback t students abut their understanding f the materials. Less frmal feedback might include interactin with students in class, cnversatins with experts, r applying new knwledge in a wrk setting. The key is t structure the feedback in useful ways s students can measure themselves against the curse gals. These tw features make learning envirnments unique. Mdle prvides yu with tls t implement these ideas in unique ways. Mdle s educatinal philsphy guides hw thse tls are designed and can influence hw yu structure yur learning envirnment. 23

24 Curse Design Patterns Design patterns are abstract slutins t recurring design prblems. The term was riginally used in architecture, but it has been applied mre recently t sftware design. In architecture, the placement f drs, gates, windws, and ther elements are design patterns that recur in many buildings. The idea f a lbby in a large ffice building is a design pattern. Over time, these patterns becme almst invisible t us as we are cntinually expsed t them. Changing a pattern can lead t the discvery f an entirely new way f interacting with a space. Instructinal design patterns are similar. There are abstract slutins t the design challenges that ccur in many curses. We can abstract fur basic curse types in higher educatin: Intrductry survey curse These tend t be large lecture curses designed t expse students t basic cncepts, vcabulary, and fundatinal ideas. Skills develpment curse These curses are designed t apply the ideas intrduced in the beginning curses. Labs, recitatins, wrkshps, and secnd-level curses tend t fall int this categry. While there is discussin f thery, applying the thery t prblems is the cre f the curse. Thery/discussin curse In mre advanced curses, students are expected t think critically abut research and thery. Applicatin is typically secndary t the discussin f the thery itself. Capstne curse Many prgrams have sme srt f summative experience that enables students t demnstrate what they have learned in their curse f study. While there are variatins and cmbinatins f these curse archetypes, these categries cver mst f the curses taught in mst universities. Understanding the abstract prblem types is the first step tward designing a slutin pattern. We als need principles f quality that will help us decide which patterns will be mre likely t result in a better slutin. Every prfessr develps a respnse t the 24

25 curse archetypes. The questin is which slutins are mre likely t result in a quality curse? Frtunately, the American Assciatin fr Higher Educatin (AAHE) has cme up with sme recmmendatins fr high-quality university curses. The AAHE has published 12 recmmendatins in 3 categries: Culture: High expectatins Respect fr diverse talents and learning styles Emphasis n early undergraduate years Curriculum: Cherence in learning Synthesizing experience Onging practice f learned skills Integratin f educatin with experience Instructin: Active learning Assessment and prmpt feedback Cllabratin Adequate time n task Out-f-class cntact with faculty It wuld be impssible t apply all 12 f these principles in every class. But a curse that integrates as many f these principles as pssible will likely be f higher quality than ne that desn t. Frtunately, many f the tls in Mdle lend themselves well t realizing these quality principles. Let s take a lk at hw t apply the tls in Mdle t meeting these quality principles in the fur class types. Intrductry Survey Curse The intrductry survey curse tends t be a large lecture curse. The primary gal is t expse students t the basic cncepts and vcabulary f a field f study. In the best case, this curse helps students develp a basic cnceptual structure that serves as the fundatin fr mre advanced curses. 25

26 There tend t be tw primary, related prblems t address in these curses. First, their large size makes it difficult t assess pen-ended assignments such as prjects and reprts. Secnd, student mtivatin is difficult t maintain due t the curse s large size and its nature. Students wh are required t take the curse may find it difficult t engage in the subject matter, and lng lectures are hard fr anyne t get excited abut. A survey curse might fcus n quality measures like assessment and prmpt feedback, adequate time n task, nging practice f learned skills, active learning, and high expectatins. S hw can we use the Mdle tls and the abve principles t create a successful survey curse? Grups Resurces Quizzes The key t success in a large class is the strategic use f grups. T prmte active learning, create a grup prject that students must cmplete by the end f the semester. Such a prject cuts dwn n the number f submissins yu need t grade and prvides students with pprtunities fr cllabratin. Mdle has a number f tls t help student grups cmmunicate and cllabrate, including frums and wikis, which we ll explre belw. Psting yur lecture ntes befre each lecture will help students stay engaged by giving them a structure fr taking ntes. Befre each lecture, pst an utline f the upcming class t help students plan ahead fr that class. Use the data frm a shrt quiz r chice t target yur lecture t the areas students find mst difficult r interesting. Alternatively, mve yurself frm being the surce f infrmatin in the curse t being a helpful tutr. Pst yur lecture ntes, yur lecture in MP3, and any reading assignments. Then use the face-t-face time t answer questins, demnstrate prblem slving, and prvide feedback t students n their wrk. Mving the infrmatin delivery prtin f the curse nline will free up yur face-t-face time t prvide valuable caching and supprt fr yur students, even in large lecture curses. This will prmte active learning and prmpt feedback within yur curse. Use the quiz tl t prvide a small quiz fr each reading assignment. This will reward students fr cmpleting the reading and allw them t test their 26

27 Frums Glssaries Databases Hw t use Mdle 2.7 understanding f the material. Each quiz shuld be relatively lw-stakes, but all f them taken tgether culd add up t a significant part f the student s scre. These small quizzes will prvide assessment, prmpt feedback, and help students spend adequate time n task. Again, be sure t use the data frm the quiz t mdify yur lecture, r class discussin, t fcus n the areas where students need mre supprt. A mix f class frums and grup frums can be an effective tl fr cllabratin, active learning, and ut-f-class cntact with faculty. Frums fr questins t the instructrs and fr general curse discussin are great fr class discussins. Each grup shuld als have a discussin area fr reading grups and lectures. Be sure t seed the discussin each week with a gd questin that will require students t apply the cncepts they ve learned during that week. Bring the best questins and discussins t the attentin f the whle class t help mtivate students. Create a class frum fr the submissin f final grup prjects. Everyne can see the prjects, and each grup needs t pst the prject nly nce. Yu can make this a Q & A frum, s students can t see ther students pstings until they pst their wn. A gd glssary is critical when students are learning a new vcabulary. Yu can use the glssary t prmte active learning by assigning a different grup t create definitins fr each week r tpic. Yu and the ther students can rate submissins based n their usefulness. Be sure t turn n autlinking t get the mst benefit. While large curses can be difficult t manage, they als prvide many minds fr cllabrative wrk. In intrductry curses, the database mdule can be a very useful tl. Students can create databases f imprtant figures in the field, cllect data fr curse prjects, pst quiz questins, r simply create small bigraphies f themselves. Yu can leverage the large numbers f students in the curse t create rich resurces fr the students t use as they study. 27

28 Wikis Lessns Messaging Each grup shuld have a grup wiki fr their curse prject that they can submit at the end f the semester. Using a wiki this way prmtes active learning and cllabratin. Learning vcabulary is difficult withut a lt f practice. T prvide anther pprtunity fr assessment and feedback, create a series f vcabulary flash cards in the lessn mdule t help students drill themselves n the new cncepts. Yu culd als replace static lectures with lessns n imprtant tpics, which will prvide students with immediate feedback n the tpic, rather than reading smething and then receiving feedback later. Students in large-frmat curses can easily get lst. If students get int truble with the curse material, r simply lse mtivatin, they may disengage frm the curse and risk failure. The messaging system gives yu a useful tl fr cmmunicating with students wh are nt engaging with the curse site. Filter yur students by last lgin, and send regular messages t thse wh haven t visited the curse site in a while. This will let them knw yu are interested in their success and encurage them t reengage. Rles and capabilities In a large-frmat curse, it can be difficult t manage all f the frums, glssaries, and databases yurself. Giving students a level f respnsibility fr different areas f the curse can increase mtivatin and engagement. Give each grup f student s mderatr privileges n a different frum each week. Students will study harder t make sure they knw what they are talking abut when it is their turn t mderate. Giving ther grups capabilities t apprve glssary entries r database entries will give them a sense f wnership in the curse. Cmbine these tls t create an effective learning envirnment. Each week r tpic shuld have lecture ntes, a glssary, a quiz r quizzes, and a frum. At the beginning f the curse, pst the curse glssary, the curse frum, and yur syllabus. At the end f the curse, pst the final-prject frum. 28

29 Skills Develpment Curse The skills develpment curse is generally the secnd-level class in a curse f study. The aim f this curse is t give students the pprtunity t apply the basic cncepts learned in the survey curse and explre ne aspect f the field in mre detail. These are usually wrkshp r lab curses that fcus n a prject r the repetitive applicatin f imprtant skills. The gals f this curse type include develpment f autmaticity in sme skills, refining skill perfrmances, and beginning t develp flexibility in skill applicatin. Skills develpment curses require cntinuus feedback and assessment. Engaged students need feedback s they can knw if they are perfrming the skills crrectly. They als need resurces t help them trublesht when they cannt slve a prblem n their wn. Yu can create an effective practice envirnment fr skills develpment with the fllwing tls in Mdle: Resurces Frums Quizzes As students practice n their wn, they will need infrmatin resurces t help them diagnse their mistakes. If yu can pst demnstratins, step-by-step instructins, r ther aids fr students as they practice n their wn, yu ll make it easier fr them t succeed and eliminate a lt f repetitive questins. Frums prvide valuable pprtunities fr yur students t help each ther. Set up a frum fr each tpic r week and have students ask each ther fr assistance with curse assignments. Allw pst ratings in these frums t reward students wh prvide assistance t their classmates. This encurages cllabratin and gives students an imprtant ut-f-class cmmunicatin channel fr supprt. Yu can als use the frums fr students t pst their wrk and receive feedback frm their peers. With a well-structured scring guide and gd exemplars, students can help each ther imprve their wrk with well-reasned critiques. If yur class is fcused n math skills, yu can use the calculated-questin type t prvide yur students with unlimited practice pprtunities. Create a library f questins fr each tpic and let students take the quiz as many times as they d 29

30 Lessns Databases Hw t use Mdle 2.7 like. Each time, they will see a different set f questins. Other types f curses can use the quiz mdule t test the students ability t apply basic cncepts, prvide graduated practice, and prvide an pprtunity t practice ther types f skills. Well-cnstructed lessns give students the pprtunity t apply their skills and receive immediate feedback. Each page in the lessn shuld challenge students t use the skills they are develping in the curse, and either prvide direct feedback r allw them t explre the cnsequences f their actins in a simulatin type f envirnment. There is a lt f evidence t suggest peple learn effectively when they are prducing new materials fr ther peple. In a skills curse, yu can use the database t give students a place t create practice assignments fr each ther, which yu can then use in quizzes r lessns t prvide additinal practice, and spread the wrk f develping a gd curse. Rles and capabilities As student s prgress in their capabilities, they can take n mre respnsibility fr their wn learning. In a skills curse, yu may want t give grups f students the ability t develp a quiz fr ther students, pulling questins frm pls develped by yu, by a publisher, r nes they write themselves. Set up new lessns fr them t add new lessn pages, develping new practice pprtunities fr ther students. Thery/Discussin Curse A discussin curse fcuses n readings and the discussin f ideas. These are usually senir r graduate-level curses that fcus n discussins f thery and research. There is little practical applicatin. Instead, ideas are discussed, debated, and critiqued. The emphasis is n reasning, presenting evidence frm the research literature, and critical thinking. Student mtivatin is typically nt a prblem in these curses. Students wh take advanced curses are usually interested in the subject. Hwever, it can be difficult t 30

31 create pprtunities fr active learning and prvide prmpt feedback. Frtunately, there are a few Mdle tls that can help yu vercme these issues: Blgs Databases Chice Frums Wikis Critical thinking and analysis f thery typically require perids f private reflectin alng with public discussin. Encurage students t actively engage in these activities by prviding them with the pprtunity t blg abut the curse tpics. Having students keep a blg in Mdle rather than a jurnal n paper allws yu t give them feedback n their entries withut interrupting the writing prcess. Yu can encurage students t use their blgs by bringing the mst insightful r interesting entries fr discussin in class r a frum. One f the hallmarks f mst thery curses is a large amunt f reading, usually frm riginal research. T help yur students keep n tp f the reading, create a database and ask them t submit a shrt summary r abstract f the papers they read. This strategy will reward them fr keeping up with the reading and encurage them t actively engage with the reading. It will als prvide the students (and yu) with an anntated bibligraphy at the end f the curse. As stimulatin fr cnversatin, include a chice each week. Pll the class abut a cntrversial pint in the reading r discussin. Cmbine this with a frum asking students t explain their respnses. Frums are ne f the keys t a successful discussin curse. Frums allw students t cmpse their thughts and fcus n the cntent f their respnses. Encurage careful, well-reasned pstings in the frum by scring psts. Encurage mre active engagement by assigning grups f students as mderatrs fr different tpics. A class wiki can be used t create a shared understanding f the ideas under discussin. After each discussin, students shuld be encuraged t share their ntes n the curse wiki fr ther students t learn frm their perspectives n what was imprtant r interesting. At the end f the semester, students will have a synpsis f the entire class t take with them. 31

32 Rles and capabilities In a thery curse, the cllabrative cnstructin f knwledge and artifacts is the mst pwerful methd fr engaging students. Students can create activities, artifacts, and ther materials fr each ther, develping their critical-reasning abilities thrugh the creative develpment f learning materials fr ther students. In a thery curse, yu can verride the student rle at the curse level t enable students mre permissins thrughut the curse, then set rle verrides in thse areas where yu need t restrict their access. This encurages students t actively cnstruct the curse web site fr each ther. Capstne Curse Capstne curses are usually fcused arund a final prject that requires students t demnstrate what they have learned during their curse f study. In graduate schl, these curses are fcused arund a thesis r dissertatin. In undergraduate study, students are expected t prduce a paper r ther artifact. These prject-based curses present challenges fr bth the instructr and students. Students need t be able t apply skills they may have learned several years ag, and may have nt used since. Instructrs need t ensure the prject is stimulating and interesting. Mdle can prvide activities t meet these challenges: Assignments Messaging Blgs Yu can help students structure the task by assigning a set f deliverables ver the curse f the semester. Each deliverable shuld be a ne- r tw-week prject yu cllect with an assignment. Fr example, if students are writing a paper, yu culd cllect an anntated bibligraphy, a subject prpsal, an utline, a cuple f early drafts, and a final draft. Use messaging as a private feedback channel s students can discuss their wrk. As they wrk n each sectin f the prject, they will need t ask questins abut the assignment and their perfrmance. A recrd f all discussins is kept in the message histry fr each student. Part f a student s capstne experience is reflecting n what he has learned ver the curse f study. Blgs can act as a tl fr reflectin and as a prject ntebk. Encurage students t use their blgs fr bth activities. 32

33 Summary This chapter enlightens few design patterns in which yu can deply Mdle t develp an effective curse design fr yur class. These design patterns are abstract starting pints fr designing a slutin that wrks in yur class. We ve tried t recmmend patterns that we have seen wrk, r that ther researchers have reprted t be successful. They are nt the final wrd n effective curse design by any means. But they can prvide a useful starting place when thinking abut hw t use Mdle t prmte learning in yur curse. 33

34 Chapter 3: Mdle Basics In this chapter we will get a brief intrductin abut the Mdle 2.7 interface and the ptins yu have while setting up yur curse. Then we will start adding sme cntent t yur curse. Getting Started As mentined in Chapter 1, Mdle is a web-based tl yu can access thrugh a web brwser. This means that in rder t use Mdle, yu need a cmputer with a web brwser installed and an Internet cnnectin. Yu als need t have the web address (called a Unifrm Resurce Lcatr, r URL) f a server running Mdle. If yur institutin supprts Mdle, it will have a server with Mdle up and running. Yu can then get the server address frm the system administratr. If yu dn t have access t a server with Mdle installed, and yu d like t set up yur wn, yu can dwnlad a Mdle package frm The Mdle Interface When yu will first visit yur Mdle site yu will see the frnt page f the Mdle Site with the list f the curses which are available fr the students. Take a mment and familiarize yurself with the interface. In the Header bar the name f yur Mdle site is displayed alng with a link t Lgin t the Mdle site in the extreme right crner. On the left hand side f the screen yu will see sme blcks which are enables by the admin f yur Mdle site. By default it will shw the navigatin blck in cllapsed frm. On the right hand side f the screen yu will see the Calendar blck. There are a number f useful blcks installed by default n a Mdle server. Yur system administratr may install additinal ptinal blcks t add different functinality as per the requirements f yur institutin. Languages In the upper-left crner, besides the Site name, yu may see a drp-dwn menu with language ptins. As f Nvember 2014, Mdle has been translated int ver 126 languages by the develper cmmunity. The number f languages is nw s large that Mdle nly lads ne language by default. Yur system administratr can dwnlad additinal language packs t prvide supprt fr new languages. Mdle als supprts 34

35 UTF-8, a standard fr the display f nn-latin character sets, like Chinese r Arabic characters. The language features can be useful fr learning freign languages r supprting students frm different cuntries. Figure 2-1: Mdle s Frnt Page Anyne wh uses Mdle can select the language in which Mdle s labels and instructins will appear. Fr example, if yu chse t view the site in French, the labels and help files will be translated int that language. Mdle des nt translate usergenerated cntent such as frum psts autmatically, thugh it s pssible t create Multilanguage cntent. Yu can chse the language settings fr the frnt page and fr each curse yu visit. As an instructr, yu can als frce students t use a given language. This is a useful feature if yu re teaching a language curse and want the entire curse t be in that language. Or yu can simply cnfuse the heck ut f yur students by chsing sme really bscure language and have them guess what everything means. The system administratr can decide nt t display the language drp-dwn menu n the frnt page. If yu want t change the language and find that yu cannt, cntact yur system administratr. 35

36 Mdle s Help System and Dcumentatin Thrughut Mdle, yu will see a questin mark in a yellw circle. This is a link t Mdle s very extensive help system. Althugh yu shuldn t need it very frequently after yu read this bk, the cmmunity has wrked hard t prvide yu with a help system that is tied t what yu are ding at that mment. When yu click the questin mark icn, a new pp up windw will pen with the help file fr the item yu are asking abut (see Figure 2-2). Figure 2-2 A help ppup In additin t the help system, if yu are lgged in as a teacher r an administratr, yu ll find a Mdle Dcs fr this page link at the bttm f each page. Clicking this link will take yu t the crrespnding page n Mdle Dcs is the dcumentatin fr Mdle, written by the Mdle cmmunity. Creating an Accunt In the extreme tp right crner f yur Mdle site yu will find a Hyperlink which says "Yu are nt lgged in (Lg In)". Yu can als find the same link in the Fter f yur site just abve the Mdle Lg. Click the link and Mdle will present yu with the lgin t the site page as shwn in the Figure 2-3. Yur username and passwrd will depend n hw yur system administratr set up the system. Mdle has a number f ptins fr user authenticatin, including -based self-registratin, where yu create yur wn accunt. If yu are lgging in t a server run by yur university r department, check with the Mdle administratr t see if yu need t create an accunt. As use f Mdle grws, mre institutins are autmatically creating accunts fr all f their users, s yu may already have a lgin. 36

37 Figure 2-3 Lgin t the site If yu need t create a new accunt: 1. Click the "Create New Accunt" Buttn. 2. Fill in the new accunt frm by creating a username and passwrd fr yurself. 3. Enter a valid address. The system will send yu an t cnfirm yur accunt. Yu wn t be able t lg in again until yu cnfirm yur accunt. 4. Click Create my new accunt.. 5. Within a few minutes, yu shuld receive an at the accunt yu specified n the frm. Click the link in the (r cpy/paste it int the address windw in yur brwser) t cnfirm yur accunt. Yu nw have a verified accunt. Yur accunt isn t autmatically assciated with the curses yu re teaching. Mst likely, yur system administratr will assign yu the rle f teacher in the curses yu re teaching. 37

38 Figure 2-4 Creating New Accunt Editing Yur User Prfile Once yu have successfully cnfirmed yur accunt and lgged in, yu will find yurself back at the main page alng with ne additinal blck n the Left hand side f the screen with title "Administratin". The links in this blck will depend n the permissins available fr yur accunt. If yu lk at the upper-right crner as well as in the fter f the site, yu ll see that the Lgin link has changed. It nw says Yu are lgged in as: Yur Name" highlighted as a clickable Link. S, just click n yur name. Mdle will then present yu with yur persnal prfile details page, like the ne shwn in Figure Yu ll see yur prfile summary, interests, yur curses and the first and last time yu lgged in. In the navigatin blck yu will find the links fr the Frum psts, Messages, Blgs, Badges under the My Prfile sub tree. In the left side under the Administratin Blck yu will find the links related t yur prfile settings e.g. changing passwrd, Preferences fr the badges and Blgs and Edit yur prfile. 38

39 Figure 2-5 A prfile Let s take a mment and edit yur prfile t custmize the page and help ther peple get t knw yu. T edit yur prfile: Click n the Edit prfile link in the administratin Blck n the left hand side under My prfile settings tree. Mdle will take yu t the edit prfile page where yu can update yur details, interest, preferred language etc. On the Edit prfile page, the fields with a red star next t them are required fields; they must cntain sme data in rder fr yu t submit the frm. By default nly the General sectin f yur prfile is expanded, Yu can expand all the sectins by clicking the Expand all link in the right crner f the page. If yu wish, yu can change the first name and surname the system has stred fr yu. Yu can edit any f the fllwing fields: address: Make sure this is an address yu check frequently and that it is crrect. Mdle has a lt f imprtant features, and yu wuldn t want t miss ut because yur address has a typ r is nt an address yu check frequently. display: Yu can chse wh can see yur address. Yur chices are t hide yur frm everyne, allw nly the peple in yur curses t see it, r display it t everyne wh lgs in t the site. If yu chse t hide yur frm ther peple, they will nt be able t send yu directly frm Mdle. frmat: Here yu can select whether mail sent frm Mdle is frmatted using HTML r is sent in plain text. Mst mdern clients can receive 39

40 and prperly display HTML mail, althugh this may be a setting yu have t enable in yur preferences. If yu have a slw cnnectin, r yu simply prefer yur plain and simple, the plain-text ptin is prbably a gd chice. Digest type: This is the daily digest setting that frums will use by default. N digest - yu will receive ne per frum pst; Digest - cmplete psts - yu will receive ne digest per day cntaining the cmplete cntents f each frum pst; Digest - subjects nly - yu will receive ne digest per day cntaining just the subject f each frum pst. Yu can als chse a different setting fr each frum if yu wish. Frum aut-subscribe: Mdle frums are a pwerful cmmunicatin tl fr classes. Yu have the ptin f subscribing t frums, which means that new frum psts will be sent t yu via . This is a great way f keeping current with yur curse discussins withut having t lg in and lk at the frums every day. Of curse, if yur discussins really get cking, yu ll end up with a lt f , but at least it wn t be spam. Frum tracking: If yu chse t enable frum tracking, Mdle will highlight psts added since the last time yu read the frum. This is a useful way f quickly identifying new cntent in a frum. Text Editr: This ptin lets yu chse whether t use the Site's default Text editr r else yu can chse frm Att, Tiny MCE HTML editr t enter text r t use plain text. Mdle s HTML editr is an easy way t enter frmatted text int yur curse site. We will cver the specifics f Hw it wrks in Chapter :5 Time zne: The time zne setting can be very imprtant, especially if yu re wrking with an internatinal audience r if yu will be traveling. Be sure t set the time zne t yur lcal time, nt the server s lcal time. Preferred language: Setting yur language here makes it yur default language fr all pages. Descriptin: The descriptin bx gives yu a place t tell yur Mdle cmmunity a little abut yurself. If yu dn t feel cmfrtable writing a descriptin, just put a space in here s yu re allwed t submit the frm. 40

41 Figure 2-6 Editing a prfile 41

42 The remaining ptinal fields allw yu t include persnal details abut yurself, including yur pht r a representative image and cntact infrmatin. Yur picture will appear by yur pstings in the frums, in yur prfile, and n the Participants page. Yu can als add yur Phnetic name, Alternate Name, Interests, and ther persnal details. When yu re dne, click the Update prfile buttn at the bttm f the page. T uplad a new prfile picture: Prepare the picture yu want t use by cnverting it t a JPG r PNG if yu haven t already. It shuld be smaller than the maximum uplad size f yur site. Yu can directly drp the image file nt the user prfile area f else yu can manually add them by clicking the icn. It will pen the file brwser where yu can uplad the prfile picture by chsing "Uplad a file" and navigating t the file and click uplad. Yu can enter a picture descriptin as well fr yur prfile picture fr the benefit f anyne using a screen reader. Click the Update prfile buttn at the bttm f the page. Mdle will crp yur picture int a square and shrink it t pixels. Mdle prvides yu with a number f ways t persnalize yur experience and share infrmatin abut yurself with ther peple. Yur prfile will be linked t yur frum psts and ther cntributins arund the site. The picture frm yur prfile will be yur icn, s pick smething that represents wh yu are n the Mdle site r a sht f yur gd side. Nw let s take a lk at a curse, the main rganizing feature f Mdle. A First Lk at a Curse On the left side f the frnt page, yu ll see the My Curses tree under the Navigatin Blck, which includes a list f all the curses yu are teaching r taking as a student, as shwn in Figure. Yu can access yur curses by clicking n the curse name in the blck. 42

43 Figure 2-7 Navigatin Blck Let s start with the upper-left crner f the curse page, as shwn in Figure 2-8. There yu ll see the name f yur curse as entered when the curse was created. Yur system administratr either entered yur curse name by hand r she gt it frm yur institutin s curse database. (Read the Curse Settings sectin later in this chapter if yu need t change the name.) Figure 2-8 Curse Page Belw the curse name is a navigatin bar that fills with the hyperlinked names f pages as yu navigate frm ne page t anther. Frequently, the best way t return t yur curse page is t click n the curse shrt name in the navigatin bar. Fr example, in Figure 2-7, yu wuld click n "My Curses" t g back t the "My Hme" frm anther page in the curse. 43

44 *** "My hme is a custmizable "dashbard" page fr prviding users with links t their curses and activities within them, such as unread frum psts and upcming assignments." Belw the navigatin bar are three clumns. The far-left and far-right clumns cntain tl blcks, while the center clumn cntains yur curse cntent and activities. The tpmst tl blck n the left is the Navigatin blck. Frm here, yu and yur students can: Access yur custmized dashbard "My hme" which can be set as the default hme page if yur administratr has enabled it fr yu. Navigate t different site pages including the Site Blgs, Site Badges, Navigate t yur prfile details like: Frums psts and discussins yu are invlved int, yur persnal blg, messages, yur private file and yur badges. Get details abut the current curse like participants, badges and the tpics within the curse. Navigate t yur curses in which yu are enrlled as a teacher, student r any ther rle. Beneath the Navigatin Blck is the Administratin blck. Assuming yu ve been assigned the rle f teacher, yu ll find links t set yur curse ptins, assign rles, perfrm backups f the curse, and manage student grades. Yu can als switch rle as a Student t have a lk upn Hw any resurce r activity will be visible t students. Yu can als edit settings related t yur prfile like changing passwrd, messaging settings, blg settings and badges settings. In the far right clumn yu will find the Search Frums Blck thrugh which yu can search within the frums alng with sme search filters mentined under the advanced search link. The ther blcks n the right side prvide reprts n the activity within the curse. The Latest News blck lists the latest items added t the News frum, such as imprtant news stries that pertain t the subject yu re teaching. The Upcming Events blck lists events yu ve created in the calendar, such as exams and hlidays, tgether with assignment and quiz deadlines. At the bttm f the blck are links t view the calendar and add new events. And the Recent Activity blck, which lists recent curse activity, such as frum pstings and uplads. The middle clumn is where the actin is. This is where yu add all f yur cntent and activities, such as frums, quizzes, and lessns fr students t access. Befre we get t 44

45 that, hwever, yu need t make a chice abut the frmat in which t present yur curse. Figure 2-9 Administratin Blck Curse Frmats Unlike sme LMSs that frce yu int ne frmat, Mdle prvides yu with a number f ptins fr the general frmat f yur curse. Yu can chse t rder yur curse chrnlgically by week, cnceptually by tpic, r scially with a big frum as the central rganizing principle. The curse frmat determines the layut f the curse page. By default there are fur curse frmats in Mdle: Single activity frmat - The single activity frmat nly has 1 sectin, and allws the teacher t add ne activity nly t the curse. When the single activity 45

46 frmat is selected, a drp dwn menu appears fr the teacher t chse the activity they wish t use. The best uses f this frmat are fr displaying a single activity r resurce (such as a Quiz r SCORM package) n the curse page. This frmat has replaced the SCORM frmat frm the earlier Mdle versins as SCORM can als be chsen as an activity in this frmat. Scial frmat - This frmat is riented arund ne main frum, the scial frum, which appears listed n the main page. It is useful fr situatins that are mre free frm. They may nt even be curses. A frum is displayed n the curse page Tpics frmat - The curse is rganized int tpic sectins that a teacher can give titles t. Each tpic sectin cnsists f activities, resurces and labels. This is great t use if yur curse is bjective based and each bjective may take different amunts f time t cmplete. Weekly frmat - The curse is rganized week by week, with a clear start date and a finish date. Mdle will create a sectin fr each week f yur curse. Yu can add cntent, frums, quizzes, and s n in the sectin fr each week. This frmat is best suited if yu want all yur students t wrk n the same materials at the same time, this wuld be a gd frmat t chse. Figure 2-10 Curse page in weekly frmat T set the curse frmat: Click "Edit Settings" under the curse administratin tree in the Administratin blck. Select the curse frmat frm the drp-dwn list under the Curse Frmat Sectin which is cllapsed by default. Enter the parameters fr yur curse: 46

47 Fr the weekly frmat, set the start date and the number f weeks. Fr the tpic frmat, set the number f tpics. Fr the scial frmat, set the curse start date. Yu dn t need t wrry abut the number f weeks r tpics. Fr the Single activity frmat chse the type f the activity which yu wish t use. *** When changing the existing curse frmat t "Single activity" make sure that yu remved all extra activities frm the curse including the "News frum". Nte that sectins structure may be mdified. Mdle allws yu t switch between frmats if yu find that a given frmat isn t wrking fr yu. Simply fllw the preceding instructins and select a different frmat. Yu can als add r remve tpics r weeks at any time. S yu dn t have t wrry t much abut lcking yurself int a frmat befre yu really understand the system. Curse Settings The settings page, as shwn in Figure 2-11, where yu set the curse frmat, als gives yu access t a number f imprtant curse ptins. Yu ll find it is imprtant t take a mment t review the settings fr yur curse t ensure that it behaves the way yu want it t. T change yur curse settings: Click Edit Settings in the Administratin blck under the curse administratin sub tree n yur curse page. Review each f the general ptins t ensure they are apprpriate fr yur curse: Curse Full name: This is the name that is displayed n the tp header f every page in yur curse and als in the curse listings page. The name shuld be descriptive enugh s students can easily identify the curse in which they are wrking, but it shuldn t be t lng. Fr example, use English 400 Bewulf and nt ENG400 Bewulf and the heric pems f the ancient wrld. Curse Shrt name: Enter the institutinal shrthand fr yur curse. Many students recgnize Eng101, but nt Intrductin t cmpsitin. The shrt name als appears in the navigatin bar at the tp f the page. Curse Categry: Yur system administratr may have created curse categries, such as department r cllege labels, t help students and teachers find their curses. Depending n hw yur system is set up, yu may be able t categrize yur curse by department, subject, r ther rganizatinal principle. 47

48 Visible: Yu can hide the curse frm students in case it is under preparatin r sme mdificatin by using this setting. If it s Hidden then nly teachers and Site administratrs can access this curse. Figure 2-11 Editing the Curse Settings 48

49 Curse start date: The start date is the day the curse is first active. If yu are using a weekly curse frmat, the first week will start n the date yu set here. The start date is als used in curse reprts as the earliest pssible date fr which yu can btain lgs, activity, and participatin reprts. In general, if yur curse des have a real starting date, then it makes sense t set this date t that, n matter what curse frmat yu are using. Curse ID number: The curse ID number is used t prvide a link between Mdle and yur institutin s backend data systems. Mst Student Infrmatin Systems (SIS) has a unique identifier fr each curse. Mdle has its wn unique identifier, which is different frm the SIS ID. This field is used by Mdle t stre the SIS unique ID s Mdle will knw which curse the SIS is talking abut when synchrnizing curses and enrllments. Curse Summary: The summary appears in the curse listings page. A gd ne-paragraph summary will help cmmunicate the essence f yur curse t yur students. Curse Summary Files: If yu wish t add sme images t the curse summary then yu can add it here which will be displayed in the list f the curses tgether with the summary. Curse Frmat: Curse Frmat: This is where yu can set the curse frmat as discussed previusly. Number f Sectins: Use this t set the number f sectins yur curse will have. If yu need t change this later, yu can. Increasing the number results in sectins being added t the bttm f yur curse page; reducing the number results in sectins being remved frm the bttm f yur curse page, and any cntent in them hidden. Hidden sectins: When yu hide an upcming tpic sectin t prevent yur students frm jumping ahead, yu can chse t display the title as a cllapsed sectin r simply hide the tpic altgether. Displaying the cllapsed sectins gives yur students a rad map f the upcming tpics r weeks, s it s prbably a gd idea t leave this n the default setting. Curse Layut: Yu can change the curse layut t display whle curse n a single page r else t split it int several pages. Appearance: Frce Language: If yu want t take yur curse in a specific language yu can frce it here. If yu d s, yur students cannt change languages within the curse. Fr example fr language teaching curse like German, French etc. News items t shw: Use this setting t determine the number f curse news items displayed n the curse page. 49

50 Shw gradebk t students: This setting allws yu t select whether students can see the gradebk. If set t N, it desn t stp instructrs frm recrding grades, but simply prevents the students frm seeing them. Shw activity reprts: This setting allws students t view their activity histry in yur curse. This is useful if yu want students t reflect n their level f participatin. Files and Uplads: Maximum uplad size: This setting limits the size f files yu r yur students uplad t the curse. Yur system administratr sets the maximum size fr the system, but yu can chse t make the limit smaller than the system maximum. Yu can als further limit the size f files that yur students uplad as assignment submissins and fr ther activities. (We ll cver them as they cme up later in the bk.) Guest access: Allw Guest access: This setting determines whether a user can access the curse as a guest, withut being required t enrll. Passwrd: A passwrd allws guest access t the curse t be restricted t nly thse wh knw the passwrd. Guests will be required t supply the passwrd each time they access the curse. Grups: Grup Mde: Here yu can define the grup mde at the curse level by a pull dwn menu. "N grups", "Separate grups" and "Visible grups" are the chices. The selected setting will be the default grup mde fr all activities defined within that curse. The grup setting can affect what users see in the Participants list and wh they can interact with in activities. Frce Grup Mde: If the grup mde is "frced" at a curse-level, then this particular grup mde will be applied t every activity in that curse. This will verride any activities that may have a special grup setting. Default gruping: If grupings are enabled, a default gruping fr curse activities and resurces may be set. Grupings are used in case if yu want t make an activity (such as an assignment r a quiz) visible t nly ne set f users within a curse, yu need first t put the users int a grup and then put them int a gruping. A single gruping can huse ne grup r several grups. We will discuss abut Grupings in the later chapter. Rle Renaming: Yu can rename the rles used in yur curse. Fr example, yu may wish t rename the Teacher rle as "Facilitatr", "Tutr" r "Guide". These new rle names will appear within the curse. Fr example n the participants and the verride permissins pages. Once yu ve made all yur selectins, click the Save changes buttn. 50

51 Enrlling Students in the curse T select the Enrllment ptins fr yur curse, click and expand the Users tree under the curse administratin tree in the Administratin Blck. Then, click n "Enrlled users". It will shw the list f the participants enrlled in yur curse including their details like First Name, Surname, address, Last access, Assigned Rles within the curse, and the Enrllment methd. T enrll users t yur curse: Figure 2-12 Enrlling Users in curse Click "Enrll users" in the tp right side as shwn in the image. In the pp up windw, first chse the rle t be assigned frm the drp dwn menu. Let s say that yu want t assign Student rle t yur users. T limit the Enrllment duratin fr sme specified time, expand the Enrllment tree and set the Enrllment duratin. Click n the Names f the users t Enrll them as a Student in yur curse. After finishing click "Finish enrlling users". 51

52 Editing Mde ( Turn Editing On Buttn) Nw yu are having yur wn curse in preferred frmat and settings alng with yur students, we'll lk at hw t add cntent. T start the prcess, yu ll first need t turn editing n which will allw yu t add resurces and activities t yur curse. At the tp right f the page f any curse yu are teaching, yu ll see a buttn labeled, surprisingly enugh, Turn editing n. Clicking n this buttn will present yu with a new array f ptins. Yu can als switch n the editing mde frm the Administratin Blck under Curse Administratin tree. Fig 2-13 Blank Weekly Curse with Editing Mde turned On Starting at the tp f the screen, let s lk at what turning editing n enables yu t d. At the tp f each sectin, yu ll see an icn f a gear like. When yu click it, yu are presented with a Summary text area. Yu can use this t change the default sectin name and summarize each tpic r weekly sectin in yur curse. Yu shuld keep the summary t a sentence r tw fr each blck t avid making the main page t lng. Click Save changes buttn when yu ve added yur summary. Yu can g back and change it later by clicking the gear icn again. Yu will find the fllwing icns as mentined in the table in a single curse sectin. Icn Functin Edit Settings. This icn is used t edit the settings f the particular item like editing the settings f a label. Drag and Drp Icn - Mve any item in a different sectin/week r change the rder f the sectins in the curse layut. 52

53 Highlight Icn- the highlight icn allws yu t highlight a sectin as current. Eye Icn. Used t shw r hide a sectin r week r any single activity. Pencil Icn - Used t change the Title f a file as displayed n the curse page. Drp dwn menu t reveal the belw mentined icns. Mve right r left. Yu can mve blcks t the left- r right-hand clumns. Yu can als use this t indent items in the middle clumn. Grups Icn - the grups icn allws yu t change between n grups r separate/visible grups Duplicate Icn- the duplicate icn allws yu t cpy an activity r resurce. It's dne directly n the curse page. Rles icn - allws yu t assign rles lcally in the item. Delete icn - will permanently delete smething frm the curse Table 2-1 Icns used in Mdle Use these icns thrughut Mdle t custmize the interface fr yur needs. Figure 2-14 Edit Menu f an activity In additin t the icns fr manipulating blcks and activities, each sectin in the middle clumn has a link "Add an activity r resurce" t add tls fr adding resurce cntent such as web pages and links t web sites and activities such as frums, quizzes, lessns, and assignments. If yu like the native separate activity and resurce drp dwn menu like in Mdle 1.9 then yu can switch Off the activity chser frm the curse administratin tree by clicking "Activity Chser Off". 53

54 By adding the resurces available in the Mdle yu can create cntent directly within Mdle r link t cntent yu ve upladed. We ll describe each f these tls briefly nw, and cver them in depth in the next chapter: Bk: The first tl, Bk creates a Bk resurce n yur curse page which can be used fr creating a multi-page resurce with Chapters and subchapters. File: A picture, a pdf dcument, a spreadsheet, a sund file, a vide file. Yu can als directly drag and drp the files nt the curse hme page t add them as a resurce. Figure 2-15 "Add an activity r resurce" menu Flder: Fr helping rganize files and ne flder may cntain ther flders. IMS Cntent Package: Add static material frm ther surces in the standard IMS cntent package frmat. Label: Can be a few displayed wrds r an image used t separate resurces and activities in a tpic sectin, r can be a lengthy descriptin r instructins. Page: The student sees a single, scrllable screen that a teacher creates with the rbust HTML editr. URL: Yu can send the student t any place they can reach n their web brwser, fr example Wikipedia. 54

55 All the resurces are knwn as the Static activities in Mdle as they are fr sharing the infrmatin with the student in a single directin whereas the activities allws yu t add interactive tls t yur curse. An activity is a general name fr a grup f features in a Mdle curse. Usually an activity is smething that a student will d that interacts with ther students and r the teacher. There are 14 different types f activities in the standard Mdle. The bulk f this bk is dedicated t describing hw each f these tls wrks and hw t apply them in yur curse. Table 2-2 explains each tl very briefly. We ll learn mre abut these tls as they cme up later in the bk. Activity Type Descriptin Assignments Enable teachers t grade and give cmments n upladed files and assignments created n and ff line. Chat Chice Database Allws participants t have a real-time synchrnus discussin. A teacher asks a questin and specifies a chice f multiple respnses. Enables participants t create, maintain and search a bank f recrd entries. External Tl Allws participants t interact with LTI cmpliant learning resurces and activities n ther web sites. Feedback Frum Glssary Lessn Quiz SCORM Survey Wiki Wrkshp Table 2-2 Activity types in Mdle Fr creating and cnducting surveys t cllect feedback. Allws participants t have asynchrnus discussins. Enables participants t create and maintain a list f definitins, like a dictinary. Fr delivering cntent in flexible ways. Allws the teacher t design and set quiz tests, which may be autmatically marked and feedback and/r t crrect answers shwn. Enables SCORM packages t be included as curse cntent. Fr gathering data frm students t help teachers learn abut their class and reflect n their wn teaching. A cllectin f web pages that anyne can add t r edit. Enables peer assessment. 55

56 Adding cntent t the curse: By nw, yu re prbably wndering, When the heck d I get t add stuff t my curse? We ve prvided a lt f backgrund s yu ll understand sme f the available ptins. But, nw it s the time t start building yur curse. Let s start with a news item t annunce t everyne that yur nline materials are cming sn. The Site News is a special type f frum (fr a full descriptin f frums, see Chapter 6). It is autmatically created when the curse is first generated. Figure 2-16 Add a new discussin tpic 56

57 Everyne in the curse can read the pstings and the news is autmatically ed t them. It s a gd tl fr making general annuncements and sending reminders t students abut upcming assignments. T add a news item: 1. Click the "News Frum" link near the tp f yur curse page. 2. Click the Add a new tpic buttn. Yu ll see the page t add a new tpic, as shwn in Figure Enter the subject f the annuncement and the message t yur class. 4. If yu want t attach any files als then yu can attach with the pst. 5. By default all Mdle ntificatins are sent ut after a specified time cnfigured by yur Site Administratr. S, if yu need t send the News urgently befre that time has elapsed then yu can check the bx "Mail Nw" t send it immediately. 6. Click the Pst t Frum buttn. Yu will be returned t the News Frum page. 7. Click n yur curse name in the navigatin bar at the tp t return t yur curse page. Summary In this chapter, we ve lked at hw t create an accunt and persnalize yur prfile. We ve becme acquainted with Mdle s user interface and tls, and we ve chsen a curse frmat. In the next chapter, we ll start adding different types f cntent t yur new Mdle curse. 57

58 Chapter 4: Managing Cntent in Mdle Adding Cntent t Mdle The first thing mst peple want t d when they create a curse in Mdle is add sme cntent, such as a syllabus r a curse utline. As we explained in Chapter 2, yu can add cntent t yur curse using the Add an activity r resurce link in the central sectin f yur curse. Since Mdle 2.3, the Add a resurce and Add an activity menu's are clubbed tgether in a single menu with link Add and activity r resurce. When yu click n the link then it will pen a ppup menu fr yu t chse which resurce r activity yu want t chse. In this chapter, we ll use all f the tls under the resurce menu. Future chapters will cver the tls in the Add an activity menu. *** Remember that yu need t turn editing n t see the Add an activity r resurce link. The first tl, Bk creates a Bk resurce n yur curse page which can be used fr creating a multipage resurce with Chapters and subchapters. The fllwing tw, File and Flder, are used t manage cntent develped in ther prgrams, such as Wrd r PwerPint. Yu can als add cntent frm ther web sites and take advantage f the rich library f infrmatin available n the Web. Yu can als drag and drp files nt the curse page directly t add them as a file resurce. The next resurce, IMS Cntent Package enables yu t add prepackaged cntent frm sites arund the Web. The next tl "page" can be sued t create a web page resurce within the curse by using the text editr. And finally the last tl "URL" can be used t prvide a weblink as a resurce. Let s begin by creating a simple label fr yur curse. Adding a Label Labels enable yu t add additinal text r graphics t yur curse page. Labels can be used t add banners t curses, label sectins f resurces and activities, r prvide quick instructins n the frnt page f yur curse. T add a label frm the Curse page: 58

59 1. Click the Turn editing n buttn. 2. Click the "Add and activity r resurce" link in the curse page in the sectin where yu want t add the label. 3. In the ppup menu select Label under the resurces menu. 4. Create yur label using the HTML editr (see the fllwing sectin Using Mdle Text editr fr mre details n this). Yu can use Label t insert Images, Vides, Audi files in yur curse. 5. Select whether t make yur label visible by selecting Shw r Hide frm the visible menu which is cllapsed by default. 6. After yu have created yur label, click the Save and return t curse buttn. Figure 3-1 Add label Once yu have created a label, the full text f the label will appear in the sectin where yu created it. *** Yu can use a hidden label t prvide infrmatin nly fr ther teachers n yur curse, since students are unable t see hidden items. *** If yu want t use a label t identify a gruping f resurces and activities within a sectin, yu can indent the links under the label using the arrws adjacent t each 59

60 resurce r activity link. This will give yur gruping sme visual separatin frm the rest f the cntent. Cmpsing a Page The page mdule enables a teacher t create a web page resurce using the text editr. A page can display text, images, sund, vide, web links and embedded cde, such as Ggle maps. A page may be used T present the terms and cnditins f a curse r a summary f the curse syllabus T embed several vides r sund files tgether with sme explanatry text *** Advantages f using the page mdule rather than the file mdule include the resurce being mre accessible (fr example t users f mbile devices) and easier t update. Figure 3-2 Cmpsing a page 60

61 *** Using the page resurce is advantageus instead f uplading a wrdprcessed dcument, particularly if the dcument cntains text that is just t be read and nt dwnladed. *** Fr large amunts f cntent, it's recmmended that a bk is used rather than a page. Cmpsing a page resurce is very easy: Click the Turn editing n buttn. Click the "Add and activity r resurce" link in the curse page and select "Page" in the ppup menu. Mdle will then display the page t cmpse a text page like the ne in Figure 3-2. Enter a name fr the text page. The name yu give the page will be displayed in the cntent sectin n yur curse page. Students will access yur page by clicking n the name. Be sure t give the page a descriptive name s students will knw what they are accessing. Write a descriptin f the page in the descriptin field. Add the cntents in the Page cntent field. Yu can use the features f the Text editr t add media, images, links and mre. Under the Appearance sectin, yu can cntrl if yu want t hide the page name and descriptin t be displayed nt the curse page. Under "Cmmn Mdule settings" yu can cmpletely hide the page frm students by chsing Hide under the Visible drp dwn menu. Yu can als hide the page at a later stage by clicking the Eye icn/disable frm the curse hme page. In the ID number field, yu can mentin the ID number fr identifying the activity fr grade calculatin purpses. If the activity is nt included in any grade calculatin then the ID number field may be left blank. Scrll dwn t the bttm f the page and click the "Save and return t curse". If yu want t have a lk nt the just cmpsed webpage then yu can click n "Save and Display" t display it directly. Adding URL t the curse The URL mdule enables a teacher t prvide a web link as a curse resurce. Anything that is freely available nline, such as dcuments r images, can be linked t; the URL desn t have t be the hme page f a website. The URL f a particular web page may be cpied and pasted r a teacher can use the file picker and chse a link frm a repsitry such as Flickr, YuTube r Wikimedia (depending upn which repsitries are enabled fr the site). Yu can als add the URL's t any ther resurce/activity by using the text editr. T add a URL t the curse hme page: 61

62 Click the Turn editing n buttn. Click the "Add and activity r resurce" link in the curse page and select "URL" in the bttm f the ppup menu. All settings may expanded by clicking the "Expand all/cllapse all" link tp right. In the name field whatever yu type will frm the link learner s click n t view the URL s it is helpful t give it a name that suggests its purpse. In the descriptin field: Add a descriptin f yur page here. Click "Shw editing tls icn" t display the rich text editr, and drag the bttm right f the text bx ut t expand it. Figure 3-3 Add URL resurce If the display descriptin in the curse page is checked then the descriptin yu entered abve will be visible under the name f the URL. 62

63 In the cntent field enter the URL f the external site yu want t link t r else click the "Chse a link" buttn t pen the file picker and chse a URL YuTube, Picasa etc. Under the Appearance sectin which is cllapsed by default yu will find ptins t cntrl hw the URL is displayed. Display: This setting, tgether with the URL file type and whether the brwser allws embedding, determines hw the URL is displayed. The ptins in the drp dwn menu are: Autmatic - The best display ptin fr the URL is selected autmatically Embed - The URL is displayed within the page belw the navigatin bar tgether with the URL descriptin and any blcks Open - Only the URL is displayed in the brwser windw In pp-up - The URL is displayed in a new brwser windw withut menus r an address bar. Pp-up width/height: If yur URL is t be displayed in a pp-up, specify the width and height here Display URL descriptin: T shw the resurce name and/r descriptin when clicking t access the URL, simply tick the apprpriate checkbxes. URL Variables: This sectin allws yu t pass internal infrmatin as part f the URL. This is useful if the URL is actually an interactive web page that takes parameters, and yu want t pass smething like the name f the current user, fr example. Under "Cmmn Mdule settings" yu can cmpletely hide the page frm students by chsing Hide under the Visible drp dwn menu. In the ID number field, yu can mentin the ID number fr identifying the activity fr grade calculatin purpses. Click "Save and return t curse" t save and return t the curse hme page. If yu want t have a lk nt the just cmpsed URL then yu can click n "Save and Display" t display it directly. *** If yur site administratr has enabled the feature drag and drp uplad f text/links then a link can als be dragged int a sectin f the curse and given a name. Creating a flder resurce The flder mdule enables a teacher t display a number f related files inside a single flder, reducing scrlling n the curse page. A zipped flder may be upladed and unzipped fr display, r an empty flder created and files upladed int it. 63

64 A flder may be used: Fr a series f files n ne tpic, fr example a set f past examinatin papers in pdf frmat r a cllectin f image files fr use in student prjects T prvide a shared uplading space fr teachers n the curse page (keeping the flder hidden s that nly teachers can see it) T add a flder t the curse page, yu need t first get it zipped r cmpressed using sme file cmpressin tl. The way yu d this depends n yur cmputer and perating system. Yu can use the pen surce file cmpressin tl 7 zip (http://www.7-zip.rg/). Figure 3-4 Create Flder 64

65 There are tw methds f adding a flder t yur curse. First Methd: Click the 'Turn editing n' buttn at the tp right f the curse page. Drag and drp the flder nt the curse sectin where yu'd like it t appear. Click the buttn f the actin yu wuld like t take with the flder (in ur case, "Unzip") and click "Uplad" If necessary, edit the title f the flder by clicking the pencil icn and yu're dne. Secnd Methd: Click the 'Turn editing n' buttn at the tp right f the curse page. Click 'Add an activity r resurce' link, then in the activity chser; select flder and click the "Add" buttn. All settings may expanded by clicking the "Expand all" link tp right. Fr General Sectin: Add name and descriptin f the flder yu want t display t yur students. Fr Cntent Sectin: Yu can either drag and drp a zipped/cmpressed flder int the bx with an arrw r click the Add buttn t pen the File picker menu in rder t chse a file frm yur cmputer r a repsitry. When the flder thumbnail appears, click n it and select "Unzip" as shwn in Fig 3-4. Fr Display flder cntents sectin: Decide here whether t have the flder displayed n a separate page (the default) r in line with r withut subflders expanded r cllapsed. Click "Save and return t curse" t save and return t the curse hme page. Creating a file resurce When yu wish t share with yur students a simple file such as a Wrd-prcessed dcument r slideshw (e.g. created in MS Wrd, MS Pwerpint, r Open Office) yu use the file resurce type. It allws yu t uplad and display a variety f resurces n yur curse. Hw yur students access them depends n yur chices in File resurce settings. *** Yur students will nly be able t pen yur files if they have the apprpriate sftware n their wn devices. T add a file t yur curse: First methd: Click the 'Turn editing n' buttn at the tp right f the curse page. Drag and drp the file nt the curse sectin where yu'd like it t appear. 65

66 If necessary, edit the title f the file by clicking the pencil icn, r edit ther ptins by clicking the editing icn. And yu're ready with a file resurce t share with yur students. Secnd Methd: Click the 'Turn editing n' buttn at the tp right f the curse page. Click 'Add an activity r resurce' link, then in the activity chser, select file then click the Add buttn In the general sectin prvide a name and descriptin fr ur file t be displayed n the curse page. In the cntent sectin yu can either drag and drp files int the area specified by the arrw if yu are using an apprpriate brwser, r click n "Add" and use the File picker t uplad yur file. Figure 3-5 Add file resurce Appearance Sectin: Display: 66

67 Autmatic - Make the best guess at what shuld happen (prbably what is wanted 99% f the time). Embed - Shw the Mdle page with heading, blcks and fter. Shw the title/descriptin f the item and display the file directly in the page as well (gd fr images, flash animatins, vides?, PDFs). Frce dwnlad - user clicks n the file, then the web brwser pps up with the 'where d yu want t save this file' bx. Open - N Mdle heading, blcks, fter r descriptin - just shw the file in the web brwser (e.g. shws image, PDF, flash animatin, taking up the whle brwser windw) In pp-up - Same as 'Open', but pens a new brwser windw t shw this file (withut the Mdle heading, blcks, etc.) Shw Size/Type: T shw the file size and/r type n the curse page and als n the resurce page, simply tick the apprpriate checkbxes. Display resurce name/descriptin: T shw the resurce name and/r descriptin when clicking t access the file, simply tick the apprpriate checkbxes Belw the Display resurce name/descriptin yu will find a link: "Shw Mre" When yu click n the link then yu will additinal ptins fr cntrlling the appearance f the resurce such as: Pp-up width/height: If yur file is t be displayed in a pp-up, specify the width and height here Use filters n file cntent: If yu wish included media such as images and mp3 t appear embedded in the files then select "all files" r "HTML files nly", accrding t yur file types. Click Save and return t curse t return back t the curse hme page. Adding an IMS cntent package IMS Cntent Packages are resurces packaged t an agreed specificatin, making it pssible fr a package t be reused in different systems withut needing t cnvert it t a different frmat. Cntent-authring sftware ften prvides the ptin f packaging as an IMS Cntent Package. Yu may have IMS Cntent Packages frm a different LMS system r have purchased sme IMS Cntent Packages as curse cntent. T add an IMS Cntent Package: Click the 'Turn editing n' buttn at the tp right f the curse page. Yu can add an IMS Cntent package t a curse by chsing it frm the "Add an activity r resurce" link. In the general sectin prvide a name and descriptin fr IMS cntent package t be displayed n the curse page. 67

68 In the Cntent sectin, drag and drp yur IMS Cntent package int the bx with the arrw r else click the buttn "Chse a file" t lcate and add yur IMS Cntent package via the File picker Click Save and return t curse t return back t the curse hme page. Figure 3-6 Adding IMS cntent package t curse And yu're dne with the IMS cntent package in yur curse. Adding a bk resurce The Bk mdule makes it easy t create multi-page resurces with a bk-like frmat, with chapters and subchapters. The bk mdule allws yu t have main chapters and sub chapters, but it ges n deeper. 68

69 Bks can cntain media files as well as text and are useful fr displaying lengthy passages f infrmatin which can be brken dwn int sectins. Yu can use the bk mdule t present infrmatin in a well-structured, user-friendly frmat t yur students. Bk mdule als allws yu t imprt individual web pages r flders f web pages frm Administratin >> Bk Administratin >> Imprt Chapter which makes it useful fr grup wrk. Fr Example: Each student creates a simple web page abut yur schl and the teacher, (that's yu!) uplads the pages t the bk. Vila! Yu and yur students have created a useful, interesting resurce fr new students and their parents. Yu culd d this t create a class ck bk and nutritin guide, a resurce abut lcal civic rganizatins, triangles in ur daily lives, wrld leaders, yu name it. Figure 3-7 Creating a bk resurce A bk may be used T display reading material fr individual mdules f study As a staff departmental handbk As a shwcase prtfli f student wrk 69

70 Whle bks and individual chapters may be printed by selecting the relevant link in Administratin > Bk administratin. T Add a bk t yur curse page: A teacher can add a bk by chsing it frm the "Add an activity r resurce" link. In the general sectin prvide a name and descriptin fr the Bk. In the appearance sectin: Chapter frmatting: Yu can chse hw t frmat the chapters f the bk. The ptins are: Nne - chapter and subchapter titles are nt frmatted at all, use if yu want t define special numbering styles. Numbers - chapters and subchapters are numbered (1, 1.1, 1.2, 2,...) Bullets - subchapters are indented and displayed with bullets. Indented - subchapters are indented. Custm Titles: Nrmally the chapter title is displayed in the table f cntents (TOC) AND as a heading abve the cntent. If this checkbx is ticked, the chapter title is NOT displayed as a heading abve the cntent. A different title (perhaps lnger than the chapter title) may be entered as part f the cntent. Click "Save and display" t prceed further t add sme chapters and subchapters in the just cmpsed bk. Mdle will take yu t a new page where yu can add a new chapter t the bk. On add new chapter page Prvide a title f the chapter. If yu've already created a chapter then yu can mark this chapter as a subchapter. Please nte that this checkbx will remain disabled when yu are adding the first chapter f the bk. Add yur chapter cntent in the Cntent field neatly frmatted with the help f the HTML editr tls. Click Save Changes in the bttm f the page. Then yu will see the first chapter f the Bk yu had just created. T navigate within the chapters f the bk there is an additinal blck available in the left side i.e. Table f Cntents. And if yu have still the Editing Mde On then yu will see sme icns in the TOC blck where yu can edit the settings f the chapters f yur bk. T update/edit the cntent f the chapter click the gear icn. T add mre chapters/subchapters t the bk, click the "Plus" icn. T delete a chapter click the "Crss icn". T hide the chapters frm being visible t the students click the disable eye icn. 70

71 Yu can als dwnlad the cmplete bk in the IMS cntent package frmat by clicking Administratin >> Bk Administratin >> Generate IMS CP link. T add Multilanguage cntent Mdle allws yu t publish resurces in multiple languages. The language f the resurce will change when the user changes their selected Mdle language. If yu want the cntent f yur curse t be displayed in mre than ne language, yu can create cntent in multiple languages and the Multilanguage cntent filter will ensure the language displayed is the ne selected by the user. *** TIP: Yur system administratr needs t enable the Multilanguage cntent filter fr these instructins t wrk. Let s add a page resurce with multiple languages: First create yur cntent in different languages. Yu can use the Ggle Input Tls fr typing in different languages. Add a page resurce as mentined in previus sectin. In the page cntent sectin click the icn t expand the editr tlbar t shw all the available tls. Then, click in the HTML editr t enable the HTML cde editing mde. Enclse each language blck in the fllwing tags, where xx and yy are twletter language cdes (as shwn in the languages drp-dwn menu n the frnt page f yur Mdle site): <span lang="xx" class="multilang">yur cntent in lang xx here</span> <span lang="yy" class="multilang">yur cntent in lang yy here</span> Adding Media files t yur curse Adding media cntent can help yu cmmunicate sme ideas and prcesses mre easily than text alne. Imagine trying t teach a language if the students aren t able t hear it spken. Or hw much easier it wuld be t learn hw vlcanes wrk if yu culd see a vide r an animatin. Frtunately, Mdle makes it easy t add rich media cntent t yur curse. The Mdle media filters autmatically recgnize yur media type and put the right srt f link int yur web page s students can access it easily. T add a new media file: Let s say yu want t add a.swf (ShckWave Flash) file, which is saved in yur cmputer, cntaining sme animatin abut the slar system. 71

72 Click the Turn Editing Mde On Buttn n yur curse page if yu are nt in editing mde. Drag and drp the file frm yur cmputer nt yur curse windw in the tpic/sectin where yu want t add the multimedia file. Make sure that it desn't exceed the file size limit f yur site. Change the title f the file as yu want t shw it t yur students and yu've successfully added a media file nt yur curse page. *** In case the file is nt displaying crrectly, then yu may have t adjust the appearance settings f the file. Managing and updating yur cntent Uplading cntent is nly half the battle f cntent management in Mdle. Yu ll need t ensure that yur upladed cntent is current, and yu ll ccasinally want t replace r delete files. Frtunately, Mdle has sme useful features t help yu manage yur cntent nce it s n the server. Figure 3-8 Curse Administratin Blck Creating an alias/shrtcut When an upladed file r a file frm the Private files, Drpbx, File system r EQUELLA repsitries - is re-used elsewhere n Mdle, the teacher has the ptin t make a cpy (a new, uncnnected versin) r t create a shrtcut r alias. If an alias is created, then when the riginal file is updated, it will change in all instances f the alias. S a teacher might add curse ntes t their private files fr example, and then add them int a number f curses. When the teacher makes an alteratin in the file in their private files, this alteratin will be reflected in all instances f the curse ntes. 72

73 An alias cannt be made in the fllwing areas f Mdle: an assignment submissin a frum pst attachment a wrkshp submissin a quiz essay a database activity file field This is t prevent cases such as a student uplading an item fr assessment and then subsequently changing the riginal in their private files. When a student uses a file frm their private files in ne f these instances, they d nt see the ptins t "cpy" r "create an alias". Tracking Versins One f the biggest challenges yu will face in keeping yur cntent rganized is dealing with versining. As the semester prgresses, yu may have multiple versins f yur syllabus that reflect changes t the calendar. Or yu may have multiple versins f a presentatin that has evlved ver the years. There are a cuple f strategies yu can use t track versins and ensure that yur students are accessing the crrect versin. The easiest way is t develp a naming scheme fr yur files. While many peple will attach a versin number, we recmmend using a date stamp. A date stamp lets peple knw just hw recent the versin is, and yu dn t have t track the current versin number. T add a date stamp, simply add the date n which yu saved the versin t the end f the filename. Fr example, the first versin f a syllabus fr yur fall curse may be called Syllabus_8_30.pdf. Later in the semester, yu may pst a revised versin named Syllabus_9_21.pdf. Date versining helps yu keep track f the versin n the server and the latest versin n yur cmputer. Effective Cntent Practices There are a few effective practices that can make life easier fr yu and yur students. First, there are file frmat tricks t ensure yur students can dwnlad and use yur cntent. Secnd, make sure the bit size f yur files is as small as it can be, s yur students wn t grw ld waiting t dwnlad tmrrw s lecture ntes. Third, there are creative ways t use static cntent in yur curses t help yu and yur students succeed. File Frmats Every file yu create and save n yur cmputer has a specific file frmat. Fr example, Wrd files are saved in.dc r.dcx frmat, and can be pened nly in a cmpatible versin f Wrd. Hwever, this can cause prblems if yur students dn t 73

74 have the same versin f Wrd yu d. A slutin is t cntinue t create yur dcuments in Wrd but save them as Rich Text Frmat, r RTF, a frmat that a wide variety f wrd-prcessing prgrams can pen. In mst versins f Wrd, yu can save a file as RTF by fllwing these steps: Select Save As frm the file menu. Chse Rich Text Frmat (RTF) frm the file type drp-dwn. Save the RTF cpy f yur dcument. There are a number f file frmats fr displaying text and images that almst everyne can pen, regardless f their cmputing platfrm, and yu shuld strive t use these wherever pssible. These frmats include RTF, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Prtable Display Frmat (PDF), and picture frmats, including PICT, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, and PNG. Table 3-1 describes sme cmmn file frmats. File type Descriptin Sftware needed t use the file RTF HTML A wrd-prcessr frmat that is readable by a wide range f applicatins. Yu can save Wrd and PwerPint dcuments as RTF. The language f the Web. Every web page displayed in a brwser is created in HTML. Mdle has a built-in HTML editr yu can use t create dcuments directly in Mdle. Mst mdern wrd prcessrs will read RTF, including OpenOffice.rg Writer. Any web brwser. Sme wrd prcessrs will als read HTML dcuments. PDF PDF is a file frmat created by Adbe Systems fr dcument exchange. PDF files may be created with Acrbat (nt the reader but the prfessinal package) r the OpenOffice.rg suite. Acrbat Reader is a free dwnlad frm Adbe. As the mst widely used presentatincreatin sftware, PwerPint files are PwerPint natural candidates fr uplad. The (ppt) presentatins are easy t share, but be careful abut file size and access. PwerPint, PwerPint viewer, r OpenOffice.rg Impress. 74

75 Pictures (PICT, There are a lt f graphic file frmats. TIFF, Generally, nly GIF, JPEG, and PNG are JPEG, GIF, viewable directly in a brwser. PNG) GIF, JPEG, and PNG require a brwser. Other frmats require apprpriate external viewers. Audi files (WAV, MP3, RAM, MOV) Vide files (MOV, WMV, RV) Audi files can be large, depending n yur bit rate and cmpressin frmat. Be sure the file size is smaller than the maximum file Table 3-1 Cmmn file frmats uplad size fr Mdle. Check with yur system administratr. Yur Mdle server may nt accept a large vide file. Befre yu attempt t uplad a large vide file, ask yur system administratr abut file size limits. Yur students will need t dwnlad the entire vide, which may be a prblem with a slw dial-up cnnectin. Yur students will need media player sftware. Many students will be able t play audi in MP3 frmat. T view a vide, yur students will need a media player that can play the apprpriate frmat. Knw whether yur mvies can play in QuickTime, Windws Media Player, r RealPlayer. Reducing file sizes As imprtant as creating files yur students can pen is making sure thse files are a manageable size. Graphics are usually the biggest ffenders, and they crp up in sme unlikely places. There are three strategies that will give yu the best results fr the effrt. Strategy 1: Save yur PwerPint presentatins as PDF Big PwerPint files are ften the wrst file-size ffenders. It s t easy t add cl transitins, clip art, and images that expand a simple hur-lng presentatin int a Gigabyte behemth that takes an hur t dwnlad. Nt a gd use f time fr smething that students will simply print ut and bring t class. We recmmend exprting yur presentatin as PDF using OpenOffice.rg (http://www.penffice.rg/dwnlad/index.html). Students will get the benefits f the utline f the lecture, including graphics, and be able t print cpies f the presentatin slides, and the file will be quick and easy t dwnlad. 75

76 Strategy 2: Scan articles as text, nt images There are many gd articles that just aren t available in electrnic frmat. If yu want t avid printing an entire reader, scanning articles is an easy way t give yur students access t imprtant resurces. Many libraries nw have electrnic reserve services that will scan them fr yu. Scanning articles can result in very large files because mst scanner sftware, by default, scans everything as a graphic. S when yu scan a page, yu re really creating a picture f the page that is much larger than a text versin. The cmputer has t stre infrmatin abut every dt n the page, nt just infrmatin abut the characters and their placement. The slutin is t use a sftware tl called Optical Character Recgnitin, r OCR. This great tl recgnizes the shape f the letters and gives yu a text versin f the article. Yu can then manipulate the text versin in the same way yu d edit any ther text dcument. It has the added advantage f being accessible t screen readers fr students with visual disabilities. Yu can use the pen surce tl Capture2Text (http://capture2text.surcefrge.net/) fr ptical character recgnitin. Strategy 3: Reduce yur image size and use cmpressin Finally, if yu have digital images, it s very imprtant t ptimize their size and reslutin fr sharing ver the Web. Mdern digital cameras and scanners can prduce amazing, crystal-clear images, but at a price f very large file sizes. Mst cameras and scanners cme with free utilities that enable yu t manipulate images. Other prgrams such as Phtshp are fully featured, prfessinal packages with lts f tls. T reduce yur file size, yu nly need sme very simple tls, prvided by mst image-manipulatin sftware. T reduce the image size yu can als make use f sme pen surce tls available like Image Resizer fr Windws (https://imageresizer.cdeplex.cm/) r batch image cmpressin tl fr windws (http://surcefrge.net/prjects/bir/) By reducing the size f yur files, yu ll make life easier fr yurself and yur students. But the smallest, mst prtable files in the wrld dn t mean much if yur students can t use them successfully in yur class. Next, we ll discuss sme interesting ways yu can use cntent t make yur Mdle class a valuable resurce fr yur students. 76

77 Creative Cntent Mdle allws yu t uplad just abut any file that resides n yur cmputer. Hwever, the key t a successful cntent strategy is knwing what cntent helps yur students be successful and what is unnecessary r cnfusing. Belw are tw best practices fr adding cntent t yur curse. These practices wrk well in a range f curse designs, but there are thers that might wrk just as well fr yur particular curse. Uplading lecture ntes One f the easiest ways t use Mdle t increase student learning is t uplad yur lecture ntes befre the lecture. Prviding access t yur lecture utlines befre a class meeting gives yur students a tl t help prepare fr class and structure their class ntes. If students knw which tpics yu cnsider imprtant enugh t include in yur lecture, they are mre likely t pay attentin t thse areas in any assigned readings. During class, they can use the lecture ntes as a basic utline and cncentrate n elabrating the main ideas with examples. Lecture ntes are als a useful tl fr students whse first language is different frm that f the speaker. If they get lst during a lecture, they can refer t the ntes t get back n track. If yu use PwerPint in yur lectures, a simple way t create and uplad lecture ntes is t save yur slides as an RTF file. The RTF file eliminates graphics and ther extras and prvides the students with a plain-text utline. It will be easy t dwnlad and print fr class. External web sites Effectively using the Web means yu dn t have t create r phtcpy everything yu want t use in yur class. There is a lt f quality cntent available n the Web, if yu knw where t lk and hw t evaluate it. A full discussin abut vetting nline resurces is beynd the scpe f this bk, but yur institutin s librarian can recmmend sme surces t get yu started. Mst newspapers and news magazines have nline versins yu can bring int yur class fr discussins f current events. Universities, schls, and nnprfit rganizatins publish huge amunts f cntent available fr yu t use free f charge. In additin, there is a grwing pen cntent mvement, which publishes cntent available fr anyne t use. Mst pen cntent is published under a Creative Cmmns license, which allws users t chse the type f public license they want t use (http://creativecmmns.rg). Authrs can use the CC licenses t license their wrk fr use thrugh any cmbinatin f attributin (their name stays attached), with a share-alike license (yu can share any 77

78 derivative wrks as lng as yu use the same license), r nncmmercial use (yu can t use the materials fr cmmercial purpses). The Creative Cmmns site als has a search engine fr cntent that has been licensed using a CC license. *** This bk has been licensed under the Creative Cmmns attributin and sharealike license. In additin t the general cntent released by peple under the Creative Cmmns licenses, sme universities have begun publishing curse materials fr use by the general public. These cllectins are knwn as OpenCurseWare (OCW) repsitries. MIT has the mst well-knwn cllectin, but ther universities are fllwing suit. Sme f the bigger cllectins are: MIT (http://cw.mit.edu) - MIT ffers a cmprehensive cllectin f curses frm accunting t zlgy. Sme f their curses have vide lectures available in additin t the syllabus, lecture ntes, and prblem sets. Utah State University (http://cw.usu.edu) - Utah State ffers a gd cllectin f basic curses with an emphasis n bilgical and irrigatin engineering and instructinal technlgy. Jhns Hpkins Blmberg Schl f Public Health (http://cw.jhsph.edu) - This is a cllectin f public health curses frm ne f the wrld s leading medical schls. UK Open University (http://penlearn.pen.ac.uk) - The OU ffers full-text versins f their cntent, instead f just curse utlines and ntes. In additin t the institutinal cllectins, there are a grwing number f user-created cntent sites available n the Web. These sites allw anyne t create, change, remix, and catalg cntent. While the quality f the cntent can vary wildly, there is a large and grwing bdy f excellent cntent available fr yu t use. Sme f these sites are: Wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.rg) - An nline encyclpedia develped by thusands f vlunteers. Anyne can create and edit dcuments. Wikibks (http://en.wikibks.rg) - A sister prject f Wikipedia. It aims t create pen textbks that are freely available t the whle wrld. This list is by n means exhaustive. Simply using Ggle as a tl in yur class vastly expands the amunt and variety f cntent available t yur students. Summary Ultimately, the cntent yu develp and share in yur Mdle curse is up t yu. Static Mdle cntent prvides resurces fr students as they engage in the learning 78

79 prcess. In this chapter, we ve lked at hw t uplad and create cntent fr yur Mdle curse. In the fllwing chapters, we ll discuss sme f the dynamic activities yu can add t yur class t make it truly cmpelling. 79

80 Chapter 5: Managing Yur Class Nw that we have cvered the basics f setting up a curse and adding cntent, we need t take a lk at sme f Mdle s underlying capabilities. At first glance, this may seem like administrivia, but understanding rles and grups is ne f the keys t unlcking Mdle s full ptential as a learning envirnment. A persn s rle in a curse determines what he can d in ther wrds, what capabilities he has. It s a very pwerful system, but it des have a bit f underlying cmplexity. Yu can use grups t create student wrkgrups, recitatin sectins, r any ther arbitrary gruping yu need t realize yur learning design. We will start by discussing rles, since anyne wh wants t d smething in yur curse need t be assigned a rle. Understanding and Using Rles: The rles and permissins system in Mdle prvides yu with a huge amunt f flexibility fr managing hw students and ther peple interact with yur curse. The new rles system supprts guest, student, nn-editing teacher, editing teacher, curse creatr, and administratr rles ut f the bx; it als allws yu t create and custmize rles, and t change what a given rle can d in each activity. Fr example, yu can nw create permissins in individual frums, which allws yu t let students act as mderatrs in ne frum while yu retain the mderatr rle in all f the ther frums in yur curse. A rle is a cllectin f permissins defined fr the whle system that yu can assign t specific users in specific cntexts. The cmbinatin f rles and cntext define a specific user's ability t d smething n any page. Fr many peple it seems a bit daunting t understand rles, but dn t wrry. Using rles and permissins is smething yu can take slwly. Yu can start the usual way, assigning peple as students, teachers, and ther rles specified by yur institutin. Later, when yur curse design grws mre elabrate, yu can begin t experiment with verrides and assigning specific rles in specific cntexts. Mdle's Default rles descriptin The descriptin f each standard rle in Mdle including the basic descriptin and shrt name is given in Table

81 Rle Administratr Guest Shrt Name Descriptin admin guest Authenticated User user Authenticated user n frnt page Teacher Nn-editing teacher Student Manager frntpage editing teacher teacher student manager Table 4-1 Mdle s default rle descriptin Administratrs have full access t the entire site and t all curses. They can d all the necessary changes in the cnfiguratin files. Guests have minimal privileges and usually cannt enter any cntent except a teacher allws fr it. All lgged-in users in the Mdle site in any rle. All users lgged in t the frntpage curse. Since Mdle s frnt page is als a curse with ID=1 where yu can add sme activities where the users can participate if they have assigned this rle. Editing teachers can d anything within a curse, including changing activities and grading students. Nn-editing teachers can teach in curses and grade students, but nt alter any activities. Students can participate in curses and participate in activities within the curse. Managers can access curses and mdify them, withut participatin. We ll start simply, by assigning users t predefined rles in yur curse. Then we ll take a lk at the rles and capabilities system and later discuss hw t use the advanced features. Nw, befre we start using rles let s get sme basics abut Cntext, Permissin, Rle and Capability Cntext: A functinal area f Mdle. Cntexts have a hierarchy. Examples f cntexts include a curse, activity mdule, r resurce. Permissin: Permissins are paired with each capability. There are fur pssible permissin values: Allw, Prevent, Prhibit and Nt set /Inherit. (It is called ntset when defining rles and inherit when verriding permissins.) Rle: A named set f permissins thse are assciated with each capability. Fr example. The "Teacher" and "Student" rles cme with the standard Mdle install. Capability: A cnfigurable aspect f prgram behavir. Mdle has 100s f capabilities. Each capability has a cmputer friendly name like md/frum: rate and a human-friendly name like "Rate psts." 81

82 Assigning Rles in Yur Curse: Mst f the time, students will enrll themselves r be added autmatically by yur university s enrllment system, s there shuldn t be much need fr yu t manually enrll students. Hwever, if yu need t add a teaching assistant, an utside guest, r a student wh is having a prblem with financial aid, yu must manually enrll them, i.e., assign them a rle in yur Mdle curse. Figure 4-1 Assigning a rle *** By default, teachers are nly allwed t assign the rles f nn-editing teacher, student, and guest. If yu want t assign the rle f teacher, yu will need t ask yur system administratr fr this t be allwed. T assign a user the rle f student: Click Curse Administratin > Users > Enrlled Users in the administratin blck. It will display all f the enrlled users in yur curse. Click "Enrll users" in the tp right side as shwn in the image. In the pp up windw, first chse the rle t be assigned frm the drp dwn menu. Let s say that yu want t assign Student rle t yur users. T limit the Enrllment duratin fr sme specified time, expand the Enrllment tree and set the Enrllment duratin and starting date. 82

83 Click n the Names f the users t Enrll them as a Student in yur curse. After enrlling the students click "Finish enrlling users". *** Users must have an accunt n yur Mdle site befre yu can assign them a rle in yur curse. If they dn t appear in either the existing r ptential users list, they will need t create an accunt befre they can be assigned a rle. Students will have access t yur curse as sn as yu assign them a rle. They wn t need t have an enrllment key r t cnfirm the enrllment. Remving Students If a student drps yur class, yu ll want t remve the student frm yur Mdle curse as well. Leaving a student enrlled in yur Mdle curse when she is nt n the fficial rster makes grading and class management much mre difficult. When yu recrd grades r lk fr student assignments, extra students n the rll gets cnfusing. The nnparticipating student will als have access t yur discussin bards and ther ptentially sensitive infrmatin. Frtunately, remving students is easy. Simply click the "delete" icn besides the Enrllment methd clumn in the extreme right n the Enrlled Users page f yur curse. Temprarily Suspending a User Accunt There may be times when yu are nt sure abut the status f the students and yu want t disable them fr a while befre remving them cmpletely frm yur curse. In that case, t suspend a user frm the curse: Click the icn in the Enrllment methd clumn against the Students name that yu want t suspend. Under the Status drp dwn menu change the status frm "Active" t "Suspended" and yu're dne. Managing Enrllment Methds fr yur curse If yur university/institutin desn t have an autmatic enrllment system, then ensuring that nly students wh are fficially enrlled in yur curse have access t yur Mdle curse can be tricky. Sme f yu may want t make curses accessible fr guest users als s that they can als take a sneak preview f the curse which can be used especially fr crprate training. Yu may als want t let the students within yur Mdle site t be capable t enrll themselves in yur curse. Fr all these yu have t cnfigure the enrllment methds fr yur curse. 83

84 T manage the enrllment methds: Click Curse Administratin > Users > Enrlled Methds in the administratin blck. It will display all the available enrllment methds including the number f students enrlled using the methd in yur curse and ptins t add new enrllment methds (New enrllment methds have t be first enabled by site administratr alng with the capability t add, then nly yu will be able t add them). The enrllment methds which are shwn as grayed ut are currently disabled. Yu can delete any enrllment methd by clicking the delete icn. T enable the Guest access f enrllment fr the curse, simply click the "Eye " icn besides the Guest access enrllment methd. T let the students enrll themselves in yur curse, turn n the "Self Enrllment (Student)" methd by clicking the "Eye" icn. Yu can als set an enrllment key fr self-enrllment methd and directly add the students t a grup by setting the Grup enrllment key. Capabilities and Permissins Nw it s the time t learn abut the Capabilities and permissins. As we discussed earlier there are 4 key cncepts t understand. Rle: A named set f permissins that is assciated with each capability. Fr example. The "Teacher" and "Student" rles cme with the standard Mdle install. Permissin: Permissins are paired with each capability. There are fur pssible permissin values: Allw, Prevent, Prhibit and Nt set /Inherit. (It is called ntset when defining rles and inherit when verriding permissins.) Capability: A cnfigurable aspect f prgram behavir. Mdle has 100s f capabilities. Each capability has a cmputer friendly name like md/frum:rate and a human-friendly name like "Rate psts." Cntext: A functinal area f Mdle. A cntext is the scpe within which a rle assignment is valid. Cntexts are rganized in a hierarchy, where lwer (mre specific) cntexts inherit capabilities frm higher (less specific) cntexts. The cntexts in Mdle in rder f inheritance are: System: All cntexts in the site, including site settings and user administratin Site: The site frnt page curse and its activities Curse categry: All curses in a categry Curse: A single Mdle curse Mdule: A mdule instance within a curse (a specific frum, quiz, wiki, etc.) 84

85 Blck: A specific blck instance within a curse (at the time f this writing this feature is nt fully implemented) User: A user s prfile r persnal activities Rles are made up f a matrix f capabilities and permissins that determine what a user can d within a given cntext. Fr example, a user may have curse creatr privileges at the site level but be unable t pst t a particular frum in a certain curse. The permissins determine whether smene can use a capability. Permissins may be set t ne f fur values: Inherit: The default setting. If a capability is set t inherit, the user s permissins remain the same as they are in a less specific cntext r anther rle where the capability is defined. Fr example, if a student is allwed t attempt quiz questins at the curse level, his rle in a specific quiz will inherit this setting. Allw: This enables a user t use a capability in a given cntext. This permissin applies fr the cntext that the rle gets assigned plus all lwer cntexts. Fr example, if a user is assigned the rle f student in a curse, she will be able t start new discussins in all frums in that curse (unless a frum cntains an verride with a prevent r prhibit value fr the capability). Prevent: Prevent disables a capability fr a user in a given cntext but des nt disallw it in a mre specific cntext. Yu can prevent students frm adding attachments t frum psts in yur curse, but allw them t d s in ne particular frum. Prhibit: Prhibit is rarely needed, but ccasinally yu might want t cmpletely deny permissins t a rle in a way that cannt be verridden in any lwer cntext. *** Keep in mind that permissins are set within a rle, and then peple are assigned t rles in a given cntext. A persn can be assigned t mre than ne rle, depending n the cntext, r even multiple rles within the same cntext. Override Permissins Overrides are specific permissins designed t verride a rle in a specific cntext, allwing yu t "tweak" yur permissins as required. Overrides may be used t "pen up" areas by giving users extra permissins. Fr example, an verride may be used t enable students t rate frum psts. The way t achieve this is thrugh a rle verride. As lng as the capabilities yu want t allw yur students t have in yur curse (r within a mdule in yur curse) aren t prhibited at a higher level, yu can verride the permissins. Within yur curse, fr example, yu can verride rles at the curse level r in a particular activity. If yu 85

86 want t change what students can d anywhere in yur curse, verride the rle at the curse level. If yu want t create a different set f permissins fr a given activity, verride the rle in the activity itself. Overrides may als be used t prevent actins, such as starting new discussins in an archived frum. *** Overriding rles is itself a permissin. By default, teachers are unable t verride rles s this ability must first be granted by yur system administratr fr the curse r site as apprpriate. They must als set which rles can be verridden by the teacher rle. If yu dn t see the Override rles link in the Rles tab, ask yur system administratr. Lcatins fr verriding permissins Since Mdle has gt a very fine grain cntrl f the permissins systems, s initially yu may be smetimes cnfused by the permissin system interface. T change the permissins fr specific cntexts the lcatins are: Frnt page cntext: Administratin > Frnt Page settings > Users > Permissins Curse categry cntext (when used):categry > Administratin > Permissins Curse cntext: Administratin > Curse administratin > Users > Permissins Figure 4-2 A rle Override 86

87 Mdule cntext: (frm the chsen mdule) Administratin > Mdule administratin > Permissins Blck cntext: (frm the chsen blck) Administratin > Blck administratin > Permissins User cntext: (frm the user's prfile) Administratin > Rles > Permissins Overriding permissin in activity The verride interface will nly shw yu the capabilities fr the cntext yu are verriding. S if yu want t allw students t rate frum psts, yu can verride the student rle in a particular frum. Yu will nly see the frum capabilities in the interface, as shwn in Figure 4-2. T verride permissin fr a frum activity: Open the activity fr which yu want t create the verride. Click Administratin > Frum Administratin> Permissins. Yu can see the list f all rles having permissin in the activity and even add a specific rle fr that permissin. In the tp drpdwn menu Advanced rle verride field select the rle fr which yu want t create the verride. Figure 4-3 Permissins in a curse 87

88 Mdify the permissins fr the verride n this activity. Click the Save changes buttn. Anyne with the rle yu have just verridden will nw have thse capabilities in this activity when they next lg in t Mdle. Overrides allw yu t create a lt f variatin in the way students interact with an activity. Hwever, befre digging int the verrides system itself, be sure yu have a clear understanding f what yu are trying t achieve educatinally with the verride. Student Grups Mdle has an unusual but effective way f managing small student wrkgrups within yur curse. Yu can define grups at the curse level, then set each activity t a grup mde r leave it available t everyne. The grup mde yu chse may als determine the behavir f the mdule. Think f grups as a filter. If yu are a member f a grup within a curse, and an activity is set t grup mde, Mdle will filter ut any wrk frm anyne wh is nt part f yur grup. Yu are all lking at the same activity, but yu can t interact with anyne wh is nt in yur grup. Figure 4-4 Visible grups in a frum Grup levels A grup r gruping can be used n tw levels: Curse level - The grup mde defined at the curse level is the default mde fr all activities defined within that curse. T use grups yu need first t set a grup mde in Administratin>Curse administratin>edit settings. Activity level - Each activity that supprts grups can als have its wn grup mde defined. If the curse setting "Frce grup mde" is set t "Yes" then the ptin t define the grup mde fr individual activities is nt available. If it is set t "N", then the teacher may change the grup mde: 88

89 Grup Mdes There are three grup mde ptins: N grups - Everyne participates as part f the class. Grups are nt used. Separate grups - Each grup can see nly their wn wrk. They can t see the wrk f ther grups. Visible grups - Each grup des their wn wrk, but they can see the wrk f the ther grups as well, as shwn in Figure 4-4. Once the grup mde is set fr the curse r activity, students will interact with yur Mdle curse as they nrmally wuld. The nly difference will be the peple they meet in certain activities, such as frums. Fr example, if yu set the grup mde f a frum t separate grups, Mdle will create a frum fr each grup. Each student will see the same link t the frum, but she will be able t access nly the discussins fr her particular grup. Yu need t create the frum nly nce; Mdle takes care f creating the individual grup frums. Why use grups? Yu are a teacher in a curse where yu have several classes and yu want t filter yur activities and gradebk s yu nly see ne class at a time. Yu are a teacher sharing a curse with ther teachers and yu want t filter yur activities and gradebk s yu dn t see the students frm yur clleagues classes. Yu want t allcate a particular activity, resurce r tpic sectin t just ne class r set f users and yu dn t want thers t see it. Creating a grup Click the 'Create grup' buttn in Administratin > Curse administratin > Users > Grups Add a grup name and ptinal descriptin (displayed abve the list f grup members n the participants page), enrlment key and picture (displayed n the participants page and next t frum psts) Click the 'Save changes' buttn Select the grup t which yu want t add participants, then click the 'Add/remve users buttn In the "Ptential members" list, select the users yu want t add t the grup. Multiple users may be selected using the Crtl key. 89

90 Click the Add buttn t add the users t the grup. Figure 4-5 Creating a Grup An ptinal grup ID number (an advanced setting) may be added fr matching the grup against external systems. Grup ID numbers are nt displayed anywhere n the site. Within a curse, all grup ID numbers must be unique. Thus it's nt pssible t create a grup with a duplicate grup ID number. Icn Grup Mde N Grups Separate Grups Visible Grups Table 4-2 Grup Mde Icns 90

91 Figure 4-6 Adding/Remving users Aut-create grups Grups may be created autmatically via the 'Aut-create grups' buttn in Administratin > Curse administratin > Users > Grups. In the General Sectin A naming scheme can be created autmatically. # is replaced by sequential numbers, by letters. Fr example: will create grup with a naming scheme Grup A, Grup B, Grup C... Grup # will create grup with a naming scheme Grup 1, Grup 2, Grup 3... Yu can specify if yu wuld like t create x number f Grups r each grup cntain x number f students In the Grup Members Sectin Select members frm... allws yu t chse frm rles r available chrts. 91

92 Figure 4-7 Aut creating grups Allcate Members drpdwn allws yu t allcate grup members in different ways. The Prevent last small grup checkbx will allcate additinal members t an existing grup rather than create a new grup with fewer members than x. In the Gruping Sectin Gruping f aut-created grups and Gruping name allws yu t create a new gruping and allcate the new aut-created grups t be created t it. Prir t creating the grups, yu can view the grups. Backup and Restre After spending a lt f time setting up yur curse and delivering it t yur students, yu ll want t make sure yu dn t lse yur wrk. Frtunately, Mdle gives yu a backup tl t create archives f yur curses. Backups can als be used t cpy curse resurces and activities frm ne curse t anther. A curse can be saved with sme r all f its parts by using the curse backup. Typically, the site administratr will set a schedule f autmated curse backups fr the 92

93 whle site. A teacher with editing privileges can create a backup r dwnlad an existing backup fr safe keeping, r fr use n anther Mdle site. Backing up a curse T backup a curse G t Administratin > Curse administratin > Backup Initial settings - Select activities, blcks, filters and ther items as required then click the Next buttn. Users with apprpriate permissins, such as administratrs and managers, can chse whether t include users, annymize user infrmatin, r include user rle assignments, user files, cmments, user cmpletin details, curse lgs and grade histry in the backup. Schema settings - Select/deselect specific items t include in backup, then click the Next buttn. If desired, select specific types f activity t be backed up by clicking the link 'Shw type ptins'. Cnfirmatin and review - Check that everything is as required, using the Previus buttn if necessary, therwise click the 'Perfrm backup' buttn Cmplete - Click the Cntinue buttn Figure 4-8 Backing up a curse A backup file (with distinctive.mbz extensin t avid cnfusin with.zip files) is then saved in the curse backup area. Backup file names are f the frm backup-mdle2-93

94 curse-cursename-date-hur.mbz, ending in -nu.mbz when backed up with n users and -an.mbz with annymized names. *** Annymize user infrmatin is a backup feature which "prtects user identities" by making each user annymus. If this bx is checked in the backup initial settings, Mdle will substitute aliases fr real names. Autmated curse backup (This sectin is nly fr Site Administratrs, Teachers can skip this.) A site administratr can cnfigure a schedule fr autmated curse backups in Administratin > Site administratin > > Curses > Backups > Autmated backup setup. Autmated curse backups runs the same functins as individual curse backups. It's a gd idea t schedule backups at the time when yur server isn't usually busy. Running the backup tl ver all the curses can be prcessr-intensive, s yu shuldn't run it when there are a lt f students trying t access the server. Yu shuld always alert users with an annuncement n the first page that if they lg n during the backup hurs they may ntice a decrease in perfrmance. *** In rder t cnfigure scheduled backups, yu have t first set up the CRON jb n yur site t run peridically. T set the backup schedule: G t Administratin > Site administratin > Curses > Backups > Autmated backup setup. Set backup_aut_active t enabled. Select the days f the week t run the backup. Set the executin time fr the backup prcess. Fr mst servers, early mrning will be the best time. Keep in mind the time zne yur server is using. Set the "Save t..." path. If yu can, chse a backup path n anther machine r n a different drive than the ne Mdle is n. Yu dn t want t lse yur backups at the same time yu lse yur Mdle site if the drive fails. If yu leave the field blank, then backup zip files will be saved in the backup flder f each curse files flder. On a Linux server the path might lk like: /hme/(yur user r dmain)/public_html/archive/ r if it's belw the publicly accessible flders: /hme/(yur user r dmain)/archive/ if the path is nt recgnized a red X is shwn after saving, therwise a green check. 94

95 Figure 4-9 Autmated Backup settings Chse whether t skip the backup f hidden curses r curses which have nt been mdified within a specified number f days, r nt mdified since the last backup. Click the "Save changes" buttn. Once yu've set up yur backup schedule, Mdle will autmatically create archives f all the curses n the server at the time yu specified. Once the backup is cmplete, Mdle will send yu an describing the status f the backup. Restre a curse A curse backup file (.mbz) may be restred frm within any existing curse fr which yu have permissin. During the restre prcess, yu will be given the ptin t restre as a new curse r int an existing curse. 95

96 Figure 4-10 Restring a curse T restre a curse: G t Administratin > Frnt page settings > Restre (if yu have frnt page permissins) r Administratin > Curse administratin > Restre (if yu have an empty curse t restre int.) Uplad the backup file r chse a file in the curse backup area r user private backup area and click Restre Cnfirm - Check that everything is as required then click the Cntinue buttn Destinatin - Chse whether the curse shuld be restred as a new curse r int an existing curse then click the Cntinue buttn Settings - Select activities, blcks, filters and pssibly ther items as required then click the Next buttn Schema - Select/deselect specific items and amend the curse name, shrt name and start date if necessary then click the Next buttn Review - Check that everything is as required, using the Previus buttn if necessary, then click the 'Perfrm restre' buttn Cmplete - Click the cntinue buttn 96

97 Creative uses The backup and restre prcesses can ffer the teacher and administratrs many creative slutins. Duplicating curses r specific activities in ne curse t anther curse (similar t Imprt) Updating a prductin Mdle site curse, with material frm a lcalhst site curse Transferring a curse t a new Mdle site. In earlier versins f Mdle, a way f rlling a curse frward withut past student activity Creating a blank activity, save just that activity and then restre it t the curse r anther curse ne r mre times. Reprts Once yur curse is up and students are wrking, Mdle prvides yu with detailed lgs and participatin reprts f student activity. The lgs and participatin reprts are useful fr tracking students activity in a class. If a student desn t spend time with the material, he will have difficulty succeeding in the curse. Frequently, students wh dn t d well simply haven t spent the time wrking with the material. If yu analyze yur curse reprts n a regular basis, yu can mnitr when yur students engage with the curse material. Yu wn t be able t tell exactly hw lng they spent with a certain activity r resurce because the lgs reprt nly the time f access. Of curse, yu can guess hw lng a student spent with a resurce by nting the time when the student began the next activity. Lgs and participatin reprts can als tell yu which resurces and activities students find mst valuable. Fr example, if yu uplad all yur PwerPint slides fr students t take ntes n in class, but n ne accesses them, yu might want t find ut why. T access curse reprts: Click Reprts in the Administratin blck. On the Reprts page, chse frm the fllwing: Lgs Select any cmbinatin f grup, student, date, activity, and actins, then click the Get these lgs buttn. 97

98 Yu can see what pages the student accessed, the time and date she accessed it, the IP address she came frm, and her actins (view, add, update, delete), as shwn in Figure 4-11 Yu can chse t display the lgs n a page r dwnlad them in text, ODS, r Excel frmat. *** The Lgs page cntains active links enabling yu t access the student s prfile page r a particular page that the student was viewing. The IP address link prvides an estimate f the student s lcatin. Figure 4-11 Viewing lgs f a curse Live Lg If yu d like t track the latest activity n yur curse, select Live Lgs. It shws yu all the activity, teachers and students, fr the last hur. Activity Reprt A curse activity reprt, shwing the number f views fr each activity and resurce (and any related blg entries), can be viewed by managers, teachers and nn-editing teachers *** The length f time that the activity reprt cvers is determined by the lglifetime setting in Administratin > Site administratin > Curses > Backups > General backup defaults. 98

99 Curse Participatin T generate a participatin reprt: a. Select an activity mdule, the time perid t lk back ver, t shw nly student reprts, and the actins yu are interested in (views, psts, r all actins), then click the G buttn. b. A list f all instances f the selected activity mdule in the curse will be generated. Select ne, then click the G buttn. The participatin reprt, as shwn in Figure 4-12, lists the number f times each student has dne the actin selected. Figure 4-12 Curse participatin reprt If yu wish, yu can select particular users and send them a message. Select Add/send message frm the drp-dwn menu and click the OK buttn. Summary In this chapter we have taken a detailed lk n the Mdle s rles and permissins system alng with student s grup mdes, managing enrllment methds and backup and restring a curse. Mdle has the best rles and permissins system which makes yu capable f taking fine cntrl ver the permissins available t yur participants. In the next chapter we will take a lk n the Mdle s text editrs: Att and TinyMCE. 99

100 Chapter 6: Using Mdle Text Editrs Mdle Text Editrs The text editr (smetimes referred t as the 'HTML editr') has many icns t assist the user in entering cntent. Many f these icns and functins shuld be familiar t anyne wh uses a wrd prcessr. Sme examples f where yu will see the text editr include: Editing Sectin headings, descriptin f an activity, writing an answer t a quiz questin r editing the cntent f many blcks. The default text editr in Mdle is the Att editr, built specifically fr Mdle. There is als a versin f the TinyMCE editr and a plain text editr. Text editrs can be enabled, disabled r a different ne set t default frm Administratin > Site administratin > Plugins > Text editrs > Manage editrs. The rder f pririty may als be specified here. An individual user can select an editr in their prfile frm Administratin > My Prfile settings > Edit prfile. S, let s start getting familiarized with the Mdle s text editrs ne by ne starting with Att. Att HTML editr Att is a JavaScript text editr built specifically fr Mdle. Att is the default text editr in Mdle frm 2.7 nwards. Att is implemented as a standard Mdle text editr plugin. Mst f the cde is written in JavaScript as a standard Mdle YUI mdule. 100

101 Figure 5-1 Att text editr rw-1 Descriptin Rw-1 Att Text Editr: 1:Expand 2.Style 3.Bld 4.Italic 5.Bulleted list 6.Numbered list 7.Add link 8.Unlink 9.Add image 10.Add media 11.Manage embedded files Descriptin Rw-2 Att Text Editr: Figure 5-2 Att text editr rw-2 1. Underline 2. Strikethrugh 3. Subscript 4. Superscript 5. Align left 6. Align center 7. Align right 8. Increase indent 9. Decrease indent 11. Special 10. Equatin editr character 12. Table 13. Clear frmatting 14. Und/red 15. Und/red 17. Screen reader helper 18. HTML/cde view 16. Accessibility checker Equatin editr If either the MathJax r the TeX ntatin filters are enabled (in Administratin > Site administratin > Plugins > Filters > Manage filters) then an equatin editr (buttn 10 in the abve pic) buttn is prvided in the tlbar fr launching the equatin editr. 101

102 Figure 5-3 Equatin Editr Yu can use the equatin editr t insert peratrs, arrws, symbls and mathematical equatins withut knwing abut using the TeX ntatins. It will autmatically cnvert the symbls int the TeX ntatins. It is a huge enhancement fr Mathematics teachers wh used t struggle initially t learn the TeX ntatins. *** Yur site administratr may specify which plugins t display and in which rder in yur editr windw. Plugins fr Att Yu site administratr can als increase the functinality f yur Att text editr by adding additinal plugins frm the Mdle plugins cmmunity site. Yu can add plugins t add Chemistry editr, Cmputer Science Editr, wrd cunt and many mre. 102

103 TinyMCE Editr TinyMCE is the default text editr in the earlier Mdle versins prir t Mdle 2.7. It is a nice text editr because f the intuitive text experience and its rich feature set f tls which are very easy t use. Yu can select the TinyMCE editr as yur default text editr in yur prfile frm Administratin > My Prfile settings > Edit prfile. The TinyMCE editr first appears with just ne rw f buttns. Clicking the icn tp left will expand it t three rws. Fr thse wh are nt familiar with the tl bar, here are the buttns as gruped in their rws. ***Remember that the site administratr can edit r prvide additinal buttns. Figure 5-4 TinyMCE Editr Rw-1 Descriptin Rw-1 TinyMCE Text Editr: 1:Expand 2.Frmatting 3.Bld 4.Italic 5.Bulleted list 6.Numbered list 7.Add link 8.Unlink 9.Stp aut linking 13.Manage embedded files 10.Add image 11.Add emticn 12.Add media Figure 5-5 TinyMCE Editr Rw-2 Descriptin Rw-2 TinyMCE Text Editr: 1:Und 2.Red 3.Underline 4.Strikethrugh 5.Subscript 6.Superscript 7.Align left 8.Align center 9.Align right 10.Decrease 11.Increase 12.Text clr 103

104 indent indent 13.Backgrund clr 14.Left t Right 15.Right t Left Figure 5-6 TinyMCE Editr Rw-3 Descriptin Rw-3 TinyMCE Text Editr: 1:Fnt family 2.Fnt size 3.Edit HTML 4.Find 6.Insert nn-breaking 7.Insert special 5.Find/replace 8.Insert table space character 9.Clean up messy 11.Paste as plain 12.Paste frm MS 10.Remve frmatting cde text Wrd 13.Tggle full screen Plugins fr TinyMCE Similar t Att Text editr yur site administratr can enhance the tls by adding the plugins fr TinyMCE editr als. Yu can als insert files, images, equatins, emticns by using the TinyMCE editr als. File Picker The file picker enables files t be selected and displayed in Mdle - fr example, when an editing teacher clicks Add an activity r resurce > File, r when a frum participant adds an attachment t a pst. Usually the file is cpied int Mdle frm wherever yu have chsen it frm (e.g. a repsitry r yur cmputer), thugh fr certain repsitries, such as the Yutube vides repsitry, a link is created, and in sme situatins an alias/shrtcut may be created. An "add" buttn appears which is clicked n t access the file picker: 104

105 Figure 5-7 Add files buttn in file picker Getting files frm the file picker When the file picker screen appears, a number f links are listed dwn the side. These are links t Repsitries which hld files yu might want t use. There is als a link Uplad a file which yu wuld click n t add a file yurself frm yur cmputer. Which repsitries are included depends n which nes have been enabled by the administratr and als the cntext in which yu access the file picker. Fr example, if yu have reached the file picker by clicking n the media icn in the TinyMCE text editr then yu might see the Yutube vides repsitry link. Figure 5-8 Uplad a file in file picker 105

106 Viewing yur files in the file picker There are three ways t view files in the File picker, depending n yur persnal preference: View as icns This shws the files as easily identifiable thumbnails: Figure 5-9 Viewing files as icns View as table This shws the files with details such as license, date upladed, size etc.: Figure 5-10 Viewing files as table 106

107 View as a list This shws the files in a hierarchical list: Figure 5-11 Viewing files as list File Repsitries Repsitries in Mdle enable users t uplad files, access previusly upladed files and t easily bring cntent int Mdle frm external repsitries, such as Flickr r Ggle Dcs. Enabled repsitries are available in the File picker. *** Nte that yu cannt uplad files int a repsitry frm Mdle. It is nly a single way data transfer i.e. Repsitry t Mdle. Standard repsitries: Repsitries enabled by default Uplad a file - yu use this fr brwsing fr and uplading a file frm yur cmputer r USB. Server files - this give access t files elsewhere n Mdle accrding t yur permissins. Recent files - the last 50 files yu have upladed, accrding t the cntext. Private files - yur wn persnal strage area fr files. Yutube vides - search fr and display Yutube vides URL dwnlader - dwnlad files, images frm a particular URL Wikimedia - search fr and display media frm Wikimedia Additinal repsitries may be enabled by a site administratr Alfresc - link t r cpy files frm Alfresc int Mdle 107

108 Amazn S3- The Amazn S3 repsitry enables users t cpy files frm Amazn S3 int Mdle. Bx - bring files in frm yur Bx accunt Drpbx - bring files in frm Drpbx Embedded files - re-use files embedded int the current text area EQUELLA - link t files in an EQUELLA installatin File system - access files upladed t a flder n yur server (by, e.g. FTP) Flickr public - search fr and display images frm Flickr Flickr - search fr and display images frm yur persnal Flickr accunt Ggle Drive - bring files frm yur Ggle Drive accunt Legacy curse files - use the ld system frm 1.9 f "curse files" Merlt.rg - bring resurces in frm Merlt.rg Oh - Capture repsitry - allws users t recrd vide, sund and take a pht WITHOUT a streaming server. Picasa web album - search fr and display images frm yur Picasa accunt PdLL repsitry - recrd audi r vide directly int yur Mdle HTML areas OneDrive bring in files frm yur Micrsft OneDrive (frmerly knwn as Skydrive) WebDAV -bring in files using webdav Summary The usual way t edit r create text that is part f the visual cntent f a curse is using the Text editr. In this chapter we ve familiarized with the text editrs: Att and TinyMCE available in Mdle alng with the file picker and file repsitries. In the next chapter, we will get cnversant with the cmmunicatin tls available in Mdle like Messaging, Chat and Frums. 108

109 Chapter 7: Chat, Messaging and frums Mdle prvides gd cmmunicatin tls which helps yu t create an interactin with yur students in different ways. Yu can use frum fr asynchrnus cmmunicatin, Chats fr simultaneus cnversatin and Messaging fr private cmmunicatin with yur students. S, let s start with Chat: Chat The chat activity mdule enables participants t have text-based, real-time synchrnus discussins. This is a useful way t get a different understanding f each ther and the tpic being discussed the mde f using a chat rm is quite different frm the asynchrnus frums. The Chat mdule cntains a number f features fr managing and reviewing chat discussins. The chat may be a ne-time activity r it may be repeated at the same time each day r each week. Chat sessins are saved and can be made available fr everyne t view r restricted t users with the capability t view chat sessin lgs. Chats are especially useful when the grup chatting is nt able t meet face-t-face, such as: Regular meetings f students participating in nline curses t enable them t share experiences with thers in the same curse but in a different lcatin A student temprarily unable t attend in persn chatting with their teacher t catch up with wrk Students ut n wrk experience getting tgether t discuss their experiences with each ther and their teacher Yunger children using chat at hme in the evenings as a cntrlled (mnitred) intrductin t the wrld f scial netwrking A questin and answer sessin with an invited speaker in a different lcatin Sessins t help students prepare fr tests where the teacher, r ther students, wuld pse sample questins Why use chat? Chat has an advantage ver a Frum in that it takes place in Real Time. It is especially beneficial when the grup chatting is nt able t meet face t face. Examples might be: Regular meetings f staff n large r split campuses t discuss student r curriculum issues; 109

110 Regular meetings f students ding nline curses t enable them t share experiences with thers n the same curse but ptentially in a different city (r cuntry) A teacher wrking with his students even thugh he is ut f schl A student temprarily unable t attend in persn chatting with their tutr t catch up with wrk. Students ut n wrk experience getting tgether t discuss their experiences with each ther and their tutr Yunger children using chat at hme in the evenings as a cntrlled(mnitred) intrductin t the wrld f scial netwrking Why NOT use chat? Unless a tutr/mderatr is permanently present in the chatrm -r unless the chat is hidden and revealed at certain times, it is difficult t cntrl what is said nce a chat has started. Yunger students particularly may find it difficult t stay n task and be prne t adding nn-useful cmments r "beeping" thers fr the sake f it. In sme situatins, a frum might be preferred as it allws fr reflectin befre psting and gives a perid f time where the pst might be edited. Creating Chat T create a chat in yur curse: Turn n the editing mde by clicking the Turn editing Mde buttn. In the sectin yu wish t add yur chat, click the "Add an activity r resurce" link (r, if nt present, the "Add an activity" drp dwn menu) and chse Chat. In the "Name f this chat rm" field whatever yu type here will frm the link learners click n t enter the chat s it is helpful t give it a name that suggests its purpse - fr example "Student cuncil discussin" r "Field trip planning meeting". In the descriptin bx - type the descriptin f the chat. Include precise instructins fr students regarding the subject f the chat. Click the icn n the left t expand the tlbar, and drag the bttm right f the text bx ut t expand it. In the "Chat sessins" sectin which is cllapsed by default, yu will find ptins fr: Next chat time: The day and hur f the next chat sessin. This will appear in the calendar s students knw the schedule but it desn't stp them accessing the chatrm at any ther time. 110

111 If yu dn't want them in the chatrm at ther times, then hide it (with the eye icn) r use Cnditinal activities t restrict access. If yu dn't wish t schedule chat times then ignre this and chse frm the next settings. *** Fr curses invlving users acrss different time znes, it is useful t knw that the time yu set here will be adjusted t match the time zne f the user viewing it. Repeat/publish sessins: There are fur ptins fr scheduling future chat sessins: Dn't publish any chat times- there are n set times and students are welcme t chat at any time. N repeats - publish the specified time nly- nly the Next chat time will be published. This culd be used t schedule special events r meetings r simply t help learners identify a cmmn time in which they can expect t find ther learners in the chat rm. At the same time every day- Daily chats are useful fr scheduling daily ffice hurs r wrk sessins with learners. At the same time every week--this setting will schedule a chat fr the same day and time every week, which culd be useful fr instance fr meeting and reviewing key ideas and questins related t the week s cntent/assessment. Save past chat sessins: Chse frm the drpdwn hw many days t save - r save everything by selecting Never delete messages If yu have any cncerns abut discussins that might take place in yur chat rm, yu may want t keep transcripts t check the suitability f what is discussed. If yur learners are using the chatrm t cllabrate n a grup prject yu wn't want t delete the messages until the prject is cmplete. 111

112 Figure 6-1 Adding a new chat activity Everyne can view past sessins: Decide here whether r nt allw everyne t view past chat sessins. (Teachers can always view past sessins) In the "Cmmn Mdule Settings" sectin: Yu can shw/hide the chat activity frm the visible drp dwn menu. Prvide an ID number fr grading purpse. The grup mde setting has 3 ptins: N grups - There are n sub grups, everyne is part f ne big cmmunity Separate grups - Each grup member can nly see their wn grup, thers are invisible Visible grups - Each grup member wrks in their wn grup, but can als see ther grups A gruping is a cllectin f grups within a curse. If a gruping is selected, students assigned t grups within the gruping will be able t wrk tgether. Click "Save and display" t shw up the Chat activity. 112

113 Using Chats Entering the chat: As yu click the chat link n the curse page yu see tw r three ptins: Click here t enter the chat nw - this takes yu t the chat using the chsen site default chat methd - fr example Ajax. Use mre accessible interface - this gives a simpler chat rm withut frames and JavaScript. View past sessins - if this has been enabled and the user is allwed t view past chat sessins, this takes them t a list f past sessins with links t the chat. Figure 6-2 An nging chat Jining in a chat sessin: In nrmal view, the screen is in tw parts with the participants n the right, the messages n the left and a bx at the bttm int which users type their message and press "Send" t make their cntributin: Users can change the appearance f the messages by clicking n "Themes" next t the "Send" buttn. Bubbles appears thus: The chat mdule cntains sme features t make chatting a little nicer. 113

114 Smilies - Any smiley faces (emticns) that yu can type elsewhere in Mdle can als be typed in here and they will be displayed crrectly. Links - Internet addresses will be turned int links autmatically. Emting - Yu can start a line with /me t emte. Fr example, if yur name is Kim and yu type /me laughs! Then everyne will see "Kim laughs!" Beeps - Yu can send a sund t ther peple by hitting the "beep" link next t their name. A useful shrtcut t beep all the peple in the chat at nce is t type "beep all". HTML - If yu knw sme HTML cde, yu can use it in yur text t d things like insert images, play sunds r create different clred and sized text. Chat Reprts T view previus chats (if yu have permissin) click n the 'View past chat sessins' link. Teachers can als access past chat sessins frm the Chat administratin in the Settings blck. This will bring up a listing f each chat sessin under the current chat tpic. The listings include the time the chat started and ended, which users participated, and hw many messages each user sent. In rder fr students t see past sessins, the teacher r an administratr must setup the chat t allw everyne t view past chat sessins. Effective Chat Practices While the chat mdule may nt be very feature-rich at this pint, it can still be an effective learning tl. The key t a successful chat is gd mderatin. The nature f the chat rm makes it difficult t track different cnversatins. If everyne in the class is talking at the same time, the cnversatin will g by t quickly. It s imprtant t set sme grund rules t make the chat useful fr everyne. Try t keep everyne n the same track f the cnversatin. If the cnversatin starts t get ut f cntrl, gently try t bring peple back t the main flw. 114

115 Creative Chat Practices Online ffice hurs Many students may nt be able t cme t yur ffice hurs, particularly wrking students, wh have arranged their schedules t make it t class. The chat rm is an easy way t allw yur students t cntact yu during a scheduled time t ask a quick questin abut an assignment r a lecture. Grup chats If yu ve set up student grups, each grup can have its wn chat. Set up a chat rm and set the grup mde t separate r visible grups. Each grup can then use its chatrm fr cmmunicatin between grup members. Last-minute exam preparatin Yu culd set up a chat rm a week r even a night befre an examinatin fr students t discuss any study questins. Students wh are wrking at the last minute will appreciate the pprtunity t ask each ther questins abut the material. Messaging "Messaging" refers bth t autmatic alerts frm Mdle abut new frum psts, assignment submissin ntificatins etc., and als t cnversatins using the instant messaging feature. Message alerts Users can receive message alerts frm Mdle in a number f ways and fr a number f reasns: users may fr instance receive instant messages via the Messages blck; students may be messaged by their curse tutr via the Peple blck; teachers might receive autmatic ntificatins f assignment submissins and admins might receive ntificatin f prblems with the site. Hw these messages and thers are received can be set by each user frm the Messaging link in their prfile. Check bxes allw the user t select hw they wish t be ntified f incming messages. Instant messaging If enabled fr the site, users in Mdle have the ptin t send each ther message. Messages can be sent frm the fllwing places: as admin in Bulk user actins 115

116 as a teacher frm the Peple blck as any lgged in user frm the Messages blck r Online Users blck as any lgged in user by clicking n the prfile f anther user (if admin has allwed prfiles t be viewed) Figure 6-3 Sending a message Sending messages T send a message t an individual: Frm the Messages blck r frm yur prfile Click n the blue link Messages in the Messages blck r click the Messages link frm Navigatin > My prfile and then type a name int the Search peple and messages bx. T narrw the search dwn further, click the blue Advanced link t search fr a persn "nly in my curses" r with keywrds in messages Type the message in the bx and click the Send a message buttn. 116

117 Figure 6-4 Message Blck Frm the Online users blck Click the name f ne f the peple currently nline and click the Send message link in their prfile. Type the message in the bx and then click n the Send a message buttn. T read and reply t a message If the Messages blck shws yu have a message, click the envelpe icn (with the number f messages) Type yur reply int the bx and then click n the Send a message buttn. If yu receive a ppup ntificatin f a message, click G t message t read and reply t it. T send a message t selected curse participants Click n the Participants link in the Peple blck n the curse page. Select participants frm the list r use the "Select all" buttn at the bttm f the list. Chse "Add/send message" frm the "With selected users..." drp-dwn menu. Type the message then click the "Preview" buttn. Assuming yu are satisfied with the message, click the "Send" buttn. Managing cntacts Peple may be added t yur list f cntacts (r blcked frm cntacting yu) by clicking the Add cntact (r Blck cntact) icn under their name in the Messages windw. By default the cntact list is empty. In rder t send a message r t create a shrtcut t the persn yu are sending, search fr them in the search bx. 117

118 Message histry A recrd f messages sent t/frm a persn may be btained by clicking the "Histry" icn by their name r by clicking Recent messages/all messages when they are displayed n the page. Effective Messaging Practices Messaging aids private cmmunicatin with students. It is a useful alternative t because yu can track all crrespndence in ne place and avid clgging yur inbx. Creative Messaging Practices Tutrial supprt Students frequently find the messaging system a useful way f sending private questins t their tutrs. There are times when a student desn t want t ask a questin in a public frum. Messaging prvides students with a private cmmunicatin channel. Tutrs can als use the messaging system t send messages t ne r mre f their students. If the students fr each tutr are in a grup, the tutr can use the Grups filter n the participants list t find all f his students and send them a private message. Encuraging participatin The message system, cmbined with the participants list, is a great tl fr encuraging students t stay engaged with yur curse. On the participants list yu can easily filter students based n hw lng they have been inactive. At the tp f the page, ne f the ptins is t select students wh have been inactive fr any length f time frm a day t five mnths. In a nrmal class f weeks, if nce a week yu send a message t students wh have been inactive fr a week, yu can remind them t participate in the curse. This will keep them mre engaged and imprve their perfrmance and retentin. Frums Frums are a pwerful cmmunicatin tl within a Mdle curse. Think f them as nline message bards where yu and yur students can pst messages t each ther while easily keeping track f individual cnversatins. Frums are the primary tl fr nline discussin and are the central rganizing feature in the scial curse frmat. Yu ve already psted yur first message t a frum while editing the Site News frum back in Chapter 3. When yu psted yur news item, yu were psting t a special frum used in every curse fr annuncements and news. 118

119 Frums allw yu and yur students t cmmunicate with each ther at any time, frm anywhere with an Internet cnnectin. Students dn t have t be lgged in at the same time yu are t cmmunicate with yu r their classmates. Figure 6-5 demnstrates hw cnversatins are tracked thrugh time, and readers can review the histry f a cnversatin simply by reading the page. The technical term fr this type f cmmunicatin is asynchrnus, meaning nt at the same time. Asynchrnus cmmunicatins are cntrasted with synchrnus frms such as chat rms, instant messaging, r face-t-face cnversatins. Because frums are asynchrnus, students can take their time cmpsing replies. They can draft and rewrite until they are happy with the results instead f feeling under pressure t respnd immediately. A lt f research indicates that mre students are willing t participate in an asynchrnus frum than are willing t speak up in class. Fr students whse primary language is nt that f the curse, peple with cmmunicative disabilities, and the just plain shy, frums ffer a chance t take as much time as they need t frmulate a reasnable reply. Other students, wh might be afraid f embarrassing themselves by making a mistake when they speak up in class, can duble check their respnses befre they send them in. The asynchrnus nature f the frums creates many pprtunities fr yu nt nly t replicate the cnversatins yu have in class, but als t create entirely new activities that are difficult in a classrm setting. Figure 6-5 A frum discussin Befre we start creating a frum, it is imprtant t make sure we re using the same vcabulary. It might be useful t think f the frum mdule as a party. Each frum is a rm at the party: there s a living rm, a kitchen, and a dining rm. In each rm, there are grups f peple having discussins. Each discussin has a thread with everyne replying t each ther abut the tpic. Withut peple having discussins, a frum is an empty, quiet space. Each frum can cntain ne r mre discussins, which are cmprised f ne r mre psts and replies. 119

120 Mdle frums als allw subscriptins. When a user subscribes t a frum, all new psts are autmatically sent t the address stred in the user s prfile. This makes it easy t keep track f what s happening in the frums withut cnstantly lgging in. Participants can subscribe t a frum t receive ntificatins f new frum psts. A teacher can set the subscriptin mde t ptinal, frced r aut, r prevent subscriptin cmpletely. If required, students can be blcked frm psting mre than a given number f psts in a given time perid; this can prevent individuals frm dminating discussins. Frum psts can be rated by teachers r students (peer evaluatin). Ratings can be aggregated t frm a final grade which is recrded in the gradebk. Frums have many uses, such as A scial space fr students t get t knw each ther Fr curse annuncements (using a news frum with frced subscriptin) Fr discussing curse cntent r reading materials Fr cntinuing nline an issue raised previusly in a face-t-face sessin Fr teacher-nly discussins (using a hidden frum) A help center where tutrs and students can give advice A ne-n-ne supprt area fr private student-teacher cmmunicatins (using a frum with separate grups and with ne student per grup) Fr extensin activities, fr example brain teasers fr students t pnder and suggest slutins. Creating a Frum Creating a frum is relatively easy. The key t success is chsing the right ptins fr the type f frum yu want t create. In additin t the news frum, Mdle has five basic frum types: A single simple discussin - A single discussin tpic which everyne can reply t (cannt be used with separate grups). Students will see the text yu have placed in the Frum intrductin setting as the first pst f the discussin. Belw yu will find the replies that have been psted. Each persn psts ne discussin - Each student can pst exactly ne new discussin tpic, which everyne can then reply t. The view will be basically the same as in the previus case, the nly difference being the 'Add a new discussin' ptin. Viewing a frum page, the student will see the text yu have 120

121 written at the 'Frum intrductin' space while creating the frum, and, if there are any, the discussins that have been started. Q and A frum - Students must first pst their perspectives befre viewing ther students' psts. The Q & A frum is best used when yu have a particular questin that yu wish t have answered. In a Q and A frum, teachers pst the questin and students respnd with pssible answers. By default a Q and A frum requires students t pst nce befre viewing ther students' pstings. Standard frum displayed in a blg-like frmat - An pen frum where anyne can start a new discussin at any time, and in which discussin tpics are displayed n ne page with "Discuss this tpic" links. In the upper right crner f the hme frum screen (abve the intrductin), the student may see the ptins the teacher has set fr subscriptins t the frum, and the 'Jump t' field, with which yu can 'jump' t any part f the curse. Standard frum fr general use - An pen frum where anyne can start a new discussin at any time. In this frum type, students will see the intrductin text in a separate space abve the discussin field, in which yu will see the infrmatin such as the title f the discussin (which means the frum's title), its authr, the number f replies and the date f the last pst. T add a frum t yur class: Click the "Turn Editing Mde" buttn t enter int the editing mde. Click "Add an activity r resurce" link and chse Frum frm the Menu. This will take yu t the frum settings page titled "Adding a new frum". In the general sectin enter a Shrt name and in the descriptin field prvide instructins fr yur students s that they are clear abut what they have t d. 121

122 Figure 6-6 Adding a new frum If yu want t display the descriptin n the curse page then check the Display descriptin n curse page checkbx. Chse the frum type yu want t use as specified in the sectin abve. In the attachments and wrd cunt sectin yu can specify the maximum attachment size, n f attachments and whether t shw the wrd cunt: Chse Maximum attachment size fr each frum pst in Maximum attachment size field. Please nte that yu can t exceed the site uplad limit set by yur administratr. Select the maximum number f attachments which can be attached in the frum pst. Display Wrd cunt specifies whether the wrd cunt f each pst shuld be displayed r nt. 122

123 In the subscriptin and tracking sectin: Subscriptin Mde: When a participant is subscribed t a frum it means they will receive frum pst ntificatins. There are 4 subscriptin mde ptins: Optinal subscriptin - Participants can chse whether t be subscribed Frced subscriptin - Everyne is subscribed and cannt unsubscribe Aut subscriptin - Everyne is subscribed initially but can chse t unsubscribe at any time Subscriptin disabled - Subscriptins are nt allwed Read Tracking: If enabled, participants can track read and unread psts in the frum and in discussins. There are three ptins: Optinal - Participants can chse whether t turn tracking n r ff via a link in the administratin blck. Frum tracking must als be enabled in the user's prfile settings. Frced - Tracking is always n, regardless f user setting. Available depending n administrative setting. Off - Read and unread psts are nt tracked. In the Pst threshld fr blcking Sectin: Time perid fr blcking: Students can be blcked frm psting mre than a given number f psts in a given time perid. Pst threshld fr blcking: This setting specifies the maximum number f psts which a user can pst in the given time perid abve. Pst threshld fr warning: Students can be warned as they apprach the maximum number f psts allwed in a given perid. This setting specifies after hw many psts they are warned. In the Grade sectin - Chse the categry in which this frum will appear if ratings are enabled. In the Ratings Sectin: Rles with permissins t rate: Frum psts can be rated using a scale. By default, nly teachers can rate frum psts, thugh students can be given permissin t d s if desired (see Frum permissins belw). This is a useful tl fr giving students participatin grades. Any ratings given in the frum are recrded in the gradebk. Aggregate type: The aggregate type defines hw ratings are cmbined t frm the final grade in the gradebk. There are five ptins t chse frm: Average f ratings - The mean f all ratings 123

124 Cunt f ratings - The number f rated items becmes the final grade. Nte that the ttal cannt exceed the maximum grade fr the activity. Maximum - The highest rating becmes the final grade Minimum - The smallest rating becmes the final grade Sum - All ratings are added tgether. Nte that the ttal cannt exceed the maximum grade fr the activity. *** If "N ratings" is selected, then the activity will nt appear in the gradebk. Scale: Select the type f grading used fr this activity. If "scale" is chsen, yu can then chse the scale frm the "scale" drpdwn. If using "pint" grading, yu can then enter the maximum grade available fr this activity. Restrict ratings t items with dates in this range: The teacher can allw nly psts within a certain date range t be rated. This is useful if the teacher wants t keep students fcused n the mst recent cntent and maintain a specific pace within the frum r curse. In the Cmmn Mdule sectin: Yu can Shw/hide the activity frm the Visible drp dwn menu. Yu can als set an ID number which prvides a way f identifying the activity fr grade calculatin purpses. Grup Mde: The grup mde setting has three ptins: N grups Separate grups - each grup can nly see their wn grup; thers are invisible Visible grups - each grup wrks in their wn grup, but can als see ther grups Gruping: A gruping is a cllectin f grups within a curse. If a gruping is selected, students assigned t grups within the gruping will be able t wrk tgether. If the grup mde is set t separate grups: Teachers are given the ptin f adding a new discussin tpic fr all participants r fr a selected grup. If a teacher adds a new discussin tpic fr a selected grup, then nly grup members can reply t it. If a teacher adds a new discussin tpic fr all participants, then students can't reply t it. (This is t ensure that grups are kept separate.) 124

125 Students can nly start discussins fr their wn grup. Students can nly reply t discussins started by ther grup members r discussins fr their wn grup started by a teacher. If the grup mde is set t visible grups: Teachers are given the ptin f adding a new discussin tpic fr all participants r fr a selected grup. If a teacher adds a new discussin tpic fr a selected grup, then nly grup members can reply t it. Students can nly start discussins fr their wn grup. Students can nly reply t discussins started by ther grup members r teachers. Teachers, and ther users with the capability mdle/site:accessallgrups set t allw, can view and pst in all frum discussins, regardless f the grup mde setting. Figure 6-7 Viewing a frum *** Single simple discussins cannt be set t separate grups. Click the Save changes and return t curse buttn. The frum name will nw be a link in the curse sectin where yu added it. If yu want t g back t change any f the ptins, yu can click n the gear icn (edit settings) t return t the editing frum page. Using Frums If yu click n the frum name n the curse page, yu ll see the main frum page, as shwn in Figure

126 Figure 6-8 Adding a new discussin tpic Searching Frums All f the frums within a curse are searchable as well as brwsable. Perfrming a frum search can find useful infrmatin easily. All frums within the curse are searched simultaneusly. The Search Frums blck n yur curse page enables yu t quickly search fr a particular wrd within a frum pst. If yu btain mre than ne page f results, yu may wish t try an advanced search. An advanced search enables yu t refine yur search in any/all f the fllwing ways: These wrds can appear anywhere in the pst - One r mre wrds yu type in here will be fund in all the places in the pst they appear. This exact phrase must appear in the pst - The phrase yu enter must appear exactly as yu enter it. These wrds shuld NOT be included - Identifying wrds yu dn t want can help narrw dwn the resulting list f messages. 126

127 These wrds shuld appear as whle wrds - The search engine will return psts that cntain yur wrds as part f a larger wrd. Fr example, if yu search fr cat, psts with the wrd catalg will be returned. Selecting whle wrds will lk fr a space befre and after the wrds yu have entered. Psts must be newer/lder than this - This narrws dwn the number f psts accrding t time limits. Chse which frums t search - This enables searching within ne frum nly. These wrds shuld be in the subject - If yu knw the subject line f the psts yu want, yu can limit yur searches by the subject line. This name shuld match the authr - If yu nly want psts frm certain authrs, enter their names here. Managing Frums Once yu ve created frums fr yur students, yu will need t manage them during yur curse. As we discussed earlier, frums are great tls fr getting peple wh dn t usually talk in class t participate. If yu make yur discussins an imprtant part f yur class, yu can really get peple talking. Of curse, a lt f peple talking in a frum mean there s mre t manage. Frums can quickly sprut and spread like an unruly weed, unless yu d sme management and pruning. Figure 6-9 An ed frum pst frm mdle.rg Managing expectatins The first key t managing a frum is managing student expectatins. In yur syllabus, let students knw hw ften yu intend t respnd t questins and psts. Let them knw if yu will be checking in nce a day r nce a week. If yu dn t set expectatins, sme students will expect yu t be n call 24 hurs a day. 127

128 Behavir issues Dealing with rude and unruly students is anther challenge f nline discussins. Sme students may say things in an nline discussin they wuld never say in persn. Rude r hurtful remarks can shut dwn a discussin r cmpletely divert the thread f the cnversatin. T avid these situatins, make yur expectatins fr student cnduct clear in yur syllabus and elsewhere in the site. The use f rating scales can als mderate students behavir if their grade depends n getting gd ratings frm yu r their peers. Of curse, if the situatin gets ut f cntrl, yur ultimate recurse is t simply delete the students psts frm the frum and then deal with it as yu wuld any ther disciplinary issue. Archiving frums When frum threads get very lng, yu may want t archive them and start up the cnversatin again with a gd summary. Discussins can be archived ne by ne r by backing up the cmplete frum with user data, then restring it. T archive a discussin: Create a frum named Archive frum smewhere in yur curse (the first r last curse sectin is a gd idea) with permissins such that the students shuld be able t see psts which had been made withut being able t reply any mre. In Administratin > Frum administratin > Permissins click the Prevent icn (X) fr the student rle fr the capabilities 'Start new discussins' and 'Reply t psts'. G t the frum cntaining the discussins yu want t archive. Enter the discussin by clicking n the discussin name. At the tp-right crner f the screen, yu ll see a drp-dwn menu labeled Mve this discussin t Select Archive frum frm the list. Yu ll nw see the discussin in the archive frum. Click the Frums link in the navigatin bar and select the riginal frum frm the list. Pst a summary f the archived discussin in the riginal frum t restart the discussin. Using an archive frum allws yu t keep the discussins manageable, while retaining all f the detail f the riginal. It s als an easy way t mve gd discussins frm class t class r semester t semester. 128

129 Figure 6-10 Mving a discussin Managing discussins is als easier with sme help. A number f studies have reprted the benefits f assigning grups f students t mderate duties fr discussins arund given tpics. If a grup f students knws they are respnsible fr being able t discuss an issue intelligently with their classmates, they are much mre likely t be sure they ve dne the reading and really understand the tpic. They can be respnsible fr mving the cnversatin alng, answering basic questins, and archiving and summarizing a discussin. T create student mderatr grups, assign a small team f students t each frum r discussin. Be sure t enable ratings fr everyne, in rder t allw the student grup t use ratings. Quarantining a frum pst If any participant in yur curse has made an inapprpriate pst, then in that case rather than deleting it, yu can "quarantine" it by sending it t a hidden frum and then alerting yur superir and the child's guardians. T d this yu first need t create a frum "Hidden frum fr Offensive Psts" (fr example) and hide it with its eye. Find the ffensive pst and click 'split' (between 'edit' and 'delete') This will take yu t a secnd page where yu will be asked t verify the split. Cnfirm it by pressing the 'split' buttn near the tp f the page. The pst(s) will nw be split. Yu shuld see the pst/discussin individually n a separate page. In the right-hand crner will be a drpdwn bar and a buttn that says 'mve.' Chse 'Hidden Frum fr Offensive Psts' in the drpdwn and click 'mve.' 129

130 *** Make sure yu infrm the child why their pst has been quarantined, as well as yur superir and the child's guardians. Frum Capabilities Frum capabilities are mre fine-grained than any ther mdule, giving yu the ability t create a wide range f rles: Add news: This allws a user t start discussins in a news frum. This applies t news frums nly. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher Add questin: This allws a user t add a questin t a Q & A frum. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Allw frce subscribe: This allws a user t be subscribed autmatically t frums where subscriptin is autmatic r frced. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. It is nt set fr the rle f manager. Create attachments: This allws a user t add attachments t frum psts. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Delete any psts (anytime): This allws a user t delete any frum pst (at any time). This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Delete wn psts (within deadline): This allws a user t delete their wn frum psts within a certain time, usually 30 minutes by default (which can be cnfigured by Site Administratr in Site Plicies). Edit any pst: This allws a user t edit any frum pst at any time. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Exprt whle discussin: This allws a user t exprt a frum discussin t any prtfli enabled fr the site. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Exprt wn pst: This allws a user t exprt their wn frum psts t any prtfli enabled fr the site. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Exprt pst: This allws a user t exprt any frum pst t a prtfli. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Manage subscriptins: This allws a user t manage frum subscriptins. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Mve discussins: This allws a user t mve discussins t anther frum. This capability is allwed fr the default manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher rles 130

131 Exempt frm pst threshld: This allws a user t pst in a frum withut ever being blcked i.e. it exempts them frm the pst threshld fr blcking (as set in Settings > Frum administratin > Edit settings). This capability is nt set fr the default rle f student and is allwed fr the rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Rate psts: This allws a user t rate frum psts fr frums which allw psts t be rated. This capability is allwed fr default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher and is nt set fr the default student rle. Reply t news: This allws a user t reply t psts in a news frum nly. This capability is allwed fr default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Reply t psts: This allws a user t reply t frum psts but nt applicable fr news frums. This capability is allwed fr default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Split discussins: This allws a user t split frum discussins. This capability is allwed fr default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Start new discussins: This allws a user t start frum discussins. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. View all raw ratings given by individuals: This allws a user t view all ratings given t frum psts. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. View ttal ratings that anyne received: This allws a user t view ttal ratings given t frum psts. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. View discussins: This allws a user t view frum discussins. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher, student and guest. View hidden timed psts: This allws a user t create timed psts i.e. set a display start and end date fr a new frum discussin. It als allws a user t view timed psts while they are hidden. This capability is allwed fr default manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher rles and is nt set fr the default student rle. Always see Q and A psts: This allws a user t view Q & A frum psts withut first psting. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. View the ttal rating yu received: This allws a user t view their wn ratings fr frum psts. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. View subscribers: This allws a user t view the list f subscribers t a frum. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. 131

132 Effective Frum Practices Frums are an imprtant tl in yur Mdle tlbx. They are the primary methd fr students t cmmunicate with yu and each ther. Scial cnstructivism is all abut discussin and negtiated meaning. Getting students t participate in nline frums can be a challenge. If yu simply create a frum and expect students t cmmunicate nline, yu will be sadly disappinted. Many times instructrs create a frum, give sme vague instructins, and then cmplain that the students aren t spntaneusly cmmunicating with each ther. Starting the discussin Fr many students and instructrs, starting the discussin is the hardest part. Once peple start talking, at least a few will prbably cntinue the discussin. As yu start yur class, it wuld be useful t have sme icebreakers t help students get t knw ne anther and t get used t discussing issues nline. The mst effective icebreakers have a strng prmpt t get peple started. Ask specific questins like, If yu culd speak t any persn, living r dead, wh wuld it be and what three questins wuld yu ask them? r, What is yur favrite cmfrt fd and why? Yu culd als prmpt peple t tell stries abut themselves. Fr example, yu culd ask students t tell a stry starting with On my last trip the funniest thing I saw r did was... r My favrite stry abut an animal is... Whatever yu use, make it cncrete, cmpelling, and pen-ended. Encuraging participatin The primary key t student participatin in nline frums is tight integratin with yur curse gals. Yur frums shuld give students a chance t practice a skill, t cllabrate n a prject, r t act as resurces fr each ther. Of curse, it is imprtant t distinguish between the types f frums and the reasns fr using them in yur class. Let s take an example t help make this clearer. Suppse yu have a weekly reading yu want students t discuss nline befre meeting face-t-face. There are tw pssibilities fr this frum. If yu want students t use the frum as a practice exercise, yu ll want t create a place where students can practice applying the new ideas they encuntered in the reading. S yu may want t make each week a discussin f a case study. If yu want the frum t be a resurce, yu may want each student t pst a questin abut the reading. Yu can then use the questins as a basis fr discussin in class. The final strategy fr encuraging participatin is t engage with the frums yurself. If yur class meets face-t-face, bring up imprtant pstings and discussins in class. By merging the nline envirnment with the face-t-face envirnment, yu shw yur students that yu value their participatin. One f the best examples f merging 132

133 nline discussins with a curse happened in a management curse f 400+ students. The instructr assigned grups f students t small discussin grups. She and her teaching assistants randmly read a subset f the discussins each week fr assessment. The instructr wuld als bring the best questins and discussins t class, frequently devting half f her lecture t talking abut what was happening nline. Grading frums Of curse, being clear abut the gal f the frum is nly ne step. As we discussed earlier, yur gals fr the class may be very different frm yur students gals. Yu may want them t engage with the material because f its intrinsic value. Mst students, hwever, are verwrked, cncerned abut their grades, and ding nly what is required in a large majrity f their classes. T help encurage alignment between yur gals and yur students gals, yu will need t have a grading strategy fr student participatin. Mdle has sme great tls t help yu create and manage graded frums. T be successful, yu must clearly define yur grading criteria. Yu will need t grade n quality, nt just quantity. A student lgging in t say I agree nce a day is nt adding t the discussin. Smene wh psts a thughtful reply nce a week is adding mre t the curse. Of curse, yu will need t balance between grading fr quality and allwing a discussin where everyne is trying t be cleverer t get a grade. Many students need scafflding t be able t participate effectively in an academic discussin. Help yur students understand the difference between scial frums and academic frums. D yu want them t supprt their argument with citatins? D yu want them t acknwledge the ther persn s pint f view and then ffer a critique? D they need t supprt their wn arguments with facts, figures, r appeals t a higher authrity? Once yu have established expectatins, yu can begin t scre accrding t the quality f their interactins. It is gd practice t give students sme credit just fr participating, but full pints can nly be achieved with a high-quality answer. Creative Frum Uses There are many creative uses f frums, s we can nly present a few f the mst cmmn here. Mdle frums are s flexible, there s really n limit t the types f activities yu can develp t take advantage f the technlgy. Peer assessment Frums are an ften-verlked tl fr peer assessment. Andy Diament, frm West Crnwall in the UK, has used frums fr peer assessment. His students were learning database design by develping a prject ver multiple weeks. Each week they wuld 133

134 wrk in pairs t cmplete a lessn n a new tpic. They wuld then use their new skills t cmplete a little mre f their prject and uplad it t the frums fr review. Each pair had their wrk critiqued and the best wrk f the week was used as a starting pint fr the next sectin f the prject. Nt nly did the students learn frm the peer review prcess, but they were able t develp their wn prject using the best wrk f the class. Q & A frums fr prblem slving Jhn Rdgers, frm Ontari, Canada, uses the Q & A frum type t gd effect in teaching mathematics. The Q & A frum allws a single questin pst that the students must answer befre they can see ther respnses. A lessn starts with the instructr asking the students t slve a math prblem, identify and crrect a miscnceptin, decde the meaning f symbls frm cntext, r engage in sme ther srt f exercise. The students usually spend minutes wrking tgether in small grups t frmulate a respnse. After the students pst their answers, the Q & A frum allws them t see hw thers in the class have slved the prblem. When that is cmplete, the students usually are given a series f questins t answer (using the quiz mdule) t see if their apprach t slving the prblem is rbust enugh. Jhn reprts, Students are mre engaged bth in terms f depth (the prblems frce them t generate a deep understanding) and breadth within the class (the bttm f the class nw engages the cntent at a far higher level). The time I can spend as an instructr prviding quality mentring has increased by an rder f magnitude and the use f time has dramatically imprved. This is a great example nt nly f using the frums but f using the pwer f technlgy t shift the rle f the instructr frm delivering infrmatin t mentring students. Interviews Bringing utside experts int yur class can be difficult. Yu have t crdinate schedules, tear them away frm their busy lives, and then hpe yur students are prepared enugh t ask interesting questins. Yu can eliminate many f these prblems by using the frums fr cmmunicatin between students and experts. The easiest strategy is t invite the expert int yur frums as a regular participant. Simply give her an accunt and enrll her in yur class. She can then participate in the frum and elsewhere in the curse. Hwever, sme peple will be reluctant t participate in such an pen-ended discussin. As an alternative strategy, create a frum in which students can submit questins fr an interview with an expert. They can then vte n the best questins. Yu select the tp 10 questins and send them via t the interviewee. Yur expert can then respnd, via , when it is cnvenient fr her. If yu pst her 134

135 respnses t a new frum, yur students can respnd t her answers and even prepare a secnd rund f questins, if yur expert is up fr it. Debates While many instructrs frequently hpe sme level f debate will spntaneusly break ut between students arund cntrversial issues r new cncepts, it s smetimes difficult t get the ball rlling. Try assigning yur students t grups n different sides f an issue. Each pst must be a reasned argument fr their side f the issue, supprted by evidence. They can be graded n hw well they reasn and supprt their argument. Rle-playing and strytelling Tisha Bender, in her bk Discussin-Based Online Teaching, discusses the advantages f using asynchrnus discussins fr rle-playing and strytelling. In ne curse, she has students adpt a character frm a stry r nvel and then play ut a scene in character using the frum. The rest f the class watches the new drama unfld in frnt f them. Students have time t think abut their respnses and refine their cntributins t better reflect the vice f the character rather than their wn vices. Students are als less reluctant t fully respnd as the character in an nline frum, as they avid the embarrassment f a face-t-face encunter. Frequently asked questins Hw many times d yu answer the same questin frm three different students? Frequently, many students have the same questins abut assignments, difficult cncepts, r grades. If everyne is meeting face-t-face, yu can answer the questin ut lud, but ther students may nt be listening t the answer. A fully nline envirnment is harder t manage when the questins frm students arrive via . Many teachers f fully nline curses cmplain abut the cnstant barrage f repetitius questins. We recmmend yu create a frum in which students can ask questins abut the administratin f the curse, and separate frums fr questins abut the subject matter. Have them cnsult the frums and the respnses befre sending yu yet anther abut the date f the final exam. Reading study grups A strategy t encurage students t d their assigned reading is t create reading study grup frums. This strategy wrks well with grups f three t five students wh are cllectively respnsible fr discussing a reading befre class. Each student asks ne questin abut the reading, and the grup must answer all the questins befre the start f the class sessin. This encurages students nt nly t read the assignment but t think mre deeply abut it thrugh the questin-and-answer prcess. 135

136 Scial frum Althugh the majrity f yur frums will fcus n the curse material, it s imprtant fr yur students t have an infrmal way t get t knw each ther, especially if the curse is cmpletely nline. A scial frum gives peple a place t talk withut wrrying abut being graded r having t appear really smart. It s a gd idea t start yur scial frum with sme fun questins. Ask everyne t pst an intrductin telling the class where they are frm; what they hpe t get ut f the class; and their favrite fd, favrite mvie, r smething interesting. The mre interesting the intrductry pst, the mre likely peple will respnd t it and get a real discussin ging. Summary Mdle prvides varius channels f cmmunicatin fr yu and yur students. F rums are an asynchrnus, public methd fr sharing ideas. Chats are a great way t have simultaneus cnversatins nline with a grup f peple. Messaging prvides a private channel fr yu t cmmunicate directly with yur students. Cmmunicatin is key t success fr any class, and it s even mre imprtant in an nline envirnment. 136

137 Chapter 8: Quizzes and Questin Bank Feedback n perfrmance is a critical part f a learning envirnment, and assessment is ne f the mst imprtant activities in educatin. As educatrs, we can t tell what s ging n inside students heads, s we need a way fr them t demnstrate what they understand and what they dn t. A well-designed test, even a multiple-chice test, can give yu valuable infrmatin abut students miscnceptins. If the feedback is rapid enugh, it can als be a critical tl fr students t gauge their wn perfrmance and help them becme mre successful. Mdle s quiz mdule is ne f the mst cmplex pieces f the system. The cmmunity has added a large number f ptins and tls t the quiz engine, making it extremely flexible. Yu can create quizzes with different questin types, randmly generate quizzes frm pls f questins, allws students t re-take quizzes multiple times, and have the cmputer scre everything. These features pen up a number f strategies that usually aren t practical with paperbased testing. It s hard enugh t scre ne batch f quizzes, and nearly impssible t scre it 10 times fr each student. When the cmputer des the wrk fr yu, it s easy t give students a chance t practice taking a test r give frequent small quizzes. We ll explre hw t apply these advantages later in the chapter. Fr nw, let s get started building yur first Mdle quiz. The quiz activity enables a teacher t create quizzes cmprising questins f varius types, including multiple chice, matching, shrt-answer and numerical. The teacher can allw the quiz t be attempted multiple times, with the questins shuffled r randmly selected frm the questin bank. A time limit may be set. Each attempt is marked autmatically, with the exceptin f essay questins, and the grade is recrded in the gradebk. The teacher can chse when and if hints, feedback and crrect answers are shwn t students. Quizzes may be used As curse exams As mini tests fr reading assignments r at the end f a tpic As exam practice using questins frm past exams T deliver immediate feedback abut perfrmance Fr self-assessment 137

138 Standard Questin Types Mdle ffers a variety f questin types t chse frm t create a quiz. The standard quiz questin types are listed belw: Calculated: Calculated questins are like numerical questins but with the numbers used selected randmly frm a set when the quiz is taken. Calculated Multichice: Calculated multichice questins are like multichice questins which chice elements can include frmula results frm numeric values that are selected randmly frm a set when the quiz is taken. Calculated Simple: A simpler versin f calculated questins which are like numerical questins but with the numbers used selected randmly frm a set when the quiz is taken Embedded Answers (Clze): Questins f this type are very flexible, but can nly be created by entering text cntaining special cdes that create embedded multiple-chice, shrt answers and numerical questins. Essay: Allws a respnse f a few sentences r paragraphs. This must then be graded manually. Matching: The answer t each f a number f sub-questin must be selected frm a list f pssibilities. Multiple Chice: Allws the selectin f a single r multiple respnses frm a pre-defined list. Numerical: Allws a numerical respnse, pssibly with units, which are graded by cmparing against varius mdel answers, pssibly with tlerances. Randm Shrt answer matching: Like a Matching questin, but created randmly frm the shrt answer questins in a particular categry. Shrt Answer: Allws a respnse f ne r a few wrds that is graded by cmparing against varius mdel answers, which may cntain wildcards. True/False: A simple frm f multiple chice questin with just the tw chices 'True' and 'False'. Descriptin: This is nt actually a questin. Instead it is a way t add sme instructins, rubric r ther cntent t the activity. This is similar t the way that labels can be used t add cntent t the curse page. *** Besides the standard questin types that are part f the cre Mdle distributin, there are a number f questin type add-ns in the add-ns database. Creative Quiz Strategies Of curse, using the quiz engine effectively takes sme wrk and practice. The first thing t d is use effective questin-design strategies. If yu ask gd questins, yu ll get useful data abut yur students perfrmance and understanding f the material. Of curse, the cnverse is als true. There is a tn f literature abut effective assessment design available. We ll just highlight a few f the mst imprtant ideas: 138

139 Tie each questin t a curse gal. After all, yu want t knw whether yur students are achieving the gals f the curse, s why nt ask them directly? Try t ask multiple questins abut each imprtant idea in the class. This gives yu mre data pints abut a student s understanding. When writing a multiple-chice questin, be sure each wrng answer represents a cmmn miscnceptin. This will help yu diagnse student thinking and eliminate easy guessing. Write questins requiring yur students t think at different levels. Include recall questins, cmprehensin questins, and applicatin and analysis questins. Yu can determine where students are having prblems in their thinking. Can they recall the material but nt apply it? Test yur questins. After yu ve established an initial questin bank, use item analysis t determine which questins are useful and which aren t. As yu write new questins, give them a lwer pint value and thrw in a few t establish their reliability. Once yu have a few well-written test banks, be sure t use the quiz reprts and statistics t mnitr yur classes perfrmance. The detailed reprts and statistics are valuable tls fr measuring yur students understanding f the material. Hw t Create a Quiz Mdle quizzes have tw majr cmpnents: the quiz bdy and the questin pls. Think f the quiz bdies as cntainers fr varius types f questins frm the questin pls. The bdy is what students see when they take the assessment. It als defines hw the students interact with the quiz. Creating a new quiz is a tw-step prcess. In the first step, yu create the quiz activity and set its ptins which specify the rules fr interacting with the quiz. In the secnd step yu add questins t the quiz. The questins in a quiz bdy can be f any type, chsen manually r at randm, and displayed in a set r randm rder. The questin pls can cntain questins arranged in a manner that makes sense t yu. Yu can create pls based n chapters in the textbk, weeks in the semester, imprtant cncepts, r any ther rganizatinal scheme. Pls can be reused in multiple quizzes, shared between classes and curses, and even mved between systems. 139

140 Figure 7-1 Adding a new quiz T start, we need t create a bdy fr ur first quiz. Creating the Quiz Bdy When yu create the quiz bdy, yu are creating a cntainer fr the questins and setting the rules fr interacting with the quiz. T create a quiz bdy: Click "Turn Editing On" if yu are nt in the editing mde already. Click "Add and activity r resurce" link in the sectin where yu want t add the quiz and select "Quiz". 140

141 In the general sectin n Adding a new quiz page, as shwn in Figure 7-1, Name: Give the quiz a descriptive name. This name will appear n the hme page f the curse, navigatin menu and ther places which will shw r prvide links t this quiz. Descriptin: Describe the syllabus f the quiz and prvide instructins r backgrund infrmatin, chapters etc. Display descriptin n curse page: If ticked, the quiz descriptin will appear n the curse page directly under the quiz name. In the Timing Sectin: Open the quiz: Yu can specify times when the quiz is accessible fr peple t make attempts. Befre the pening time the quiz will be unavailable t students. They will be able t view the quiz intrductin but will nt be able t view the questins. Quizzes with start times in the future display bth the pen and clse date fr students. Clse the quiz: After the clsing time, the students will nt be able t start new attempts. Answers that the student submits after the quiz clsing date will be saved but they will nt be marked. *** Even after the quiz has clsed students will still be able t see the quiz descriptin and review their attempts. What exactly they will see depends n the settings yu chse fr review ptins. Time limit: By default, quizzes d nt have a time limit, which allws students as much time as they need t cmplete the quiz. If yu d specify a time limit, several things are dne t try and ensure that quizzes are cmpleted within that time: A cuntdwn timer is shwn in the quiz navigatin blck. When the timer has run ut, the quiz is submitted autmatically with whatever answers have been filled in s far. If a student manages t cheat and ges ver the alltted time, n marks are awarded fr any answers entered after the time ran ut. When time expires: There are three ptins as t what will happen when the time limit is up. Chse the ne yu need frm the drpdwn menu: Open attempts are submitted autmatically. There is a grace perid when pen attempts can be submitted, but n mre questins answered. Attempts must be submitted befre time expires, r they are nt cunted (default). Submissin grace perid: If yu select "There is a grace perid..." then yu can check the bx t enable the "Submissin grace perid" and specify a perid f time during which learners may still submit the quiz after the time is up. In the Grade Sectin: 141

142 Grade categry: If yu have categries in yur gradebk, select the ne yu wish the quiz t be in here. Attempts allwed: Students may be allwed t have multiple attempts at a quiz. This can help make the prcess f taking the quiz mre f an educatinal activity rather than simply an assessment. If the quiz is randmized then the student will get a new versin fr each attempt. This is useful fr practice purpses. Grading methd: When multiple attempts are allwed, there are different ways yu can use the grades t calculate the student's final grade fr the quiz. Highest grade - the final grade is the highest (best) grade in any attempt Average grade - the final grade is the average (simple mean) grade f all attempts First grade - the final grade is the grade earned n the first attempt (ther attempts are ignred) Last grade - the final grade is the grade earned n the mst recent attempt nly In the Layut Sectin: Questin rder: If 'Shuffled randmly' is selected, then the rder f questins in the quiz will be randmly shuffled each time a student starts a new attempt at the quiz. The intentin is t make it a little harder fr students t cpy frm each ther. New page: Fr lnger quizzes it makes sense t stretch the quiz ver several pages by limiting the number f questins per page. When adding questins t the quiz, page breaks will autmatically be inserted accrding t the setting yu chse here. Hwever, yu will als be able t mve page breaks arund by hand later n the editing page. Navigatin methd*: By chsing Sequential instead f Free, the teacher is frcing the student t prgress thrugh the questins in rder withut being able t g back t a previus questin r skip t a later ne. In the Questin Behavir Sectin: Shuffle within questins: If set t 'yes', then each time the student takes a quiz the parts f the questin will be shuffled randmly. Hw questins behave: The fllwing questin behavirs are available when creating a quiz - Deferred feedback: Students must enter an answer t each questin and then submit the entire quiz, befre anything is graded r they get any feedback. Adaptive mde and Adaptive mde (n penalties): Allws students t have multiple attempts at the questin befre mving n t the next questin. This behavir requires that the "Whether crrect" bx is ticked under "During the attempt" in the "Review ptins" sectin, at a minimum. 142

143 Manual grading: Previusly used fr essay questins (irrespective f what the quiz is set t) but yu can nw chse t have every questin in the quiz manually graded, if yu wish. Interactive mde: After submitting ne answer, and reading the feedback, the student has t click a 'Try again' buttn befre they can try a new respnse. They can be given hints t help them. Once the student has gt the questin right, they can n lnger change their respnse. Once the student has gt the questin wrng t many times, they are just graded wrng (r partially crrect) and get shwn the feedback and can n lnger change their answer. There can be different feedback after each try the student makes. The number f tries the student gets is the number f hints in the questin definitin plus ne. Immediate feedback: Similar t interactive mde in that the student can submit their respnse immediately during the quiz attempt, and get it graded. Hwever, they can nly submit ne respnse, they cannt change it later. Deferred feedback r Immediate feedback with Certainty-based marking (CBM): With CBM, the student des nt nly answer the questin, but they als indicate hw sure they are they gt the questin right. The grading is adjusted by the chice f certainty, s that students have t reflect hnestly n their wn level f knwledge in rder t get the best mark. Each attempt builds n the last*: If multiple attempts are allwed and this setting is set t Yes, then each new attempt cntains the results f the previus attempt. This allws the student n the new attempt t cncentrate n just thse questins that were answered incrrectly n the previus attempt. If this ptin is chsen then each attempt by a particular student uses the same questins in the same rder, independent f randmizatin settings. T shw a fresh quiz n every attempt, select N fr this setting. In the Review ptins Sectin: This sectin cntrls what infrmatin students will be shwn when they review their past attempts at the quiz, and during the attempt in adaptive mde. It is a matrix with check bxes. The varius pieces f infrmatin that can be cntrlled are: The attempt: Will shw hw the student respnded t each questin. Whether crrect: Displays whether the students respnse t each questin is crrect r incrrect. Marks: Reveals the marks awarded t the student and the grade fr the quiz. 143

144 Specific feedback: Will shw the feedback fr the respnse t the answer as set when adding the questin t the quiz. Each respnse t a questin can have feedback fr bth crrect and incrrect answers. General feedback: Displays the general feedback fr the whle questin as set when adding the questin t the quiz. Yu can use the general feedback t give students sme backgrund t what knwledge the questin was testing. Right answer: Reveals the crrect answer t each questin, whether the student answered crrectly r nt. Overall feedback: Displays feedback fr the entire quiz as set in the quiz settings. Fr each f the abve items, yu can determine the timeframe when the students will see them: During the attempt: Is nly available when Hw questins behave has been set t Immediate feedback, Immediate feedback with CBM and Interactive with multiple tries. If set t ne f these ptins then a Check buttn will appear belw the answer and when clicked the student will submit that respnse and then receive immediate feedback. Immediately after the attempt: means within 2 minutes f the student clicking "submit all and finish". Later, while the quiz is still pen: means after 2 minutes, but befre the clse date (if the quiz des nt have a clse date, this phase never ends). After the quiz is clsed: means what it says (yu never get here fr quizzes withut a clse date). In the Appearance Sectin: Shw the user's picture: If enabled, the student's name and picture will be shwn n-screen during the attempt, and n the review screen, making it easier t check that the student is lgged in as themself in an invigilated (prctred) exam. Decimal places in grades: This ptin determines hw many digits will be shwn after the decimal separatr when the grade is displayed. A setting f 0 fr example means that the grades are displayed as integers. This setting is nly used fr the display f grades, nt fr the display r marking f answers. Decimal Places in Questin Grades*: This setting specifies the number f digits shwn after the decimal pint when displaying the grades fr individual questins. Shw Blck during Questin Attempts*: If set t yes then nrmal blcks will be shwn during quiz attempts. In the Extra Restrictins n Attempt Sectin: Require passwrd: If yu specify a passwrd in here then participants must enter the same passwrd befre they are allwed t make an 144

145 attempt n the quiz. This is useful t give nly a selected grup f student s access t the quiz. Require netwrk address: Yu can restrict access fr a quiz t particular subnets n the LAN r Internet by specifying a cmma-separated list f partial r full IP address numbers. This is especially useful fr a prctred (invigilated) quiz, where yu want t be sure that nly peple in a certain rm are able t access the quiz. Enfrced delay between attempts: Yu can set a time (frm secnds t weeks) between the first and secnd attempt f a quiz. Yu can als (r alternatively) set a time frm secnds t weeks fr subsequent attempts after the secnd attempt. Thus, yu might allw a student t take the quiz twice immediately with n delay, but if they want t imprve their scre with a third attempt, they are frced t wait a week and use the time fr extra revisin. Brwser security: The ptins in this sectin ffer varius ways t try t restrict hw students may try t 'cheat' while attempting a quiz. If "Full screen pp-up with sme JavaScript security" is selected, The quiz will nly start if the student has a JavaScript-enabled webbrwser The quiz appears in a full screen ppup windw that cvers all the ther windws and has n navigatin cntrls Students are prevented, as far as is pssible, frm using facilities like cpy and paste. In the Overall Feedback Sectin: Overall feedback is text that is shwn after a quiz has been attempted. The text that is shwn can depend n the grade the student gt. Grade bundaries can be specified either as a percentage, fr example "31.41%", r as a number, fr example "7". If yur quiz is ut f 10 marks, a grade bundary f 7 means 7/10 r better. *** Nte that the maximum and minimum grade bundaries (100% and 0%) are set autmatically. In the Cmmn mdule settings Sectin: Visible: Shw/hide the quiz activity frm the students. ID Number: Set and ID number t easily identify the quiz activity in the gradebk. Grup Mde: This setting has 3 ptins: N grups - There are n sub grups, everyne is part f ne big cmmunity Separate grups - Each grup member can nly see their wn grup, thers are invisible Visible grups - Each grup member wrk in their wn grup, but can als see ther grups. 145

146 Gruping: A gruping is a cllectin f grups within a curse. If a gruping is selected, students assigned t grups within the gruping will be able t wrk tgether. Click "Save and Display" t prceed with building the quiz and adding questins t the quiz. Building Quiz Once yu have saved yur changes, yu ll see the quiz activity and descriptin with a Edit Quiz buttn which will take yu t the secnd editing screen where yu will write and select questins t include in the quiz bdy. Here yu ll als categrize yur quiz questins and add them t the quiz bdy yu just created. Figure 7-2 Building Quiz On the center f the page yu'll see the questins yu've added t the quiz. Since this is a new quiz, s there are n questins there. On the right side f the page, yu'll see a blck named "Questin Bank cntents", when expanded it will shw the cntents f the questin bank. Befre we start adding questins t ur quiz r creating questins, let s take a mre detailed lk at questin bank and categries Questin Bank Questin Bank allws a teacher t create, preview, and edit questins in a database f questin categries. The categries can be limited t being used n the site, curse r quiz level. The questins in a categry can be added t a Quiz r t a lessn activity via an exprt prcess. Yu can access the questin bank by creating r editing a quiz activity r via Settings > Curse administratin > Questin bank. Select a categry Questins are rganized int categries. Initially each curse has nly ne categry called "Default". It is gd practice t create mre categries t rganize yur 146

147 questins. This nt nly makes it easier t find questins, but makes the use f randm questins and matching questin easier. Yu can create a hierarchy f categries because yu can create subcategries inside parent categries. It is better than keeping all yur questins in ne big list in the quiz mdule. The hierarchy feature enables yu t separate categries int sub categries and sub categries int sub sub-categries etc. indefinitely. Categries and sub categries, etc., are very pwerful when cmbined with randm questins that can select either frm ne categry r frm a categry r any f its sub categries. Each categry has a cntext which determines where the questins in the categry can be used: Activity cntext - Questins nly available in the activity mdule Curse cntext - Questins available in all activity mdules in the curse Curse categry cntext - Questins available in all activity mdules and curses in the curse categry System cntext - Questins available in all curses and activities n the site T add a categry Open the questin bank frm Settings > Quiz administratin > Questin Bank > Categries. Figure 7-3 Add/manage questin categries 147

148 Belw the list f current categries yu will see a frm t add a new categry. Chse the 'parent' categry in which yur new categry will be placed. The parent categry is the ne in which the new categry will be placed. "Tp" means that this categry is nt cntained in any ther categry. Placing yur categry in anther categry makes it a sub-categry f the parent. Chsing 'Tp' means that yur categry is a tp level categry, nt a sub categry. Type the name f yur new questin categry in the text bx. Add an ptinal meaningful descriptin in the categry inf area. Click the 'Add Categry' buttn. Yur new questin categry will appear in the list f current categries. Adding questins After creating the categries fr questins, nw yu can add questins frm a number f lcatins within the editing quiz page: 1. Click the "Add questin" buttn t begin a new questin (1 belw) 2. Click "Shw" (2) t reveal the cntents f the questin bank (3) and then chse a pre-made questin r click "Create new questin" (4) 3. Click (5)"Add a randm questin" t add a randm questin, prviding there are questins in the questin bank already. 4. Click "Create a new questin" frm the Questin Bank, if yu are still at the questins tab f Questin Bank. Figure 7-4 Adding Questins t quiz 148

149 Creating a new questin T create a new questin frm scratch, click "Add a questin". Frm the next screen, chse the questin type yu want t add. Select the Questin Categry fr the questin yu are creating. Fill in the questin frm, making sure t give a grade t the crrect answer. Click "Save changes". *** If yu have a very cmplex questin, and yu want t check it as yu g alng, yu can preview it and then click "Save changes and cntinue editing". Each questin type has its wn frm and ptins. We ll spend the next few pages detailing the ptins fr each questin type. Calculated Questins Calculated questins ffer a way t create individual numerical questins by the use f wildcards (i.e. yu can use cmmn variables names as x, y enclsed in curly braces t create the wildcards {x} and {y}) that are substituted with randm values when the quiz is taken. Figure 7-5 A calculated questin answer field The main purpse f the calculated questin is t create multiple versins f a questin with different numerical values. This means yu must have at least ne wildcard in ne f the answers. T create a calculated questin: Select Calculated frm the Create new questin drp-dwn menu. Select the questin categry. Give the questin a descriptive name - this allws yu t identify it in the questin bank. 149

150 Enter the questin text: This shuld be the questin yu want the student t answer, and it must include all the infrmatin they need t calculate an answer. Therefre it must cntain at least ne wildcard, inside curly braces. Fr example, if yu wanted the student t sum numbers A and B, the questin text might read: "What is {A} + {B}?" Set the default questin grade (i.e. the maximum number f marks fr this questin). If yu wish, add general feedback fr the questin. It will be displayed t all the students after they have cmpleted the questin. In the Answers Sectin: Enter the frmula fr the answer (see Figure 7-5). Be sure t use the same placehlders s Mdle can substitute the same values. Chse the grade that the student will get fr this questin if they give this answer. This shuld be a percentage f the ttal marks available. Determine the tlerance fr errr that yu will accept in the answer. The tlerance and tlerance type settings cmbine t give a range f acceptable scres. S, if tlerance = t, crrect answer = x and the difference between the user's answer and the crrect answer is dx, then the tlerance types are as fllws: Nminal - mark crrect if dx <= t Relative - mark crrect if dx / x <= t Gemetric - mark crrect if dx² / x² <= t² The next 2 settings, "Answer Display" and "Frmat" determine the precisin f the answer. Yu can use these t select the number f decimal places r significant figures yu want t use. Add sme feedback which the student will see if they enter this answer. Yu can specify as many answer frmulae as yu like - click "Add anther answer blank" t add mre. In the Unit Handling Sectin yu can specify units fr the answers. Fr example, if yu enter a unit f 'cm' here, and the accepted answer is 15, then the answers '15cm' and '15' are bth accepted as crrect. If yu add mre than ne unit, yu can als specify a multiplier. S, if yur main answer was 5500 with unit W, yu can als add the unit kw with a multiplier f This means that the answers '5500', '5500W' r '5.5kW' wuld all be marked crrect. Nte that the accepted errr is als multiplied, s an allwed errr f 100W wuld becme an errr f 0.1kW. In the Multiple Tries Sectin: When questins are run using the 'Interactive with multiple tries' r 'Adaptive mde' behavir, s that the student will have several tries t get the questin right, then this ptin cntrls hw much they are penalized fr each incrrect try. The penalty is a prprtin f the ttal questin grade. In the Questin Tags sectin yu can enter tags fr the questins t easily identify them. Click Save Changes Buttn. 150

151 Page 2: Chse Dataset Prperties: On the Next page yu can chse the dataset prperties. Each wildcard that yu specify in the answer frmula must have an assciated set f pssible values - this is its dataset. Each f the wildcards is listed n this page alng with a chice f dataset: private i.e. nly used by this questin shared i.e. shared with ther calculated questins in the same categry *** Using a shared dataset can save time when yu are creating a lt f similar calculated questins. T cntinue, simply chse yur preferred dataset fr each wildcard, then click "Next Page". Page 3: Edit the datasets Nw we need t create the set f pssible values that each wildcard can take. There are tw ways f creating values - yu can type them in yurself and add them t the list, r yu can have Mdle generate them fr yu. Adding/deleting yur wn values: Adding individual values t the list is easy: In the 'Param' field fr each wildcard, enter the value yu want Scrll dwn t the 'Add' sectin and click the Add buttn (leaving the number f items set t 1) Repeat the abve steps as many times as necessary (the maximum number f items is 100) T delete values frm the list: In the 'Delete' sectin, select the number f items t delete Click the Delete buttn 151

152 Figure 7-6 Editing calculated questin datasets Letting Mdle create values Start with the "Range f Values" fields, and enter the lwer and upper limits fr the values yu wuld accept 152

153 Chse a number f decimal places fr the value Chse the distributin f values between the limits - 'unifrm' means any value between the limits is equally likely t be generated; 'lgunifrm' means that values twards the lwer limit are mre likely. Nw mve dwn t the 'Add' sectin and click n "frce regeneratin" In the menu next t the Add buttn, chse the number f sets f randm values (items) yu wish t add t the list. Finally, click Add t append the new values t the list *** If yu want mre cntrl ver the items that Mdle adds, yu can d them ne at a time and preview the values befre yu add them. Click the "Get New Item t Add" buttn t make Mdle generate new values in the "Item t Add" sectin at the tp. If yu like them click "Add" fr 1 item; if nt, click "Get New Item t Add" again t get new values. Click Save Changes Buttn t finish things ff. Calculated questins can use mre than simple arithmetic peratrs. The full list f peratrs includes abs, acs, acsh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, ceil, cs, csh, deg2rad, exp, expm1, flr, lg, lg10, lg1p, rad2deg, rund, sin, sinh, sprt, tan, tanh, atan2, pw, min, max, and pi. Each functin s placehlders and ther arguments are in parentheses. Fr example, if yu want students t calculate the sine f ne angle and tw times the csine f anther, yu wuld enter sin({a}) + cs({b}*2). Calculated Multichice Calculated multichice questins are like multichice questins with the additinal prperty that the elements t select can include frmula results frm numeric values that are selected randmly frm a set when the quiz is taken. They use the same wildcards than Calculated questins and their wildcards can be shared with ther Calculated multichice r regular Calculated questins. The main difference is that the frmula is included in the answer chice as {=...} i.e. if yu calculate the surface f a rectangle {={l}*{w}}. The value will be displayed as set by the Crrect answer shws (0,1,2 etc.) and Frmat (decimals, significant figures) ptins setup. S a Chice text culd be: 153

154 The rectangle surface is {={l}*{w}} cm 2. If {l} = 4.0, {w} = 2.5, Crrect answer shws 1 and Frmat decimals The chice will display as: The rectangle surface is 10.0 cm 2 Calculated Multichice setup is similar t that f calculated questin type including the handling f wild cards and available functins. T add a calculated multichice questin: Select Calculated Multichice frm the Create New Questin drpdwn menu. Repeat steps 2 t 6 as fr calculated questin type. In the Answers Sectin: Yu can prvide multiple chices t chse frm with a frmula as the ptin. The suggested chice frmula is...{={x}+..}... Rest all steps are als same as fr calculated questin type. Click "Save Changes" buttn t save the questin. Calculated Simple Simple calculated questins ffer a way t create individual numerical questins whse respnse is the result f a numerical frmula which cntain variable numerical values by the use f wildcards (i.e. {x}, {y}) that are substituted with randm values when the quiz is taken. The simple calculated questins ffer the mst used features f the calculated questin with a much simpler creatin interface. The nly difference between the calculated and calculated simple questin is that yu can create the values fr the wildcards right within the same page. The steps are exactly same as fr calculated questin type. Descriptin A Descriptin questin page simply shws sme text (and pssibly graphics) withut requiring an answer. It is mre f a label than a questin type. When shuffling questins is turned ff, this type f page can prvide infrmatin t be used by a fllwing grup f questins. 154

155 Embedded Answers (Clze) Embedded answers (Clze) questins cnsist f a passage f text (in Mdle frmat) that has varius answers embedded within it, including multiple chice, shrt answers and numerical answers. Questins f this type are very flexible, but can nly be created by entering text cntaining special cdes that create embedded multiple-chice, shrt answers and numerical questins. T create the embedded answers type questin using a graphical editr yu can ask yur site administratr t install the TinyMCE Clze editr plugin r else yu can directly create the embedded answers type questins using the link: T setup an Embedded Answers (Clze) type questin: Select the questin categry Give the questin a descriptive name - this allws yu t identify it in the questin bank. Enter the passage f text (in Mdle frmat) int the 'questin text' field. Set the 'default questin grade' (i.e. the maximum number f marks fr this questin). Set the 'Penalty factr'. If yu wish, add general feedback. This is text that appears t the student after he/she has answered the questin. The editr has been mdified and allws yu t test if yur syntax is gd. The different questins elements decded will be displayed and syntax errrs pinpint. Hwever, it cannt check if the questin decded is tw questins in ne because f errr syntax. Click Save changes t add the questin t the categry. Essay An essay questin is a free-respnse text area where students can enter larger blcks f text in respnse t yur questin, as shwn in Figure 7-7. These questins are nt scred by the cmputer, and yu will need t grade each answer manually. It is pssible fr a teacher t create a template t scaffld the student's answer in rder t give them extra supprt in the "Respnse Template" field. The template is then reprduced in the text editr when the student starts t answer the questin. T create an essay questin: Select Essay frm the Create new questin drp-dwn menu. Give the questin a descriptive name. 155

156 Enter the questin text. Enter the default mark fr the questin. If yu wish, add general feedback and/r specific feedback. Yu can als specify the ptins fr the respnse submissin like the editr, input bx size and even yu can allw the students t uplad the attachments. Figure 7-7 An essay questin T prvide the extra supprt t the students, enter it in the "Respnse template" sectin. T prvide infrmatin t the ther teachers abut the grading criteria fr the essay mentin it inside the "Infrmatin fr graders" sectin. Click the Save changes buttn t add the questin t the categry. Matching Matching questins ask students t match multiple questin stems t multiple pssible answers (see Figure 7-8). They are useful fr testing students understanding f vcabulary and their ability t match examples t cncepts. Matching questins have a cntent area and a list f names r statements which must be crrectly matched against anther list f names r statements. Fr example "Match the Capital with the Cuntry" with the tw lists "Canada, Italy, Japan" and "Ottawa, Rme, Tky". 156

157 Setting up a matching questin in Mdle is a bit different frm setting up ther types f questins. T create a matching questin: Select the questin categry Give the questin a descriptive name - this allws yu t identify it in the questin bank. Enter sme instructins in the 'Questin text' field t tell the students what they are matching. Set the 'Default mark' (i.e. the maximum number f pints fr this questin). If yu wish, add general feedback. This is text that appears t the student after he/she has answered the questin. Check the 'shuffle' bx if yu want the answers in the drp-dwn menus t be shuffled. Nte: The Quiz display setting must als be set t shuffle within questins fr this t wrk. Fr the first matching item, enter the questin and a matching answer. Fill in at leas tw questins and three answers. Click 'Blanks fr 3 mre questins' t add mre. Yu can enter as many as 10 items. Yu can prvide extra wrng answers by giving an answer with a blank questin. Set the 'Penalty fr each incrrect try'. Click Save changes t add the questin t the categry. Figure 7-8 A matching questin Mdle will display the questin in tw clumns. The first will cntain the questins. The secnd will display a drp-dwn menu fr each questin with all pssible matching answers as ptins. *** Matching questins lk better n screen if yu put the lnger piece f text in the questin and nt the match. Fr example, when creating a matching vcabulary questin, put the single wrd in the match and the definitin sentence in the questin. Otherwise the drp dwn fr lng questins will be awkward t use and difficult t read. 157

158 Multiple Chice Mdle prvides teachers with a lt f flexibility when creating this cmmn questin type. Yu can create single-answer and multiple-answer questins, include pictures, sund r ther media in the questin and/r answer ptins (by inserting HTML) and weight individual answers. Figure 7-9 A multiple-chice questin There are tw types f multiple chice questins - single answer and multiple answer. Single Answer Questins- These questins allw ne and nly ne answer t be chsen by prviding radi buttns next t the answers. Yu will specify nn-negative marks fr each answer; usually zer marks fr wrng answers, maximum marks fr crrect answers and partial marks fr partially crrect answers. Multiple Answer Questins- Yu can select "multiple answers are allwed" in a Multiple Chice questin type. "Multiple answers" questins types in a quiz allw ne r mre answers t be chsen by prviding check bxes next t the answers. Each answer may carry a psitive r negative grade, s that chsing ALL the ptins will nt necessarily result in gd grade. If the ttal grade is negative then the ttal grade fr this questin will be zer. Feedback can be assciated either with specific answers, r with the questin as a whle. T create a multiple-chice questin: Select the questin categry Give the questin a descriptive name. The name will be used in the questin lists n the quiz editing page. Create the questin text. If yu're using the HTML Editr, yu can frmat the questin just like a wrd prcessing dcument. Set the 'default questin grade' (i.e. the maximum number f marks fr this questin). 158

159 If yu wish, add general feedback. This is text that appears t the student after he/she has answered the questin. Chse whether students can nly select ne answer r multiple answers. Chse whether t shuffle the answer ptins and the numbering list t be displayed fr the answers. Write yur first answer in the Chice 1 text field. Inserting HTML int this area als makes it pssible t add an image r a sund file. Select a grade percentage fr the answer. This is the percentage f the ttal pints fr the questin that selecting this respnse is wrth. Yu can select negative percentages as well as psitive percentages. S, selecting a crrect respnse in a multiple answer questin may give yu 50% f the pssible pints, while selecting a wrng answer may take away 10%. Nte that in a multipleanswer questin, the grades must add up t 100%. If yu wish, yu can add feedback fr each respnse. It may be a bit mre wrk, but its gd practice t tell the students why each answer is right r wrng using the feedback area. If students knw why an answer is right r wrng, they can analyze their wn thinking and begin t understand why an answer is crrect. Yur feedback will nly be displayed if yu select Shw Feedback in the quiz bdy ptins. Fill in the rest f the respnse chices in the rest f the frm. Any unused areas will be ignred. The ptin cmbined feedback fr crrect/partially crrect/incrrect respnses is particularly useful fr multiple-respnse questins, where it is difficult t cntrl what feedback students see just using the answer-specific feedback. Set the 'Penalty factr' fr each incrrect try. Make nte that the 'penalty factr' nly applies when the questin is used in a quiz using adaptive mde - i.e. where the student is allwed multiple attempts at a questin even within the same attempt at the quiz. Click the "Save Changes" buttn at the bttm f the screen. Numerical Numerical questins are a lt like shrt-answer questins fr equatins, such as the ne shwn in Figure Yu can create a questin with an equatin, and yur student s type in a numerical answer. Students will get credit fr answers within the range f answers yu specify. *** Text answers are n lnger allwed in Numerical questins. T create a numerical questin: Select the questin categry Give the questin a descriptive name - this allws yu t identify it in the questin bank. 159

160 Enter a questin in the 'questin text' field. This can include an equatin - Mdle has a cuple f text filters that allw yu t type an equatin and have it prperly typeset when displayed. The Algebra filter is very gd fr writing cmmn mathematical expressins in a simple way. Yu can als use the Equatin editr prvided in the Att Text editr. Set the 'default questin grade' (i.e. the maximum number f marks fr this questin). Add general feedback. This is text that appears t the student after he/she has answered the questin. Nw enter the first accepted answer(s) in the Answer field. Enter an accepted errr fr this answer. This is the range abve r belw the answer that Mdle will accept as a match. Fr example, if the crrect answer is 5, but yu will accept 4 r 6 as answers, yur accepted errr is 1. Enter a grade fr this answer ptin. Enter feedback fr the accepted answer. This is the text that the student will see if they enter a number within the accepted errr f the answer. Repeat fr each f the answers yu want t accept. Yu can prvide feedback fr all wrng answers by using a wildcard, i.e. the asterisk character (*), as an answer with grade 'Nne'. Figure 7-10 A numerical questin Yu can als specify the Units in the Unit Handling Sectin. Fr example, if yu enter a unit f 'cm' here, and the accepted answer is 15, then the answers '15cm' and '15' are bth accepted as crrect. Yu can als specify a multiplier. S, if yur main answer was 5500 with unit W, yu can als add the unit kw with a multiplier f This means that the answers '5500', '5500W' r '5.5kW' wuld all be marked crrect. Nte that the accepted errr is als multiplied, s an allwed errr f 100W wuld becme an errr f 0.1kW. Set the 'Penalty factr' fr multiple tries. Click 'Save changes' t add the questin t the categry. Randm shrt-answer matching This is an interesting questin type. Yu take randm multiple shrt-answer questins and their crrect answers and create a matching questin ut f them. It s an interesting way t reuse yur shrt-answer questins in a new frmat. 160

161 The Randm Shrt-Answer Matching questin lks just like a Matching questin. The difference is that the sub-questins are drawn randmly frm the Shrt Answer questins in the current categry. T create a randm shrt-answer matching questin: Select Randm shrt-answer matching frm the Create new questin drpdwn menu Give the questin a descriptive name - this allws yu t identify it in the questin bank. Enter the questin text t tell the students what they are matching, r use the default text Enter the default marks fr the questins. Prvide the General Feedback which will be shwn t the students after they have cmpleted the questin. Select the number f questins yu want t add t the matching questin - make sure this is less than r equal t the number f shrt-answer questins available in this categry (a verificatin will be dne when the questin is saved). Check Include Subcategries if yu wish t chse questins frm subcategries als. If yu wish, yu can add feedback fr each respnse in the Cmbined Feedback Sectin. Set the 'Penalty factr' in the Multiple Tries Sectin. Click Save changes. Shrt Answer In a shrt answer questin, the student types in a wrd r phrase in respnse t a questin (that may include an image). Answers may r may nt be case sensitive. The answer culd be a wrd r a phrase, but it must match ne f yur acceptable answers exactly. It's a gd idea t keep the required answer as shrt as pssible t avid missing a crrect answer that's phrased differently. *** Yu may find it helpful t prttype yur shrt-answer questins t catch cmmn acceptable answers yu hadn t thught f. T d this, start by creating a few acceptable answers and include the questin in a quiz fr n pints. Be sure t tell students yu are testing a new questin. Figure 7-11 A shrt answer questin 161

162 Once the quiz is ver, review student s answers and add their acceptable answers t the list. T create a shrt-answer questin: Select Shrt answer frm the Create new questin drp-dwn menu. Give yur questin a descriptive name. Create the questin text. If yu want students t fill in a blank, use the underscre t indicate where the blank is. Set the 'default questin grade' (i.e. the maximum number f marks fr this questin). If yu wish, add general feedback. Chse whether the answers are case-sensitive. Case sensitivity can be tricky where capitalizatin is imprtant. Will yu accept gerge Washingtn as well as Gerge Washingtn as an answer? Fill in the answers yu will accept. Give each answer a percentage f the grade if required. Yu culd give cmmn misspellings partial credit with this ptin. Yu can use wildcards t allw fr variants n a wrd per phrase. Add grade fr each answer. Create feedback fr any and all answers. This will appear if the student enters that answer. Set the 'Penalty factr' in the Multiple Tries Sectin. Click Save Changes t add the questin t the categry. True/False Questin In a true/false questin a student is given nly tw chices fr an answer in this kind f questin: True r False. The questin cntent can include an image r html cde. When feedback is enabled, the apprpriate feedback message is shwn t the student after the answer. Fr example, if the crrect answer is "False", but they answer "True" (getting it wrng) then the "True" feedback is shwn. T create a True/false type questin: Select the questin categry Give the questin a descriptive name - this allws yu t identify it in the questin bank. Enter a questin in the 'questin text' field. Set the 'default questin grade' (i.e. the maximum number f marks fr this questin). If yu wish, add general feedback. 162

163 Select the crrect answer - true r false. Finally, prvide feedback fr each f the answers 'true' and 'false'. Set Penalty Factr fr Multiple Tries. Click 'Save changes' t add the questin t the categry. Imprting Questins If yu have questins frm a textbk questin bank, r if yu dn t want t use the web interface t create yur questins, yu can imprt them frm a text file. Mdle supprts a range f frmats including sme prprietary quiz sftware frmats, as well as text files and prvides an easy way t create new imprters if yu knw a little PHP. Once yu get t knw a frmat, it may be easier t type the questins int a text file than t use the web interface. Yu can just keep typing instead f waiting fr new web pages t lad fr each questin. The default frmats include: Aiken Frmat: The Aiken frmat is a very simple way f creating multiple chice questins using a clear human-readable frmat. The questin must be all n ne line. Each answer must start with a single uppercase letter, fllwed by a perid '.' r a bracket ')', then a space. The answer line must immediately fllw, starting with "ANSWER: " (NOTE the space after the cln) and then giving the apprpriate letter. Blackbard: If yu re cnverting frm Blackbard t Mdle, yu can exprt yur curse and imprt the questin pls int Mdle using the Blackbard frmat. Blackbard frmat enables questins saved in all Blackbard exprt frmats t be imprted via a.dat r.zip file. Fr zip files, images imprt is supprted. Embedded Answers (Clze): The Clze frmat is a multiple-answer questin with embedded answers. These questins can be a bit tricky t develp, but they prvide a unique apprach. Embedded answers (Clze) frmat enables the imprt f a passage f text with questins such as multiple-chice and shrt answer embedded within it. Examview: Examview frmat enables the imprt f questins frm Examview 4 XML files. Fr newer versins f Examview, Blackbard frmat may be used. Gift Frmat: Gift frmat enables multiple-chice, true-false, shrt answer, matching, missing wrd, numerical and essay questins t be imprted r exprted via text file. Learnwise Frmat: This frmat enables the imprt f multiple chice questins saved in Learnwise's XML frmat. Missing Wrd frmat: Missing wrd frmat enables questins t be imprted via text file. 163

164 Figure 7-12 Imprting questins t the quiz Mdle XML frmat: This is a Mdle-specific frmat fr imprting and exprting questins. It allws yu t imprt image files used in the questins. WebCT frmat: WebCT frmat enables multiple-chice and shrt answer questins saved in WebCT's text-based frmat t be imprted. T start imprting questins: Click Curse Administratin > Questin Bank > Impr t g t the Imprt questins page. Select a file frmat. The help pp up next t the file frmat drp-dwn menu cntains further details f each frmat. Under the General Sectin: Select the categry int which the imprted questins will g. Certain imprt frmats, such as GIFT and Mdle XML, may include categry and cntext data in the imprt file. Chse Nearest grade if nt listed frm the Match grades drp-dwn menu. Otherwise, a questin will nt be imprted if its grade is nt included in the list f accepted grades fund in the help pp up. Select what shuld happen if there are n grades r an errr is detected in the imprt prcess. 164

165 Uplad the file t imprt in the Imprt questins frm file sectin and click Imprt. Exprting Questins Yu can share questins yu have created by exprting them t a text file. Pssible exprt frmats are t GIFT, Mdle XML, and XHTML. In additin, questins may be exprted int Wrd frmat using a cntributed plugin, Wrd table frmat. These can then be easily used t create paper tests. T exprt questins: Click Curse Administratin > Questin Bank > Expr t g t the Exprt questins page. Select a file frmat. The exprt questins page in the Mdle dcumentatin cntains links t further infrmatin n each exprt frmat. Select a categry frm which the exprted questins will be taken. in the General Sectin. Check if yu want the categry name t exprted and/r the cntext t be included. This nly applies t sme frmats and is used t restre this infrmatin n imprt. Click n the exprt questins t file buttn. Yu will be asked t dwnlad/save the file t yur cmputer. Adding Questins t a Quiz Once yu ve created yur questins, yu need t add them t the quiz. On the editing quiz page, as shwn in the figure 7-13, select a number f questins using the checkbxes and then click the Add t quiz buttn belw the questin list. T add the individual questins t the quiz, just click the arrw ( questin. ) icn besides the If yu want t add all f the questins yu created t the quiz, click the Select all checkbx in the tp and then click the Add t quiz buttn. *** T ensure all previusly made questins are available, make sure t tick the bxes "als shw questins frm sub-categries/ld questins. Once yu ve added a questin t the quiz, it appears n the left side f the page in the quiz questin list. The questin is still selectable n the right, but yu can add it t the quiz nly nce. If yu select the questin in the categry list again and add it t the quiz, nthing will happen. 165

166 Figure 7-13 Editing a quiz If yu have created a lt f questins, yu may want t srt the questin list by type and name. Once yu ve added the questins t the quiz, yu can change the rder f the questins by clicking the arrw buttns n the right side f the list f quiz questins. Yu can als delete a questin frm the quiz by clicking the delete icn. Yu will als need t set the grade fr each questin. Yu can set the number f pints fr each questin in the "Marked Out f :" field. Yu may want t make certain questins r questin types wrth mre than thers. Remember, the questins will be weighted t match the ttal pints pssible fr the quiz yu set in the quiz bdy. Yu shuld als set the Maximum grade fr the whle quiz n the tp f the page in "Maximum Grade" field. This des nt have t be equal t the sum f the grades fr the individual questins. The grades achieved by the students will be rescaled t be ut f this maximum grade. When yu re dne, click the Save buttn. In the Order and Paging tab yu can specify the rder in which the questins appear within the quiz. If yu have mre than just a few questins, it s a gd idea t limit the number f questins displayed per page. The numbers 10, 20, 30,... ppsite each questin indicate the rder f the questins. The numbers increase in steps f 10 t leave space fr additinal questins t be 166

167 inserted. T rerder the questins, change the numbers then click the "Rerder questins" buttn. T add page breaks after particular questins, tick the checkbxes next t the questins then click the "Add new pages after selected questins" buttn. Yu can "repaginate" by setting the number f questins per page. After setting the number f questins per page, yu can mve questins s that there are a different number f questins n each page. Yu can preview the quiz by clicking n the Preview tab in the Administratin Blck as shwn in Figure If yu answer the questins, yu can submit the quiz by clicking the Submit all and finish buttn and see the feedback and respnses yur students will see. Yur students will see tw scres n the page. The first is the raw scre representing the ttal pints they scred ut f the maximum pssible pints frm each questin. The secnd scre is the weighted grade representing the number f pints achieved ut f the maximum pssible pints fr the quiz. If yu ve enabled feedback after answering, each questin will be displayed belw the scres with the answers marked crrect r incrrect. If yu ve enabled the display f crrect answers, they will appear highlighted. In the next sectin, we ll discuss hw t manage yur quizzes. Randm questins Yu can als add randm questins t yur quiz frm the questin bank directly. A randm questin is a placehlder fr a randmly selected questin. One f the advantages f a cmputer-generated quiz is the ability t generate a quiz frm questins randmly selected frm a categry. Each randm questin will pull a questin randmly frm the questin categry and insert it int the quiz. This means that different students are likely t get a different selectin f questins. When a quiz allws multiple attempts fr each student then each attempt is likely t cntain a new selectin f questins. The same questin will never appear twice in an attempt. 167

168 Figure 7-14 Quiz preview If yu include several randm questins then different questins will always appear fr each f them. If yu mix randm questins with nnrandm questins then the randm questins will be chsen s that they d nt duplicate ne f the nnrandm questins. This means that yu need t prvide enugh questins in the categry frm which the randm questins are chsen; therwise the student will receive a friendly errr message. The mre questins yu prvide the mre likely it will be that students get different questins n each attempt. *** Nte the die icn t highlight randm questin selectin. 168

169 T add randm questins t the quiz: Select the number f randm questins yu wish t add frm the drp-dwn menu belw the questin list. Click the Add buttn. Managing Quizzes Once students start t take the quizzes, yu ll have a lt f data available. When attempts have been made n the quiz, the teacher can click the quiz name and access the reprts by clicking the link "Attempts - (N. f attempts.) It is then pssible t filter the reprts accrding t preference. Yu can als access quiz results by clicking n the Administratin> Quiz administratin > Results. This pens up ther links, enabling them t view by grade, by crrect respnse, by statistics and by manually graded respnses: Grades reprt Grade reprts shw all the students' quiz attempts, with the verall grade, and the grade fr each questin. There are links t review all the details f a student's attempt, just as the student wuld see it. There is a setting frm at the tp f the page that can be used t cntrl what is displayed. The teacher can select frm: enrlled users wh have attempted the quiz; enrlled users wh have nt attempted the quiz; enrlled users wh have, r have nt, attempted the quiz; all users wh have attempted the quiz The results can be dwnladed in a variety f frmats. At the bttm f the page is a graph shwing the distributin f scres. There are check bxes t allw yu t individually regrade r delete the selected attempts. By clicking n the scre link, yu are able t lk at an individual student exam. 169

170 Figure 7-15 Quiz results Respnses reprt This is very similar t the Grades reprt, except that it shws the respnses the students gave, rather than the marks they earned. It is als pssible t shw the questin text r the right answer, t cmpare with the student's respnse. This is helpful when the questin is randmized. Statistics reprt This reprt gives a statistical (psychmetric) analysis f the quiz, and the questins within it. The frnt page f this reprt gives a summary f the whle test. There are then links t drill dwn int a detailed analysis f a particular questin. The full reprt (verview and detailed analysis f all questins) can be dwnladed in a variety f frmats, as can the quiz structure analysis table. Manual grading reprt The Quiz manual grading reprt makes it easy t manually grade questins in the quiz. The first screen f the reprt lists all the questins in the quiz that need t be, r have been, manually graded (fr example essay questins) with the number f attempts. There is an ptin t als shw the questins that have been autmatically graded, which if useful if yu ever need t edit the grades by hand. *** If yu decide t add additinal questins t the quiz, yu will need t delete all attempts befre being allwed t d s. Quiz Capabilities The quiz mdule has a range f capabilities that allw yu t create a number f student rles: 170

171 Attempt quizzes: This allws a user t attempt the quiz. Guest users can never attempt quizzes. This capability is allwed fr the student rle nly. Figure 7-16 Quiz structure analysis reprt Delete quiz attempts: This allws a user t delete quiz attempts. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher. Get a cnfirmatin message when submitting: This allws a user t receive cnfirmatin that their quiz attempt has finished successfully. This capability is nt set fr any f the default rles. Get a ntificatin message when an attempt is submitted: This allws a user, usually a teacher, t receive ntificatin f quiz submissins. This capability is nt set fr any f the default rles. Grade quizzes manually: This allws a user t change the scres n a quiz, and manually grade quiz essay questins. Ignres time limit n quizzes: This allws a user unlimited time t attempt a quiz which has a time limit set. This capability is nt allwed fr any f the default rles. *** Yu may wish t allw this capability fr thse students wh are identified as requiring mre time during assessment. Manage quizzes: This allws a user t manage quizzes. This capability is allwed fr Administratr and Teacher Rle nly. Preview quizzes: This allws a user t preview quizzes. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. 171

172 Review yur wn attempts: This allws a user t review their ld quiz attempts, separate frm the ability t attempt the quiz. This capability is allwed fr the default rle f student. It is nt set fr all ther default rles. View quiz infrmatin: This allws a user t view the quiz intrductin but nt attempt the quiz itself. The default Guest rle has this capability set t allw. View quiz reprts: This allws a user t view quiz reprts. This capability is allwed fr Administratr, Teacher & Nn-Editing teacher rles nly. Effective Quiz Practices As we ve seen, the Mdle quiz engine is a pwerful, flexible tl fr mnitring and diagnsing a student s understanding f certain types f knwledge. Using this tl effectively can bst yur curse s effectiveness and prmte student perfrmance. While a cmputer-scred quiz is a different evaluatin than mre penended assessments, it des give valuable insight int student thinking and can prvide frmative as well as summative assessment als, especially when yu use gd strategies and a little creativity. Creative Quiz Uses With the Mdle quiz engine, it s easier t utilize educatinally sund assessment strategies that wuld be t difficult t implement with paper and pencil. Mst peple think f tests as an infrequent, high-stakes activity, such as midterms and finals. Better strategies invlve frequent, lw-stakes assessments yu and yur students can use t guide student perfrmance during the curse f the semester. Creating a series f mini-tests gives teacher a very flexible system fr gauging perfrmance and keeping students engaged in the class. Here are a few ideas fr quick quizzes which can be used as part f a larger assessment strategy. Chapter checks Getting students t cmplete reading assignments has t be ne f the hardest mtivatinal tasks in educatin. Reading is critical t understanding mst material and fundamental t success in many classes. The prblem fr mst students is that there is n immediate punishment fr prcrastinating n a reading assignment. If they haven t dne the reading fr a class discussin, they can either keep quiet r skim-read it in class. There s almst n need t d the reading fr a lecture curse, since the lecturer usually cvers mst f the material in class anyway. Creating a mini-test fr each reading assignment slves a number f prblems. First, it encurages students t d the reading s they can d well n the quiz. Secndly, it gives the students feedback n hw well they understd the reading assignment. Third, it gives yu data abut which aspects f the reading students fund cnfusing, and which they have already mastered, s yu can refcus yur class activities. 172

173 Fr a reading mini-test, setting a limited-time quiz that students can take nly nce is recmmended. Because it s a lw-stakes activity that students shuld use fr selfassessment, yu culd als display feedback and crrect answers. If yu re cncerned abut students sharing answers after they ve taken the quiz, randmize the questin and answer rder. If yu have a test bank, make sme f the questins randm as well. As an additinal assignment, yu culd ask students t write dwn ne questin abut a questin they gt wrng and bring it t class. Test Practice The key t effective practice is t have a realistic practice envirnment. Many students wrry abut tests, especially high-stakes tests, because they have n idea what t expect. What questin frmat will yu use? Hw detailed will the questins be? What shuld students study? Yu can help alleviate test anxiety by creating a practice test students can take t help answer these questins. These tests are usually based n ld questins similar t the upcming test questins. Using last year s final as an example test will frce yu t write new questins every year. This is a gd idea anyway; since yu can be sure smene has a cpy f last year s test and is sharing it with thers. T set up a practice test, yu culd create a zer-pint test with questins frm the year befre in randm rder with randm answers. Yu culd als allw students t take the test as many times as they like s they can test themselves as much as they need. Display feedback, but nt crrect answers, s the test presents mre f a challenge. Data gathering As an expert, yu knw a lt abut yur field. Yur challenge as a teacher is t translate yur knwledge fr a nvice wh desn t share yur cnceptual understanding r experience. An example r lecture yu think is brilliant may leave yur students cmpletely cnfused. It can be hard t tell what students really understand and what s leaving them baffled. A data-gathering quiz is similar t a chapter check, but it takes place after a class meeting r lecture. Yur gal is t quickly get sme feedback n yur students understanding f a lecture. What did they really understand? What d yu need t spend mre time n? It can be difficult t gauge what students find difficult and what they find s easy that it bres them. 173

174 Setting up a pst-class data-gathering quiz is similar t creating a chapter check. Set the quiz fr a limited time, such as a day r tw befre the next meeting. Allw yur students t take it nce and display feedback and crrect answers. Prgressive testing A very nice example f using the new feedback system with ther ptins is the idea f prgressive testing. T implement this, yu need t create a series f increasingly difficult quizzes. The first quiz shuld be pen t anyne, with the later quizzes prtected by a passwrd. In the feedback fr each quiz, decide a cutff percentage which yu feel represents mastery f the skills tested. If the students scre is greater than the cutff scre, the feedback message includes a link t the next quiz with the apprpriate passwrd. In this way, students gradually have access t increasingly difficult tests, and it allws them t cncretely demnstrate their prgress. But they dn t becme frustrated with questins that are t difficult. Mre ways in which Quizzes may be used are: as unit r curse exams as mini-tests fr reading assignments r at the end f a tpic as exam practice using questins frm previus years' exams t deliver immediate feedback fr printed wrkbk activities t prvide feedback abut perfrmance Fr self-assessment t allw students t generate their wn quiz questins fr a practice questin bank. Quiz Security and Cheating Of curse, nline testing als presents anther chance fr the cheaters in yur classes t try t game the system. Mst nline quizzes are meant t be taken at hme, r at least utside f class. Students can dwnlad the questins and print them ut. They can take the tests with ther students r while reading their textbks. Frtunately, yu can cunter many f these strategies, making them mre truble than they are wrth. Let s lk at a few strategies fr cuntering mst cheating schemes: Printing and sharing questins If yu display feedback and crrect answers, students can print the results page and share it with their friends. Or they can simply print the questins themselves directly frm the quiz. The key t discuraging this behavir is t randmize the questin rder and answer rder. It makes the printuts a lt less useful. Creating larger questin 174

175 banks and giving tests with randm subsets is als an effective strategy. If students can print nly a small number f questins at a time, they will need t view the test again and again, and then srt the questins t eliminate duplicates. Using the textbk Students will frequently lk up the answer t questins in the textbk r a reading. If yu are giving a chapter-check quiz, then this is what yu want them t d. Otherwise, yu need t cme up with creative ways t make the textbk less directly useful. Timed quizzes are the single mst effective tl fr eliminating this strategy. If yu include enugh questins and make the time t take the quiz shrt enugh, students wn t have time t lk up all the answers. Asking students t apply their knwledge t nvel situatins can als make a difference. Synthesis and applicatin questins can t be lked up. Students have t understand the material and apply it creatively t answer the questins. S while they may take the time t review the text, they will still need t understand what they ve read t successfully answer the questin. Wrking with friends If yur students are n the same campus, they may meet in a lab and try t take the quiz tgether. This strategy is easily thwarted with randm questin rder, randm answer rder, and randm questins pulled frm a test bank. If my screen desn t lk like yurs, then it s harder fr us t quickly answer all f the questins. A timed quiz als makes it harder fr the tw f us t cheat if we have different questins and nly a shrt amunt f time t answer. Have smene else take the test The ld adage ges, On the Internet, n ne knws yu re a dg. And n ne knws wh is actually taking the test. Students will smetimes pay classmates, r thers wh have taken the curse in the past, t take nline quizzes fr them. There are tw ways t cunter this strategy. One, have an ccasinal prctred exam where students need t shw ID. If they haven t taken the quizzes r dne the wrk until then, they will d prly n the prctred exam. Secnd, t eliminate current classmates frm taking each ther s quizzes make them available nly fr a shrt time. Yu culd require everyne t take the test within a tw- t fur-hur blck. If the test is prperly randmized, it will be very difficult t take it mre than nce during the testing perid. The test-taker will wrry abut her wn grade first, then abut her emplyer s grade. Obviusly, there are many strategies students can use t cheat. While it wuld be naïve t assume there isn t cheating, the vast majrity f yur students want t succeed n their wn merits. The annymity f the nline envirnment may pen up 175

176 new avenues fr the cheaters, but it s nt really much different frm yur face-t-face classes. A few peple will g t great lengths t cheat, but mst will be hnest as lng as it s nt t easy t get away with it. A few precautins will eliminate mst f the cheaters, and the classic strategies will wrk fr the thers. Summary Quizzes can be cnfigured t allw multiple attempts. Each attempt at a questin is autmatically marked, and the teacher can chse whether t give feedback and/r shw the crrect answers. There are many ways t use a quiz. Feedback abut perfrmance and self-assessment are imprtant parts f a learning envirnment. There are several ways t give feedback t students: n each questin r verall. The quiz mdule can display feedback and scres at different times during the quiz, using the review ptins in the Quiz settings. Yu can install additinal plugins t gamify yur Mdle quiz t create a variety f interactive games fr participants. A wide variety f Quiz reprts (in additin t Grades) are available fr use by the teacher. Quiz reprts nt nly can fcus n a single student's attempt t answer each questin, but als can perfrm a rbust item analysis f a questin's validity based upn aggregated student respnses. A single quiz can autmatically select randm and/r specific questins frm different categries f questins. There are different ptins fr scring (marks-grades) individual questins in a specific quiz, grading attempts fr a quiz and each questin type. The quiz settings allw different display methds. They can randmize the questins fr each student and r randmize the answers fr each student. The teacher can determine the number f questins n each page f questins the student sees. The teacher can change the psitin f any questin in the quiz. It is pssible t put a label with infrmatin any place between questins. The teacher can chse hw questins behave during the quiz. It can be like a classic test, where the student gets n feedback while attempting the test, nly later. Alternatively, Mdle can reveal the grades and/r feedback t the student during the quiz, and perhaps even give them anther chance t answer the questin (fr fewer marks) having read the feedback. 176

177 Chapter 9: Assignments Assignments are a refreshingly simple methd fr cllecting student wrk. They are a simple and flexible catch-all fr things yu want t grade that dn t fall int any f the ther tl types. The assignment mdule allws teachers t cllect wrk frm students, review it and prvide feedback including grades. The wrk students submit is visible nly t the teacher and nt t the ther students unless a grup assignment is selected. The assignment mdule gives yu an easy way t allw students t uplad digital cntent fr grading. Yu can ask them t submit essays, spreadsheets, presentatins, web pages, phtgraphs, r small audi r vide clips. Anything they can stre n their hard drives can be submitted in respnse t an assignment. Assignments dn t necessarily have t cnsist f file uplads. Yu can create ffline assignments t remind students f real-wrld assignments they need t cmplete. Alternatively, yu can ask students t input their answer directly int the assignment itself. Assignments are a useful tl yu can use in creative ways t cllect mre authentic respnses frm yur students than is pssible with the quiz engine. An assignment has an 'available frm' date befre which n students can submit anything, and a due date, after which teachers can chse nt t accept submissins any mre. Markers can chse t be ntified every time a student submits an assignment, r nly fr late submissins. Markers can chse t give students feedback in the frm f text r upladed files. Assignment Types: The standard assignment submissin ptins available are: File submissins (students submit a file fr assessment) Online text (students can type their respnses directly in Mdle) Submissin cmments Offline Assignment 177

178 Adding an Assignment activity T create an assignment: T add a new Assignment activity t yur curse, first click the Turn Editing On buttn. Within the required Week r Tpic Blck click Add an Activity r Resurce link. In the Add an activity r resurce dialgue bx that appears, select Assignment and click Add. The fllwing cnfiguratin ptins are available when creating r editing/updating any Assignment activity. Only General, Availability and Submissin types are pen by default; the thers are cllapsed. T expand everything, click the "Expand all" link tp right. General Sectin The General sectin allws yu t give yur assignment a name and descriptin. Assignment name: Give yur Assignment a name (e.g. Reprt n Tpic 1 Cntent ). The title entered here will be the name that learners see in the curse cntent area. Learners will click n this name t view the details f the assignment and, if applicable, submit their wrk. Descriptin: Prvide instructins fr yur students here s they are clear what they have t d. Click the icn n the left t expand the tlbar and drag the bttm right f the text bx ut t expand it. Yu can als prvide infrmatin r resurces related t the assignment, such as a vide clip, an image, r a link t a webpage. Display descriptin n curse page: Enabling this will display the descriptin n the curse page just belw the link t the assignment activity. Availability Sectin Allw submissins frm: If enabled, students will nt be able t submit befre this date. If disabled, students will be able t start submitting right away. Due Date: This is when the assignment is due. Submissins will still be allwed after this date but any assignments submitted after this date, are marked as late. T prevent submissins after a certain date - set the assignment cutff date. Cut Off Date: If set, the assignment will nt accept submissins after this date withut an extensin. Always shw descriptin: If disabled, the Assignment Descriptin abve will nly becme visible t students at the "Allw submissins frm" date. 178

179 Submissin Types Sectin: Submissin types: Here yu can decide hw yu wish students t submit their wrk t yu. There are fur types f assignment submissins as mentined in the sectin abve: Online Text: Learners can type their respnse directly in Mdle using the text editr. It's pssible t set a wrd limit n an nline text assignment. Students get a warning if they try t exceed the wrd limit. File Submissins: Learners can uplad and edit ne r mre files f any type the teacher can pen. If the student uplads a pdf file, the teacher can anntate it within the brwser, and n saving, the anntated file is made available t the student. Submissin cmments: If Site Administratr has enabled then nly students will be able t send a message t their teacher when submitting their assignment. Offline Activity - If yu simply uncheck the abve three ptins then it will result int an ffline assignment activity. *** Nte that if Submissin cmments are enabled by Site Administratr then students will be able t add a nte t their teacher n submitting wrk. If Blind marking is enabled, student cmments display as frm "Participant 01 etc." t avid revealing identities. These cmments will appear in the grading table in the Submissin cmments clumn. Wrd Limit: If nline text submissins are enabled, this is the maximum number f wrds that each student will be allwed t submit. Maximum number f upladed files: Here yu can decide the maximum number f files which may be upladed by each learner. (It might be helpful t display the number in the assignment descriptin). Maximum submissin size: This setting specifies the maximum size per file f each f the files that the students can uplad as part f their submissin. This maximum uplad size may nly be equal t r less than the curse limit (which in turn may nly be equal t r less than the site limit). The maximum size f each file is displayed t students at the pint where they uplad files. Feedback Type Sectin: Feedback cmments: Setting this t yes mean that markers can leave feedback cmments fr each submissin. It enables the Feedback Cmments clumn in the grading table. 179

180 Offline grading wrksheet: If set t yes, yu will have a link t dwnlad the grading list as a spreadsheet. Then yu will be able t enter grades and feedback cmments ffline. When the teacher has cmpleted their grading ffline, they can then uplad the spreadsheet, cnfirm the changes and the grades and cmments will be transferred ver int Mdle's gradebk Feedback files: If enabled, yu will be able t uplad files with feedback when marking the assignments. These files may be, but are nt limited t marked up student submissins, dcuments with cmments r spken audi feedback. Uplading multiple feedback files It is als pssible t uplad multiple feedback files as a zip, frm the drpdwn abve the grading list: Dwnlad the students' assignments using the "Dwnlad all submissins" link frm the same drpdwn menu; Extract the flder ffline and add yur cmments t the student's submissins. Keep the names the same. Select the students' submissins and zip them int a new flder. Imprtant: Dn't just edit them inside their riginal flder and re-zip this; it will nt wrk. The flder name des nt matter as lng as the feedback files have the same names as befre. Uplad this newly zipped flder. Yu will be presented with a cnfirmatin screen displaying yur feedback files. Cmment Inline: If enabled, the submissin text will be cpied int the feedback cmment field during grading, making it easier t cmment inline (using a different clr, perhaps) r t edit the riginal text. Submissin Settings Sectin: Require students click submit buttn: If enabled, students will have t click a Submit buttn t declare their submissin as final. This allws students t keep a draft versin f the submissin n the system. Require that students accept the Submissin statement: An administratr can define a "Submissin statement", i.e., a statement where students prmise the wrk is their wn and which they must agree t befre submitting their wrk. If the administratr has given teachers the ptin f using a submissin statement r nt, then it will be available in the assignment settings screen. When this setting is enabled, students will have t check a buttn befre they can submit their assignment. Attempts repened: This setting allws the teacher t decide hw submissins are repened. It determines hw student submissin attempts are repened. 180

181 Figure 8-1 Adding a new assignment The available ptins are: Never - The student submissin cannt be repened. Manually - The student submissin can be repened by a teacher. Autmatically until pass - The student submissin is autmatically repened until the student achieves the grade t pass value set in the Gradebk (Categries and items sectin) fr this assignment. 181

182 Maximum attempts: If a student is allwed t resubmit, this setting will determine hw many times they can resubmit befre they are n lnger allwed t d s. After this number f attempts has been made the student's submissin will nt be able t be repened. Grup submissin settings Sectin: Students submit in grups: If this bx is ticked, then students are able t cllabrate n an assignment. This might invlve fr example, wrking in the same nline text area, r ne student uplading an MS PwerPint which anther student dwnlads, imprves and re-uplads t the cmmn assignment area. A grup submissin will be shared amng grup members and all members f the grup will see each ther s changes t the submissin. When grading, the teacher may chse t give a cmmn grade and feedback t all students in the grup r t give individual grades and feedback t each member. Require all grup members submit: If enabled, all members f the student grup must click the submit buttn fr this assignment befre the grup submissin will be cnsidered as submitted. If disabled, the grup submissin will be cnsidered as submitted as sn as any member f the student grup clicks the submit buttn. Gruping fr student grups: If a particular gruping is selected here, then the gradebk will display any ther grups and nn-gruped students in the "default grup", while naming the grup(s) that are in the chsen gruping. If "nne" is selected, then the gradebk will display the names f all grups and put any nn-gruped students in the "default grup". Ntificatins Sectin Ntify graders abut submissins: If enabled, yu will receive a message whenever a student submits an assignment, early, n time and late. Ntify graders abut late submissin: If enabled then yu will receive a message whenever a student submits a late assignment. Default setting fr "Ntify students": This setting will set the default value fr the "Ntify students" checkbx n the grading frm. Grade Sectin: Grade: Select Pints r Scale frm the drpdwn. If yu will nt be giving a grade fr the assignment, chse N Grade. Then select yur pints r chsen scale. Grading Methd: Chse the advanced grading methd that shuld be used fr calculating grades in the given cntext. 182

183 There are 3 ptins: Simple direct grading (entering a grade r scale item) Marking guide Rubric *** T disable advanced grading and switch back t the default grading mechanism, chse 'Simple direct grading'. Grade Categry: This setting cntrls the categry in which this activity's grades are placed in the gradebk. Any custm Grade Categries that have been created within yur site r curse will be listed here and will be available fr selectin. Select the required Grade Categry t add this assignment as a Grade item within this Categry. Blind marking: If this setting is enabled, then yu will nt see the names f students wh have submitted their assignments. Instead, yu will see randmly generated Participant numbers. Hwever, after grading the assignment, it is pssible fr yu t see wh submitted what by clicking n "Reveal student identities" in the Assignment settings. Use marking wrkflw: When set t Yes, yu will be able t specify the stage they are at in their grading f individual assignments. One advantage f using marking wrkflw is that the grades can be hidden frm students until they are set t 'Released'. The actual list f steps are: Nt marked (the marker has nt yet started) In marking (the marker has started but nt yet finished) Marking cmpleted (the marker has finished but might need t g back fr checking/crrectins) In review (the marking is nw with the teacher in charge fr quality checking) Ready fr release (the teacher in charge is satisfied with the marking but wait befre giving students access t the marking) Released (the student can access the grades/feedback) Use marking allcatin: If marking wrkflw is set t Yes, it is pssible t enable marking allcatin. This means that yu can select ther teachers t grade r review the submitted wrk f specific students. Clleagues can mnitr prgress thrugh the displayed marking wrkflw states. Cmmn Mdule Settings Cmmn Mdule settings are same as mentined in all previus activities. S this time yu shuld d chse them as an exercise. Click "Save and return t curse" buttn t make yur assignment available. 183

184 Yur assignment will appear in yur curse page. It will als be added t yur curse calendar and will appear in the Upcming Events blck t remind students when it s due. *** T see hw yur assignment appears fr yur students, select Student frm the Switch rle t drp-dwn menu in the tp-right crner f the curse page, next t the Turn editing n buttn. The Return t my nrmal rle link at the bttm f each page restres yur teacher status. Assignment capabilities The assignment mdule has nly fur capabilities: Exprt wn submissin - This allws a user t exprt their wn assignment submissins t a prtfli. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Grade assignment - This allws a user t see submissins, add cmments t and grade assignments. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Submit assignment - This capability allws a user t submit an assignment. This capability is allwed fr the default rle f student nly. View assignment - This allws a user t view assignments. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher, student and guest. Managing Assignment Submissins T view yur students submissins, click n the assignment name in yur curse page. Yu ll see the assignment name and details and a table underneath with details f participants, submitted number f assignments and the submissins which needs grading. Under the table there is a link "View/grade all submissins" which shw all assignments that have been submitted. Click n this link. The assignment submissins page, as shwn in Figure 8-2, displays the grading table which cntains clumns f infrmatin abut the student, the status f their submissin, a link t grade their submissin, a link t each submissin and feedback cmments and files. The list may be srted by clicking n a particular heading. By default, 10 submissins are shwn per page, thugh this may be changed at the bttm f the page. 184

185 Grading Assignment Submissins Figure 8-2 Assignment submissins On the grading table page, yu can grade the assignments submissins f all students. Filtering submissins A drpdwn menu accessed frm the 'Optins' sectin allws yu t filter submissins s yu can fr example quickly see which students have nt submitted yet. Quick grading Under Optins (scrll t bttm f the page) yu can determine yur preferences fr the number f assignments yu wish t display per page. This is als where yu can turn n quick grading. Quick grading allws yu t enter grades and a feedback cmment (if enabled in Assignment settings) directly int the grading table. Quick grading is nt cmpatible with advanced grading and is nt recmmended when there are multiple markers. T quick grade submissins: Yu can enter grades and feedback cmments using quick grading. It is nw pssible t enter grades in decimal frmat. Enter the grades 185

186 Scrll t the bttm f the grading table and click 'Save all quick grading changes' A cnfirmatin screen will appear. *** Yu will nt be able t return a feedback file t yur students. Figure 8-3 Grading assignment 186

187 Students can see their grades and cmment in tw ways. First, they can click n the assignment link again. They will see their grades and cmments belw the submissin blck. Alternatively, they can click n the Grades link in the curse Administratin blck. They will see the grade fr the assignment and can then click n the assignment name t get the written feedback. Effective assignment practices The tw mst basic assignment types, ffline and uplad, are s generic yu may find it difficult t use them effectively at first. Yu may find it useful t think abut them as tw separate mdules sharing a cmmn interface. Offline assignments are useful fr recrding grades fr real-wrld activities. Yu can use this tl t recrd scres r feedback fr student presentatins, class participatin, perfrmances, sculptures, r any ther nndigital perfrmance. Yu can create a scale t give nnnumeric feedback if yu dn t want t give a numeric scre t a creative perfrmance. Upladed assignments are prbably what mst peple expect when they think abut assignments. Remember, yu can use these assignment types fr any srt f digital cntent. Mst instructrs use assignments t cllect essays and ther wrd-prcessing assignments. Yu can als use them t cllect ther types f student wrk. Students culd uplad PwerPint slides prir t a presentatin. Yu culd assign a what-if scenari using a spreadsheet and ask students t submit it. Students culd take a digital phtgraph f a sculpture r mechanical prject and submit it fr evaluatin. As lng as the file is smaller than the uplad maximum, yu can create assignments fr any srt f digital cntent. Cnsider the types f wrk prducts yu want yur students t prduce during yur curse. Hw many f them culd be digital files submitted using an assignment? 187

188 Creative Assignment Practices Table 8-1 shws yu which assignment type can be used fr which purpse. S. N. Yu want.. Yu chse.. 1 Students t type shrter r lnger respnses directly nline. 2 students t submit wrk yu can dwnlad in a specified prgram Set Online tex t Yes. This wrks well fr yunger children wh will nly manage a sentence r tw and wrks just as well fr higher educatin students wh write mre. Advantage - quick fr the student t get started; n need t use a wrd-prcessing prgram and uplad the file. Disadvantage - ptential wrries that if the internet ges dwn, the wrk students have typed in and nt yet saved might be lst. If the wrd cunt is expected t be large, setting Online tex t N and File submissin t Yes might be a better ptin. Set File submissin t Yes, set the number f files yu will allw using the Maximum number f upladed files setting and the file sizes by using the Maximum submissin size setting. Advantage - better than students ing wrk as the whle class's wrk is cllated in ne space n yur curse. Markers can prvide cmments directly n the student wrk. Advantage - with "Attempts repened" enabled, teachers can see the prgressin thrugh varius drafts f a student's wrk. Disadvantage - assignments must dwnladed t be viewed (but they can be dwnladed in bulk) and the teacher needs the apprpriate prgram t pen them. 3 students t submit files at different times fr a prject Set File submissin t Yes, and use Maximum number f upladed files t set the maximum number f separate files they can uplad Advantage - all prject files are in ne assignment 188

189 area fr grading s they get a single grade. Disadvantage - all prject files are in ne assignment area fr grading - s they can nly have a single grade! 4 students t write a respnse t a vide/sund file/image 5 t grade wrk students have dne ffline 6 t view, cmment n and send back students' assignments 7 students t send yu a cmment r nte alng with their upladed wrk 8 t allw students t redraft and decide when t submit the wrk 9 students t keep an nging jurnal r d an iterative assignment Set up an assignment allwing nline text submissin and get students t use the Mdle media icn t add vide/sund/image files. Uncheck the submissin types when setting up the assignment. Students wn't be required t d anything but yu can use the assignment t grade them fr wrk dne utside f Mdle. Set up an assignment allwing file submissins. Advantage: useful fr teachers wh like using the "cmment" ptins in wrd-prcessing prgrams fr example. Disadvantage: if students uplad ther file types, yu have t dwnlad them, cmment and then re-uplad them. In the settings, set Submissin cmments t Yes. In the settings set Require students click submit buttn t Yes. Students can then cntrl when their draft wrk is submitted t the teacher. In the settings set Require students click submit buttn t N. Students can cntinue t make changes t their assignment and at n pint d they 'submit'. If the wrk will be graded at sme pint it is recmmended that either Prevent late submissins is set t Yes t ensure that n changes can be made after the due date, r all 189

190 submissins are lcked when grading cmmences t ensure that the wrk is nt altered during grading. Advantage: the wrk remains in ne place and is cnstantly imprved, graded (if needed) and imprved again. Disadvantage: there is n recrd/histry f previus attempts. The nline text assignment des nt replicate the display f a jurnal r blg where each new entry is additinal t the previus nes. 10 students t submit wrk in grups 11 t grade students' wrk annymusly In the settings, set "Students submit in grups" t Yes. If yu just d this, then nce ne student has submitted, the assignment will be flagged as submitted even if the thers haven't cntributed. If yu want t ensure everyne has an input, set "Require students click submit buttn" t Yes and then change "Require all grup members t submit" t Yes. The assignment will nly be classed as submitted when each member has cntributed, and nce ne student has submitted, the remaining member s names will be displayed fr the grup t see wh still needs t add their input. In the settings, chse "Blind marking". When students submit assignments, their names will be replaced by randmly generated participant numbers s yu will nt knw wh is wh. 12 t read and grade student assignments ffline In the settings, chse "Offline grading wrksheet". When students have submitted, click "View/grade all submissins" and yu can dwnlad their assignments frm the link "Dwnlad all submissin" and dwnlad the grading sheet frm the link "Dwnlad grading wrksheet". Yu can then edit grades and re-uplad the grading wrksheet. Yu can als uplad multiple feedback files in a zip frm this drp dwn menu. 190

191 Summary Assignments are an easy way t gather and track student submissins. Students can submit any type f electrnic file t fulfill the requirements. Instead f cllecting unwieldy stacks f paper, yu can let Mdle track wh has turned in a paper and when. The feedback ptins prvide yu with an easy way t send grades and/r cmments back t the students abut their wrk. 191

192 Chapter 10: Wrkshp Wrkshp is a peer assessment activity with many ptins. Students submit their wrk via an nline text tl and attachments. There are tw grades fr a student: their wn wrk and their peer assessments f ther students' wrk. Wrkshp is similar t the Assignment mdule which we cvered in chapter 8 and extends its functinality in many ways. Hwever, it is recmmended that bth yu (teacher) and yur curse participants (students) have at least sme experience with the Assignment mdule befre the Wrkshp is used in the curse. As in the Assignment, curse participants submit their wrk during the Wrkshp activity. Every curse participant submits their wn wrk. The submissin may cnsist f a text and attachments. Therefre, Wrkshp submissin merges bth Online text and Uplad file types f the Assignment mdule. Supprt fr team wrk (in the sense f ne submissin per grup f participants) is ut f scpe f Wrkshp mdule. The submissins are assessed using a structured assessment frm defined by the curse facilitatr (teacher). Wrkshp supprts several types f assessment frms. All f them allws multi-criteria assessment in cmparisn t the Assignment mdule where nly ne grade is given t a submissin. Wrkshp supprts peer assessment prcess. Curse participants may be asked t assess selected set f their peers' submissins. The mdule crdinates the cllectin and distributin f these assessments. Curse participants get actually tw grades in a single Wrkshp activity - grade fr their submissin (that is hw gd their submitted wrk is) and grade fr assessment (that is hw well they assessed their peers). Wrkshp activity creates tw grade items in the curse Gradebk and they can be aggregated there as needed. The prcess f peer assessment and understanding the assessment frm can be practiced in advance n s called example submissins. These examples are prvided by the facilitatr tgether with a reference assessment. Wrkshp participants can assess these examples and cmpare their assessment with the reference ne. The curse facilitatr can select sme submissins and publish them s they are available t the thers at the end f Wrkshp activity (in cmparisn t the Assignment mdule where submitted wrk is available nly t the authr and the facilitatr). 192

193 Wrkshp phases The wrk flw fr the Wrkshp mdule can be viewed as having five phases. The typical wrkshp activity can cver days r even weeks. The teacher switches the activity frm ne phase t anther. The typical wrkshp fllws a straight path frm Setup t, Submissin, Assessment, Grading/Evaluatin, and ending with the Clsed phased. Hwever, an advanced recursive path is als pssible. The prgress f the activity is visualized in s called Wrkshp planner tl. It displays all Wrkshp phases and highlights the current ne. It als lists all the tasks the user has in the current phase with the infrmatin f whether the task is finished r nt yet finished r even failed. Befre creating a wrkshp activity in yur curse, let s take an verview n the different phases within the wrkshp activity. Setup phase In this initial phase, Wrkshp participants cannt d anything (neither mdifies their submissins nr their assessments). Curse facilitatrs use this phase t change wrkshp settings, mdify the grading strategy f tweak assessment frms. Yu can switch t this phase any time yu need t change the Wrkshp setting and prevent users frm mdifying their wrk. Figure 9-1 Wrkshp phases Submissin phase In the submissin phase, Wrkshp participants submit their wrk. Access cntrl dates can be set s that even if the Wrkshp is in this phase, submitting is restricted t the given time frame nly. Submissin start date (and time), submissin end date (and time) r bth can be specified. 193

194 Assessment phase If the Wrkshp uses peer assessment feature, this is the phase when Wrkshp participants assess the submissins allcated t them fr the review. As in the submissin phase, access can be cntrlled by specified date and time since when and/r until when the assessment is allwed. Grading evaluatin phase The majr task during this phase is t calculate the final grades fr submissins and fr assessments and prvide feedback fr authrs and reviewers. Wrkshp participants cannt mdify their submissins r their assessments in this phase any mre. Curse facilitatrs can manually verride the calculated grades. Als, selected submissins can be set as published s they becme available t all Wrkshp participants in the next phase. Clsed Whenever the Wrkshp is being switched int this phase, the final grades calculated in the previus phase are pushed int the curse Gradebk. This will result in the Wrkshp grades appearing in the Gradebk and in the wrkshp. Participants may view their submissins, their submissin assessments and eventually ther published submissins in this phase. Nw let s add a wrkshp activity in yur curse: Adding a new wrkshp activity With the editing turned n, in the sectin yu wish t add yur wrkshp, click the "Add an activity r resurce" link. The "Adding a new wrkshp" screen will be displayed In the General Sectin: Name: Whatever yu type here will frm the link learner s click n t view the wrkshp, s it is helpful t give it a name that suggests its purpse. Descriptin: Add a descriptin f yur wrkshp here. Click "Shw editing tls" t display the rich text editr, and drag the bttm right f the text bx ut t expand it. If Display descriptin n the curse page bx is ticked, the descriptin will appear n the curse page just belw the name f the wrkshp. In the Grading Settings Sectin: Grading strategy: What yu chse here determines the assessment frm students will use and als the strategy fr grading submissins. 194

195 *** Grading strategies can't be changed nce we have entered the submissin phase f a wrkshp. Accumulative grading: Cmments and a grade are given regarding the aspects f the wrkshp specified. Cmments: Cmments are given but n grade can be given t the specified aspects Number f Errrs: A yes/n assessment is used and cmments are given fr specified assertins Rubric: A level assessment is given regarding specified criteria. Grade fr submissin: This setting specifies the maximum grade that may be btained fr submitted wrk. It is scaled between Grade fr assessment: This setting specifies the maximum grade that may be btained fr submissin assessment. It is als scaled between Decimal places in grade: Decide here hw many decimal places are allwed in the grade. In the Submissin Settings Sectin: Instructins fr submissin: Explain here what students must submit and related instructins. Maximum number f submissin attachments: If yu wish students t attach files, select hw many here, up t a maximum f 7. If yu leave it at 0 then they can nly enter text. Maximum File Size: Decide here hw large file students can uplad. The size will depend n the curse uplad limit. Late Submissins: If enabled, students may submit their wrk after the submissins deadline r during the assessment phase. Late submissins cannt be edited thugh. In the Assessment Settings Sectin: Instructins fr assessment: Here yu can write instructins fr assessments nline. This is very useful t help students have a better understanding abut the imprtant pints f a task befre assessing their classmates submissins. Use Self-Assessment: If enabled, a user may be allcated their wn submissin t assess and will receive a grade fr assessment in additin t a grade fr their submissin. In the Feedback Sectin: Overall feedback mde: If enabled, a text field is displayed at the bttm f the assessment frm. Reviewers can put the verall assessment f the submissin there, r prvide additinal explanatin f their assessment. 195

196 Figure 14-2 Adding a new wrkshp activity Maximum number f verall feedback attachments: Chse here hw many (if any) files yu wish reviewers t attach t their verall feedback, up t a maximum f 7. Maximum verall feedback attachment size: Decide here hw large a feedback file students can uplad. The size will depend n the curse uplad limit. Cnclusin: It is pssible t add sme custm text which the students will see nce they reach the end f the wrkshp prcess. This might be a general summary r suggestins n what shuld be dne next, such as writing a blg pst t reflect n the experience. In the Example Submissin Sectin: Use examples: If enabled, users can try assessing ne r mre example submissins and cmpare their assessment with a reference assessment. The grade is nt cunted in the grade fr assessment. 196

197 Mde f examples assessment: If yu check the bx abve then yu will find three ptins in this drp dwn menu: The first ptin means that the assessment f the example submissin is vluntary, while the secnd and the third nes make it mandatry, which either requires students t assess example submissins befre submitting their wn wrk r after their wn submissin but befre peer-assessment. *** Assessments f the example submissin are nt cunted when calculating the grade fr assessment. In the Availability sectin: This sectin deals with setting submissin times and assessment times fr the wrkshp. That is the time when students can start submitting as well as the deadline fr submitting, and similarly the time assessments fr ther students wrk start and when they must finish assessing ther students wrk. Yu can chse yur settings accrdingly t facilitate the students within yur class. In the Cmmn Mdule Sectin: Visible: Select Shw/Hide t display r hide the activity t yur students. ID Number: Prvide an ID number fr the activity t be shwn in the Gradebk. Grup Mde: Select the grup mde fr the wrkshp activity. There are three ptins: N Grups: There are n sub grups, everyne is part f ne big cmmunity Separate Grups: Each grup member can nly see their wn grup, thers are invisible Visible Grups: Each grup member wrks in their wn grup, but can als see ther grups. Gruping: Select gruping type if yu want t make an activity (such as an assignment r a quiz) visible t nly ne set f users within a curse. Click "Save and Return t the curse" t save the wrkshp activity. Using Wrkshp Activity When yu click n the wrkshp activity in the curse main page it will take yu t the Setup phase f the wrkshp activity. Setup Phase In rder t set the criteria fr an assignment, yu as a teacher need t fill ut an assessment frm during the setup phase. Students can view this assessment frm in the submissin phase and fcus n what is imprtant abut the task when wrking n 197

198 their assignment. In the next phase-the assessment phase, students will assess their peers wrk based n this assessment frm. Figure 14-3 Edit the assessment frm Accrding t the grading strategy chsen in the grading settings while setting up the activity, yu will get crrespnding riginal assessment frm t edit by clicking Edit assessment frm buttn in the first page f the wrkshp setup fr the assignment. The grading strategy can be ne f Accumulative grading, Cmments, Number f errrs r Rubrics. Teachers can set each criterin in detail in the assessment frm. Submissin phase Once the wrkshp has been made we can then set mre settings relating t submissins. This is dne thrugh clicking n the menu highlighted belw which is fund when yu click n the wrkshp s link r after clicking Save and Display n cmpletin f the wrkshp. T access the menu simply click n Allcate Submissins. It is highlighted in the picture by the red bx. When yu click n the "Allcate Submissins" link Mdle will take yu t the submissin allcatin page where yu can allcate the submissins t different students. There are 3 tabs n the page: 198

199 Figure 14-4 Submissin Phase Manual Allcatin: Here, a teacher can manually chse which students review whse wrk. A student can review wrk even if they have nt submitted anything themselves. Figure 14-5 Randm allcatin f submissins 199

200 Randm Allcatin: The teacher is given 5 settings that determine hw the randm allcatin will wrk. Number f reviews: Here the teacher picks between 0 and 30 reviews fr either each submissin r per reviewer. That is the teacher may chse t either set the number f reviews each submissin must have r the number f reviews each student has t carry ut Prevent Reviews: If the teacher wishes fr students f the same grup t never review each ther s wrk, as mst likely it is their wrk t in a grup submissin, then they can check this bx and mdle will ensure that they are nly allcated ther students ut f their grup s wrk t access Figure 10-6 Randm allcatin settings Remve current allcatins: Checking this bx means that any manual allcatins that have been set in the Manual Allcatin menu will be remved Can access with n submissin: Having this bx checked allws students t assess ther students wrk withut having already submitted their wn wrk. Add self-assessments: This ptins when checked make sure that as well as assessing ther students wrk they must als assess their wn. 200

201 This is a gd ptin t teach students hw t be bjective t their wn wrk. Scheduled Allcatin: If enabled, the scheduled allcatin methd will autmatically allcate submissins fr the assessment at the end f the submissin phase. The end f the phase can be defined in the wrkshp setting 'Submissins deadline'. Internally, the randm allcatin methd is executed with the parameters pre-defined in this frm. It means that the scheduled allcatin wrks as if the teacher executed the randm allcatin themselves at the end f the submissin phase using the allcatin settings belw. Assessment phase Examples Students can assess example submissins fr practice befre assessing their peers' wrk if this feature is enabled. They can cmpare their assessments with reference assessments made by the teacher. The grade will nt be cunted in the grade fr assessment. Yu need t uplad ne r mre example submissins and the crrespnding reference assessment t supprt this functin. Yu can als edit the reference assessment later by clicking the reassess buttn in the first page. Peer Assessment: If this feature is enabled, a student will be allcated a certain amunt f submissins frm his peers t assess. He will receive a grade fr each assessment, which will be added tgether with the grade fr his wn submissin and this will be used as his final grade fr this assignment. This is the key feature f wrkshp: T encurage students t assess the wrk f their peers and learn frm each ther. Thrugh this, they will see the strengths f their classmates submissins and have a better understanding abut hw t d a gd jb. In additin, the advices they get frm their peers will give them a mre cmprehensive view f their wn wrk: The cmments frm their peers will pint ut the weakness f their wrk, which is generally difficult t find ut by themselves. 201

202 Self-Assessment: If this ptin is turned n, a student may be allcated his wn wrk t assess. The grade he receives frm assessment f his wn wrk will be cunted int the grade fr assessment, which will be added tgether with the grade fr submissin and used t calculate his final grade fr this assignment. This setting enables teachers t see whether students can find ut the strength and weakness f their wn submissins and judge them bjectively. It is a gd way t help students think mre cmprehensively. Grading evaluatin phase Grading evaluatin settings - Here yu can chse yur settings fr calculatin f the grade fr assessments. Grade calculatin methd - This setting determines hw t calculate grade fr assessments. Currently there is nly ne ptin- cmparisn with the best assessment. The Cmparisn with the best assessmen tries t imagine what a hypthetical abslutely fair assessment wuld lk like. Cmparisn f assessments This setting determines hw quickly the grades fall dwn when the assessments differ frm the best assessment. This setting has 5 ptins: very lax, lax, fair, strict and very strict. It specifies hw strict the cmparisn f assessment shuld be. By using cmparisn with the best assessment methd, all assessments will be cmpared with the best assessment picked up by wrkshp. The mre similar ne assessment is with the best assessment, the higher grade this assessment will get, and vice versa. Wrkshp tlbx Clear all aggregated grades: Clicking this buttn will reset aggregated grades fr submissin and grades fr assessment. Teachers can re-calculate these grades frm scratch in Grade evaluatin phase. Clear assessments: By clicking this buttn, grades fr assessments alng with grades fr submissin will be reset. The assessment frm will remain the same but all the reviewers need t pen the assessment frm again and re-save it t get the given grades calculated again. 202

203 Clsed Phase Whenever the Wrkshp is being switched int this phase, the final grades calculated in the previus phase are pushed int the curse Gradebk. This will result in the Wrkshp grades appearing in the Gradebk and in the wrkshp (new in Mdle 2.4 nwards). Participants may view their submissins, their submissin assessments and eventually ther published submissins in this phase. Grading a Wrkshp Activity The grades fr a Wrkshp activity are btained gradually at several stages and then they are finalized. Figure 14-7 Grade calculatin in wrkshp 203

204 Grade fr submissin: The final grade fr every submissin is calculated as weighted mean f particular assessment grades given by all reviewers f this submissin. The value is runded t a number f decimal places set in the Wrkshp settings frm. Yu can influence the grade fr a given submissin in tw ways: by prviding their wn assessment, pssibly with a higher weight than usual peer reviewers have by verriding the grade t a fixed value Grade fr assessment: Grade fr assessment tries t estimate the quality f assessments that the participant gave t the peers. Grades fr assessment are displayed in the brackets () in the Wrkshp grades reprt. The final grade fr assessment is calculated as the average f particular grading grades. Wrkshp Capabilities The capabilities fr the wrkshp activities are: Allcate submissins fr review: This allws a user t allcate a submissin fr assessment and set the weight f the assessment fr a wrkshp activity. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Edit assessment frms: This allws a user t define and mdify assessment frms. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Ignre time restrictins: This capability allws a user t submit r assess withut any time restrictins i.e. he is nt bund t fllw the deadlines. Manage example submissins: This allws a user t submit example submissins. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Override calculated grades: This capability allws a user t verride calculated grades fr submissin and assessment. Peer assess: All users with this capability are cnsidered as ptential reviewers during the allcatin. Submissins can be allcated t these users fr assessment. Publish submissins: This allws a user t publish submissins that is t make them available when wrkshp is clsed. 204

205 Submit: This allws a user t submit wn wrk. All users with this capability are expected t participate in the wrkshp as authrs. Switch phase: This allws a user t change the current phase f the wrkshp. View wrkshp: This allws a user t see wrkshp title and intrductin during the setup phase. View all assessments: This allws a user t view all assessments in the wrkshp. View all submissins: This allws a user t view all submissins in the wrkshp. View authr names: This allws a user t see the name f submissin authr. This is typically used t cntrl whether reviewers shuld knw wh they are assessing r whether the assessment is annymus. View authrs f published submissins: This capability allws a user t see the names f authrs f published submissins. View published submissins: This allws a user t view published submissins when the wrkshp is clsed. View reviewer names: This allws a user t see the name f reviewer. This is typically used t cntrl whether submissin authrs shuld knw wh they are assessed by r whether the reviewers are annymus. Summary Wrkshp activity is an activity which is quite similar in nature t assignment but takes the functinality t a much mre extended level. Sme f the extended facilities prvided by the wrkshp activity are: Wrkshp crdinates the cllectin f assignments and the distributin f these assignments t peer reviewers. Peer markers assess the submissins using a structured assessment frm defined by the teacher, which permits multiple criteria t be used. Wrkshp supprts several types f assessment frms (e.g. full rubric, cmmenting nly). Curse participants are graded n their wn submissin and n hw well they assessed their peers. These 2 grade items are created in the curse Gradebk and can be aggregated there as needed. Students can practice peer assessment and the use f rubrics in advance using example submissins and a reference assessment prvided by the teacher. 205

206 Chapter 11: Glssaries Part f becming an expert in any field is learning the vcabulary used by practitiners. Experts in an area f study develp new language and wrd usage t cmmunicate new ideas r subtle variatins f ld nes. As cmmunities develp within a field and experts cmmunicate with each ther ver time, new languages emerge. Many experts find it increasingly difficult t cmmunicate with nvices as they becme mre immersed in the language f their field. Frtunately, Mdle has a tl t help yu and yur students develp glssaries f terms and embed them in yur curse. On the surface, the glssary mdule desn t seem t be mre than a fancy wrd list. In practice, hwever, it s a pwerful tl fr learning. The glssary mdule has a number f features that make it easy fr yu and yur class t develp shared vcabulary lists, add cmments t definitins, and even link every appearance f a wrd in a curse t its glssary entry. The glssary activity mdule allws participants t create and maintain a list f definitins, like a dictinary. Glssary can be used in many ways. The entries can be searched r brwsed in different frmats and definitins can 'pp up' ver instances f the wrd whenever the term appears in the mdule. A glssary can be a cllabrative activity r be restricted t entries made by the teacher. Entries can be put in categries. The aut-linking feature will highlight any wrd in the curse which is lcated in the glssary. The glssary als allws teachers t exprt entries frm ne glssary t anther (the main ne) within the same mdule. Student entries can be set t be apprved by a tutr befre they are made available and students can als cmment n entries. Creative Glssary Uses Favrite Websites cllectin: Yu can setup the glssary t create a cllectin f the favrite websites that students find apprpriate fr the class. Anntated bk reprts: Students can submit their respnse t the glssary with cncept being their name and title f bk; teacher allws rating (by teacher) and cmments (by all) s that it is easy fr bth the instructr t grade the riginal wrk (indexed by student name) AND students can share their wrk fr peer review/cmments prir t instructr grading. FAQs fr the curse cmpiled by the instructr frm feedback frm students in prir term curses. Bigraphies f peple in the field 206

207 Cllabrative Encyclpedia - Have students create an encyclpedia f what they are learning abut a persn, r a peple, a cncept, a place, an event, a thing etc. Student f the Week - With glssary, yu can add a pht f each student withut identificatin. The randm glssary blck shws the pht f that student as student f the week; every student gets displayed. Anther great idea is t use the randm glssary entry blck t d qutes f the day r vcab wrd f the day. Creating Glssaries Each Mdle curse has its wn set f glssaries. Only teachers can edit the main glssary. Secndary glssaries may be cnfigured t allw student entries and cmments. Yur Mdle curse may cntain ne main glssary and as many secndary glssaries as yu want. Yu can exprt entries frm any secndary glssary int the main glssary. T create a glssary: With the editing turned n, in the sectin yu wish t add yur glssary, click the "Add an activity r resurce" link and chse Glssary. In the General Sectin: Name: Give yur new glssary a descriptive name. Descriptin: Describe the purpse f the glssary and prvide instructins r backgrund infrmatin, links etc. Display descriptin n curse page: If this bx is ticked, the descriptin will appear n the curse page just belw the name f the glssary. Glssary type: Here yu can decide whether the glssary will be main r secndary. The glssary system allws yu t exprt entries frm any secndary glssary t the main ne f the curse. In rder t d this, yu shuld specify which glssary is the main ne. Yu can nly have ne main glssary per curse. In the Entries Sectin: Apprved by default: If set t "yes" then new entries appear autmatically. If nt, then the teacher must apprve each ne first. Always allw editing: If set t "yes", students can edit their entries at any time. If nt, then they can nly edit fr a certain perid. Duplicate entries allwed: This allws the entry f mre than ne definitin fr a given wrd. 207

208 Allw cmments n entries: Students and teachers can leave cmments n glssary definitins. The cmments are available thrugh a link at the bttm f the definitin. Figure 11-1 Adding a new glssary 208

209 Autmatically link glssary entries: If the Glssary aut-linking filter is enabled by an administratr, then turning this n allws individual entries in this glssary t be autmatically linked whenever the cncept wrds and phrases appear thrughut the rest f the same curse. This includes frum pstings, internal resurces, and week summaries and s n. In the Appearance Sectin: Display frmat: This specifies the way that each entry will be shwn within the glssary. The default frmats are: Simple, dictinary style - This lks like a cnventinal dictinary with separate entries. N authrs are displayed and attachments are shwn as links. Cntinuus withut authr - Like the simple style. Shws the entries ne after ther withut any kind f separatin but the editing icns, but nly if yur theme supprts it, yu usually have t mdify the theme if yu want an alternative appearance t the simple setting. Full with authr - A frum-like display frmat shwing authr's data. Attachments are shwn as links. Full withut authr - A frum-like display frmat that des nt shw authr's data. Attachments are shwn as links. Encyclpedia - Like 'Full with authr' but attached images are shwn inline. Entry list - This lists the cncepts as links. FAQ - Useful fr displaying lists f frequently asked questins. It autmatically appends the wrds QUESTION and ANSWER in the cncept and definitin respectively. Apprval display frmat: It is pssible t set an alternative display frmat fr when entries are apprved that can differ frm the display frmat n the curse page. This culd be useful fr instance if a tutr wants t see wh made a particular glssary entry befre apprving it but desn't want the students' name t be displayed fr thers n the curse page. Entries shwn per page: Decide here hw many entries t shw per page. Shw alphabet links: If set t "yes", users can brwse the glssary by letters f the alphabet. Shw 'ALL' link: If set t "yes", users can brwse all the entries at nce. Shw 'Special' link: If set t "yes", users can brwse the glssary by special characters, such and #. Allw print view: This prvides a printer-friendly versin link fr students. In the Ratings Sectin: Rles with permissins t rate: Glssary entries can be rated using a scale. By default, nly teachers can rate glssary entries, thugh students can be given permissin t d s if desired frm Administratin>Glssary 209

210 administratin. This is a useful tl fr giving students participatin grades. Any ratings given are recrded in the gradebk. Aggregate type: The aggregate type defines hw ratings are cmbined t frm the final grade in the gradebk. Average f ratings - The mean f all ratings Cunt f ratings - The number f rated items becmes the final grade. Nte that the ttal cannt exceed the maximum grade fr the activity. Maximum - The highest rating becmes the final grade Minimum - The smallest rating becmes the final grade Sum - All ratings are added tgether. Nte that the ttal cannt exceed the maximum grade fr the activity. If "N ratings" is selected, then the activity will nt appear in the gradebk. Scale: Select the type f grading used fr the glssary. If "scale" is chsen, yu can then chse the scale frm the "scale" drpdwn. If using "pint" grading, yu can then enter the maximum grade available fr this activity. Restrict ratings t items with dates in this range: Yu can set the time range t restrict the ratings within the time range. Click "Save and Display" t display yur newly created glssary activity. Using Glssary Once yu ve created yur glssary, it s a gd idea t seed it with a cuple f entries s students have a mdel t wrk frm. When yu click the "Save and Display" buttn then it will autmatically take yu t the view glssary page where yu can add entries t glssary, search entries, print and apprve the entries within the glssary. The main view f the glssary can be a bit cnfusing at first, as yu can see frm Figure 9-2. Under the main Mdle navigatin bar, yu ll find the glssary descriptin. Directly belw the glssary descriptin, yu ll see the search bar. Checking the Search full text bx allws searching fr a given wrd in any psitin in the text. Belw the search bar is the Add a new entry buttn, then fur brwse tabs: Brwse by alphabet - Students can lk fr glssary entries by the first letter f a wrd when they select this tab. Brwse by categry - Yu can create wrd categries and make them available fr students t use when they are searching the glssary. Brwse by date - Yu can view entries based n the date they were last edited. Brwse by Authr - If yu want students t add entries, this is a useful way t keep track f wh has entered what. 210

211 Figure 9-2 A glssary Adding Entries Clicking the Add a new entry buttn gives yu access t the definitin entry page. T Add a glssary entry: Frm the Glssary page, click the Add a new entry buttn. In the General Sectin: Enter the wrd yu want t define in the Cncept text field, as shwn in Figure 9-3 Add the definitin f the wrd r cncept. If there are synnyms yu want t include with the entry, add them t the Keywrd(s) text area. Make sure t Enter ne wrd per line nly. If yu want t add an attachment, such as a picture r an article, yu can either drag/drp it r click the "Add" buttn t uplad via the File picker. In the Aut-linking Sectin: This entry shuld be autmatically linked: If site-wide glssary autlinking has been enabled by an administratr and this is set t "yes", the entry will be autmatically linked wherever it appears. This entry is case sensitive: This setting specifies whether matching exact upper and lwer case is necessary when perfrming autmatic linking t these entries. Fr example, if this is turned n, then a wrd like "html" in a frum psting will NOT be linked t a glssary entry called "HTML". Match whle wrds nly: If autmatic linking is enabled, then turning this setting n will frce nly whle wrds t be linked. Fr example, a 211

212 glssary entry named "cnstruct" will nt create a link inside the wrd "cnstructivism". Figure 9-3 Adding a new glssary entry Click the Save changes buttn t add yur wrd t the glssary. Search ptins Yu can als search fr a given wrd using the Search field. Checking the 'Search full text' ptin (n the right side f the Search bx) allws searching fr a given wrd in any psitin in the text. This can take lnger and return mre entries than yu might wish, but it is thrugh. If yu d nt check the "Search full text" bx, the search nly 212

213 lks fr the term names. The index belw lets yu brwse the glssary accrding t a given letter. Glssary Categries Categries can help rganize yur glssary entries. If yu ve enabled autlinking, the categry names can be linked alng with individual entries. T create a glssary categry: Click the Brwse by categry tab in the main page f the glssary. Click the Edit categries buttn n the left side f the page. Click the Add categry buttn n the resulting Categries page. Give the categry a name. Chse whether yu want the categry name autlinked as well. Click the Save changes buttn. If yu autlinked the categry name, any ccurrence f thse wrds will be linked. When a student clicks n the link, he will be taken t the Brwse by categry page f the glssary. Autlinking Once yu ve added an entry t the glssary and enabled autlinking, any instance f a glssary term anywhere in Mdle will have a link t its definitin. Fr example, if yu create an entry fr the wrd Mdle in the glssary, whenever smene uses the wrd in a frum, assignment, HTML r text page, r even in a descriptin field, it will be clickable, as shwn in Figure 9-4. Once yu click n the wrd, a new windw with the glssary entry will pp up. Figure 9-4 An autlinked wrd in a frum Imprting and Exprting As yu build yur glssaries, yu may want t share them between classes r with ther instructrs. Frtunately, there s a way t exprt and imprt glssary entries withut needing t share yur entire curse structure. 213

214 T exprt glssary entries: In Settings > Glssary administratin > Exprt entries click the "Exprt entries t file" buttn. Save the autmatically generated XML file n yur cmputer. T imprt glssary entries via an XML file: G t Settings > Glssary administratin > Imprt entries Click the "Chse a file" buttn and brwse fr the exprted entries XML file n yur cmputer Select the destinatin fr the new entries: either the current glssary r a new ne If yu want t imprt categry infrmatin, click the checkbx. Click the "Submit" buttn. Yu'll then see a reprt f the entries and categries added t the glssary. If yu enabled duplicate entries when yu created the glssary, the imprt prcess will add all f the new definitins. Otherwise, it will nt allw yu t imprt any duplicate entries. *** When the entries are imprted int anther glssary, the user perfrming the imprt will be listed as authr f all the entries. Cmmenting n Entries If yu enabled cmments n the glssary entries, users can anntate the definitins in the wrd list. When yu lk at a wrd in the glssary list, yu'll see a blue "Cmments" link in the lwer left-hand crner. When yu click the link, a cmments bx pens up. Add yur cmment then click the "Save changes" buttn. Once yu've saved yur cmment, Mdle will display all f the cmments fr the entry. When yu return t the main glssary page, yu'll see a new message next t the speech balln telling yu hw many cmments there are fr the entry. Printing a glssary At the tp right f the main glssary page, yu'll see a little printer icn. If yu click the icn, Mdle will pen a new brwser windw and present all the wrds and definitins in a printer-friendly frmat. 214

215 T print the glssary: 1. Click the printer friendly versin icn at the tp f the main glssary page. 2. Frm the newly pened windw, click in the tp right side f the page. *** Teachers are always prvided with a printer-friendly frmat link. T enable students t print a glssary, set "Allw print view" t Yes n the edit glssary page. Glssary Capabilities The glssary mdule has a number f capabilities available t create rles. With capability verrides, yu can enable yur students t have a high degree f cntrl ver their glssaries. Glssary capabilities are: Apprve and und apprved entries: This allws a user t apprve and und the apprval f glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher Create cmments: This allws a user t add a cmment t glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student Exprt entries: This allws a user t exprt glssary entries t anther glssary. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher Exprt single entry: This allws a user t exprt single glssary entries t a prtfli. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher Exprt single entry f yurs: This allws a user t exprt their wn glssary entries t a prtfli. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student Imprt entries: This allws a user t imprt glssary entries via XML file. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher Manage categries: This allws a user t categries fr glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Manage cmments: This allws a user t delete cmments t glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. 215

216 Manage entries: This allws a user t add, edit and delete glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Rate entries: This allws a user t rate glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher View glssary: This allws a user t view glssary entries within a glssary and als in the recent activity blck, randm glssary entry blck, RSS feed fr the glssary and any aut-linking glssary keywrds. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. View all raw ratings given by individuals: This allws a user t view all rating given t glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher View ttal ratings that anyne received: This allws a user t view the ttal rating that anyne received fr their glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher View the ttal rating yu received: This allws a user t view the ttal rating which they received fr their glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Create new entries: This allws a user t add glssary entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Effective Glssary Practices A glssary can be an imprtant part f yur curse. As we discussed earlier, acquiring vcabulary in a new field can be ne f the biggest challenges t new learners. As an expert in yur field, yu are cmfrtable using the imprtant terms and cncepts in yur area f expertise. Yur students, hwever, are nt experts. They may be just starting t learn new wrds representing new ideas and cncepts. Mre advanced students will need t refine their learned definitins with subtle imprvements t make the definitins mre useful. Glssary Basics At its mst basic, Mdle s glssary can be used like a regular wrd list fr a class. Yu can develp a list f terms yu knw students find difficult r cnfusing and make the list and definitins available fr yur class. If yu want t get mre in-depth, we recmmend creating either a weekly r chapterbased wrd list. Students can use it as they d weekly readings and assignments. A weekly glssary can make it easier fr students t rganize their learning prcess. 216

217 Creative Glssary Strategies While a basic glssary is imprtant, creatively applying the glssary can really make an impact n yur class. Autlinking is very useful fr integrating glssaries with ther curse activities. In additin, yu may want t make use f the Randm Glssary Entry blck t display glssary entries n yur curse page. With the intrductin f the database mdule, many activities can nw be either glssary r database activities. Glssary has tw advantages ver the database at this pint. First, many instructrs find using the Randm Glssary Entry blck mtivates students t submit high-quality entries, because they knw the entries will be shared with the class n the frnt page f the curse. The autmatic term-linking is als useful t integrate the glssaries with ther activities in the curse. Cllabrative glssaries Instead f creating a glssary n yur wn, why nt have the students create it as they encunter unfamiliar terms? A cllabrative glssary can serve as a fcal pint fr cllabratin in a curse. Each member f the class culd be assigned t cntribute a term, a definitin, r cmments n submitted definitins. Multiple definitins can be rated by yu and by the students, with the highest-rated definitins accepted fr the final class glssary. When students are respnsible fr creating the definitins, they are much mre likely t remember the wrd and the crrect definitin. Engaging in the prcess f learning, debating, and refining a glssary can g a lng way tward helping students begin using new terms. Mdle cmmunity member Leslie Smith has created a glssary fr students t submit entries that cntain the definitin, part f speech, an riginal sentence using the wrd crrectly, and sme type f mnemnic r visual device t help classmates remember the wrd s meaning. The visual devices the students use are quite creative and definitely help with memrizatin. Yu can als structure multiple glssaries ver the curse f a semester. Break them up by unit, chapter, week, r any ther rganizatinal structure. If yu have a large class, assign student teams t cme up with definitins and answers. One strategy fr managing large curses is t make each team respnsible fr ne week s wrth f definitins, while all the ther teams must rate and cmment. Alternatively, each team culd be respnsible fr ne definitin per chapter and then rate and cmment n the ther teams wrk. T set up a cllabrative glssary, create a new glssary fr each unit with the fllwing ptins: Glssary type: Secndary glssary Duplicate entries allwed: If yu want teams t be able t submit multiple definitins fr rating, select Yes Allw cmments n entries: Yes 217

218 Apprved by default: Yes Allw entries t be rated: Yes by everyne The ther ptins are up t yu. Once yu ve selected the abve ptins, students can add their wn definitins, rate each ther s, and add cmments. Mini-prjects Mini-prjects are small research prjects where students create small resurces fr each ther. One high schl teacher has the students d research n rgans in the bdy, then create an encyclpedia-style entry in the glssary, including pictures and ther resurces. Cllabrative quiz questins One f the mst creative uses we ve heard abut is using the glssary t create cllabrative quiz questins. Students are given the Mdle questin frmats and they create questins in the glssary matching ne f the imprt types. The teacher has the glssary set t require apprval, which hides the submitted questins frm ther students. When the students have all submitted their questins, the teacher exprts the glssary and then imprts it int a questin bank. The quiz can then be built frm studentsubmitted questins. Credit fr wrd use This is a cmbinatin strategy using the frum and the autlinked feature f the glssary. After yu and yur students have defined the glssary terms, it s imprtant fr students t begin practicing using the wrds in realistic cntexts. Students, hwever, are usually reluctant t experiment with new terms. With the autlinking feature, it s easy t spt when a glssary wrd has been used in a frum r in a psting n the web site. T encurage wrd use, assign a prtin f the credit students receive fr their frum pstings fr crrect use f glssary terms. As yu r ther students rate psts, yu can quickly scan fr highlighted glssary wrds and award pints fr usage. Yu may even want t break the scre dwn further. Perhaps award ne pint fr using the wrd and tw pints fr using it crrectly. Summary At first glance, the glssary desn t seem t be a very interesting tl. Yu culd simply create a wrd list in a wrd prcessr and uplad it. The pwer f the glssary tl in 218

219 Mdle cmes frm its ability t autmatically create links in yur curse fr every wrd in the list, and t easily build cllabrative glssaries. Use the glssary tl t help yur students learn the vcabulary f yur field and encurage them t experiment with new terms. Cllabrative glssaries give yur students even mre practice using the new wrds and negtiating their meaning. 219

220 Chapter 12: Lessn The lessn mdule presents a series f HTML pages t the student wh is usually asked t make sme srt f chice underneath the cntent area. The chice will send them t a specific page in the Lessn. In a Lessn page's simplest frm, the student can select a cntinue buttn at the bttm f the page, which will send them t the next page in the Lessn. There are 2 basic Lessn page types that the student will see: questin pages and cntent pages. There are als several advanced navigatinal pages which can meet mre specialized needs f the Teacher. The Lessn mdule is designed t be adaptive and t use a student's chices t create a self-directed lessn. The main difference between a Lessn and ther activity mdules available in Mdle cmes frm its adaptive ability. With this tl, each chice the students make can shw a different teacher respnse/cmment and send the student t a different page in the lessn. Thus with planning, the Lessn mdule can custmize the presentatin f cntent and questins t each student with n further actin required by the teacher. The questin page presents the student with a questin, and the student has t enter a crrect answer. After a student submits his answer, he will see the respnse yu ve created and will be taken t anther page r lped back. Questin pages are scred and added t the student s cumulative grade. A branch table s page presents the user nly with the ptin t select a branch. There is n crrect r incrrect answer fr each respnse, and the student s selectins d nt impact his grade. The authrs f the lessn tl envisin branches as tables f cntents giving students access t chains f questins. At the end f a chain, the user will return t the branch table, access anther ne, r end the lessn. Of curse, yu dn t have t create a lessn this way. Yu can use the branch table t create a simulatin in which the student s chices present him with cnsequences and new decisins. Creating a lessn isn t cmplex, but the math f branching lessns means yu have t plan carefully. Unless yu prune yur branching lessn, yu will end up with a huge number f ptins fr students and a large number f pages t write. Creating a Lessn Activity Befre yu begin creating a lessn, it s a gd idea t draw a flwchart. Lessns require mre advanced planning than many f the ther tls. They have the ptential fr branching n each page, s advanced planning is critical befre yu begin t develp 220

221 yur lessn. Even with tw chices per page, if every chice results in a new page, yu will quickly need a very large number f pages. The first page will require tw additinal results pages, and each f these will require tw mre fr a ttal f seven pages frm an initial tw chices. The key t minimizing the number f pages is t reuse as many as pssible. Take a few minutes t draw a flwchart fr yur lessn. What will the first page display? What are the ptins? Where will the ptins take the student? It s imprtant t answer these questins fr each page f the lessn t avid getting lst while yu are actually creating the cntent. Once yu have yur flwchart, it s time t start creating a lessn. T create a lessn: Click the Turn editing n buttn. In the sectin yu wish t add yur lessn, click the "Add an activity r resurce" link and Select "Lessn". On the "Adding a new Lessn" page give a descriptive name t yur lessn in the Name field. In the Appearance Sectin: File pp: If yu want t include a link t a file n the lessn page fr students t refer t, uplad it here. Prgress bar: Chse this t shw a bar at the bttm f the page shwing hw far int the lessn the student has gt. *** Lessn Prgress bar nly wrks crrectly fr lessns with a "straightfrward" navigatin, such as page 1 -> page 2 -> page n -> end f lessn. Display nging scre: Chse this t let students see their scre as they wrk thrugh the lessn. Display left menu: Chse this if yu want t shw a list f the pages in the Lessn s a student can see what is cming up. Minimum grade t display menu: Chse this if yu want the student t g thrugh the lessn nce and get a grade befre they can (n review) see and navigate thrugh all the different pages. Slideshw: If enabled, the lessn is displayed as a slideshw, with a fixed width and height. Maximum Number f Answers: This setting specifies the maximum number f answers that may be used in the lessn. Use default feedback: If enabled, when a respnse is nt fund fr a particular questin, the default respnse f "That's the crrect answer" r "That's the wrng answer" will be shwn. 221

222 Link t next activity: T prvide a link at the end f the lessn t anther activity in the curse, select the activity frm the drpdwn list. Figure 12-1 Adding a new lessn 222

223 In the Availability Sectin: Available frm/deadline: Here yu can set a start and end date and time fr yur Lessn. Time limit: This allws yu t set a time limit n the lessn. Students will see a cuntdwn cunter as they wrk. ***The timer des nt stp them ding the lessn when the time is up, but crrect answers are n lnger scred. Passwrd prtected lessn: Change t "Yes" and enter the passwrd if yu want students nly t access it when they knw the passwrd. In the Prerequisite Lessn Sectin: Dependent n: This allws access t the lessn t be dependent n students' perfrmance in anther lessn in the same curse. *** Yu can als d the same thing by using the Cnditinal Activities. Time spent: Decide here hw lng yu want the student t have spent in the chsen previus lessn. Cmpleted: Check this bx if yu want the student t have cmpleted a previus lessn. Grade better than: Enter the grade frm the previus lessn which yu want the student t have exceeded befre they can attempt the current lessn. In the Flw Cntrl Sectin: Allw student review: If enabled, students can navigate thrugh the lessn again frm the start. This puts a "Review Lessn" buttn n the last screen f the lessn t encurage the students t navigate thrugh the lessn again frm the start. *** The students will nt be able t change their answers, nly view them. Prvide ptin t try a questin again: If enabled, when a questin is answered incrrectly, the student is given the ptin t try it again fr n pint credit, r cntinue with the lessn. Maximum Number f Attempts: This setting specifies the maximum number f attempts allwed fr each questin. If answered incrrectly repeatedly, when the maximum is reached, the next page f the lessn is displayed. Actin after crrect answer: Chse here where yu want a student t be sent t if they get a questin right, there are 3 ptins fr the fllwing page: Nrmal - Fllw lessn path 223

224 Shw an unseen page - Pages are shwn in a randm rder with n page shwn twice Shw an unanswered page - Pages are shwn in a randm rder, with pages cntaining unanswered questins shwn again. Number f pages t shw: This setting specifies the number f pages shwn in a lessn. It is nly applicable fr lessns with pages shwn in a randm rder. If set t zer, then all pages are shwn. In the Grade Sectin: Grade: Select the type f grading used fr this activity. If "scale" is chsen, yu can then chse the scale frm the "scale" drpdwn. If using "pint" grading, yu can then enter the maximum grade available fr this activity. Grade categry: This setting cntrls the categry in which this activity's grades are placed in the gradebk. Practice lessn: A practice lessn des nt appear in the gradebk. Use this if yu dn't need the lessn t be scred/graded but just need students t wrk thrugh sme pages. Custm Scring: If enabled, then each answer may be given a numerical pint value (psitive r negative). Re-takes allwed: If enabled, students can attempt the lessn mre than nce. *** Nte that this setting nly applies t lessns cntaining Questin pages. Lessns cnsisting nly f Cntent pages can be re-taken even if 'Re-takes allwed' is set t N. Handling f re-take: If yu allw yur students t re-take the lessn, then decide here if the grade fr all lessn attempts is the mean r the maximum. Minimum number f questins: This setting specifies the minimum number f questins that will be used t calculate a grade fr the activity. Students will be tld hw many they have answered and hw many mre they need t answer. If yu are using Cntent pages, then set this t 0. If yu use this setting, then add sme explanatry text at the start f the lessn s the student knws hw many questins they must answer as a minimum. In the Cmmn mdule settings sectin: Visible: Make the lessn activity Visible/Hidden frm the students. ID number: Prvide an ID number fr the lessn fr grade calculatin purpses. Click "Save and return t curse". 224

225 Building Lessn Once yu click the Lessn name n the curse page then Mdle will take yu t the edit lessn page as shwn in the fllwing screensht. Figure 10-2 Building lessn page But Befre prceeding t the edit lessn page and adding cntent and questins t the lessn, we must first plan abut the lessn. Planning yur lessn A lessn is made up f pages which may have cntent fr the student t read r questins fr them t answer. The questins can be created by the teacher r imprted. The teacher decides the rder in which these pages appear. Yu need t have a clear idea befrehand f what yu want t d with this lessn. Is it t be a graded, linear learning experience? Or an ungraded, nnlinear practice sessin? Will students be able t g back and revisit areas r is it just a nce-nly pprtunity? Even thse wh are very cmfrtable wrking directly nline might find it useful t nte dwn n paper the directin they want their lessn pages t g in, rather than having t remember and visualize the navigatin in their head. 225

226 Adding cntent and questins t yur lessn Imprt questins If yu have sme questins in the fllwing frmats, yu can imprt them t use in yur lessn by clicking the Imprt questins link. Figure 10-3 Imprting questins t lessn Add a cntent page This is a page where a teacher can prvide infrmatin t mve the lessn frward but withut requiring the student t answer specific questins. The student sees the page's title, sme infrmatin and then ne r mre buttns at the bttm t select. When the student clicks n a buttn, they g t the next page but their chice is nt scred. Title The title f a cntent page appears t the student at the tp f the page. A teacher will als see the title in the cllapsed edit mde when they are wrking n the Lessn, and they will als be able t chse the title (and hence this page) frm the drp dwn "jump" lists. 226

227 The title in a cntent page is als used with the "display left menu" setting. Page cntents This is where the teacher can add infrmatin fr the student, making use f the Text editr and its multimedia features. Cntent Here the teacher writes the wrds they want the student t click n t get t the next part f the lessn. These wrds will appear t the student as a buttn. The teacher can check the bx t have the buttns appear hrizntally, r uncheck it fr them t appear centered vertically. Frmat There are 4 frmat types t chse frm when editing text in the cntent descriptin bx. If yu wish t have the usual rich text editing icns, chse HTML frmat. (Nte - nce yu have selected an ptin, yu cannt then g back and change yur mind!) Hwever, if yu DO chse HTML frmat, be warned that the student will nt see the changes (such as bld r different clrs) in the buttn. Figure 10-4 Add a cntent page in lessn 227

228 Number f ptins available Hw many f these yu have depend n yur chice in the Maximum Number f Answers setting in Lessn settings The Jump Each Descriptin in a Cntent page has a Jumps menu. "Jumps" take a student frm ne page t anther. A "relative jump" is "next page" r "end f lessn" whereas an "abslute jump" gives the actual name f a page. The teacher chses frm the drpdwn the crrect page t send the student t if they click n the buttn that will be made frm this particular descriptin. Any pages created by the teacher will have their titles appear in this drpdwn, allwing them t be selected. When a student clicks n a descriptin buttn, they are sent t the page defined in the Jump assciated with the buttn. Add a cluster A cluster is a grup f questin pages which will be ffered randmly t a student as they wrk thrugh the lessn. It is best if yu have made the questin pages befrehand and can then decide where t mark the start and end f the cluster. The start is marked by a "cluster" page and the end by an "end f cluster" page. Add a questin page Frm this link yu can chse frm a variety f questin types which will then be added as pages t yur lessn: Figure 10-5 Select a questin type 228

229 The frmat f questin pages is similar t cntent pages. Figure 10-6 Add a questin page A typical questin page culd include: Title - the name the student sees at the tp f the questin page. Page cntents - the actual questin Answer/Respnse/Frmat/Jump/Scre as in the screensht belw Figure 10-7 Respnse frm fr the questin page 229

230 Questin types: Multichice The student is given a questin and a list f answers. The answer list will be shuffled every time the questin is view by a student. By default they chse ne answer but yu can check the bx "multiple answers" t allw them t chse mre than ne answer. Essay Students can write a lnger answer as part f the lessn and this can be graded manually by the teacher. Matching This allws yu t set up lists which must be matched against ther lists, fr instance, wrds, pictures, numbers etc. The student must match all crrectly t receive the scre. Figure 10-8 Lessn cnstructin 230

231 Numerical This requires a number as an answer. A number within a range may als be accepted as crrect. The range separatr t be used is the cln ( : ). Figure 10-9 Adding true/false questin page 231

232 Shrt answer A student must prvide a single wrd r shrt phrase answer. The teacher must anticipate the pssible answers and enter them in the Jump drpdwn bxes, using ** wild cards if apprpriate. True/false The student is given a sentence and must decide if it is true r false. Mving yur lessn frward Once yu have added yur first cntent r questin page, yu reach the next screen which displays yur page title/type/jumps (i.e. where the respnses take the student t) and actins yu can take next: The Actins icns allw yu t mve (if yu have mre than ne), edit, and preview r delete yur pages. The drp dwn allws yu t create anther page f yur chice: Figure Cllapsed view f Edit lessn page Nte the different view ptins: Cllapsed view: This gives a brief utline f the lessn structure. Expanded view: This shws mre detail as in the screensht belw: 232

233 Figure Expanded view f the edit lessn page Ending yur lessn T bring the lessn t a clse, select the "End f Lessn" ptin frm the Jump menu n any relevant pages. The student will then see a generic message as in the next screensht, with a directin back t the main curse page r t view their grades: Figure End f lessn Managing Lessns When yu click n the lessn then yu will see tabs at the tp ffering the chance t preview, edit, view reprts r grade essays in the lessn. Preview Tab: The lessn pens up in preview mde fr the teacher. Hwever, it will nt shw the scre unless the teacher switches their rle t a student. Edit Tab: The Edit tab allws teachers t alter the lessn nce it has been set up. There are tw views - Cllapsed and Expanded. Reprts Tab: The reprts tab shws the perfrmance f students taking the lessn. There is a general "Overview" and a "Detailed Statistics" tab. 233

234 Overview Tab: By clicking n the specific attempt, the teacher can view the student's answers t specific questins. It is als pssible t delete a student attempt by checking the attempt and using the pull dwn menu t change "Chse" t "Delete". Belw the "Overview" can als be seen general statistics: Average scre, Average time, High scre, Lw scre, High time, Lw time. Detailed Statistics: Mre detailed reprts n individual questins are available frm this tab. Grade essays Tab: Any essay questins which have been set in the lessn can be accessed and graded here. As students cmplete the lessn, their scres will be recrded in the gradebk. If yu ve allwed students t attempt each lessn multiple times, their scres may change as they repeat the lessn. Lessn capabilities The lessn mdule has nly tw capabilities: Edit a lessn activity - This allws a user t edit a lessn. If yu create a blank lessn and allw students t edit it, they can create a new lessn fr the rest f the class. Manage a lessn activity - This allws a user t manage a lessn and grade essay questins. Figure Grading an essay Effective Lessn Practices Lessns can be an interesting change f pace fr yur students. They may require mre upfrnt develpment time than many ther types f tls, but they d prvide sme benefits. The tw basic lessn types, branching quizzes and flash cards, are relatively easy t set up. 234

235 Branching Quizzes The mst basic lessn structure is a branching quiz. Yu use branches t rganize sets f questins arund different tpics r cncepts in yur curse. Each branch f the quiz leads t a linear series f pages and test questins, then returns t the main branch. The main-branch page acts as a table f cntents fr the lessn, if yu decide t build this type f lessn, be sure t include a link t the end n the main page. If nt, the students will have n way f ending the lessn and recrding their scres. If yu create a lessn with a branch table and strings f questins, be sure t set a reasnable minimum number f questins. Otherwise, students will be able t visit ne branch and receive a maximum scre fr the lessn, even thugh they didn t lk at any ther branches. Branching Table Questin Page Questin Page Questin Page Questin Page Questin Page Questin Page Questin Page Questin Page Questin Page Figure Branching quiz schematic T create a branching quiz: Create the lessn and the first questin page by fllwing the instructins. Create a questin page fr the first questin in each branch. Create a branch table with a branch fr each f the questins yu just created. Be sure t make the last branch a link t the end f the lessn. After yu ve saved the branching table, mve it t the tp f the pages list. Under the first questin fr the first branch, create the secnd questin page fr the next step in the branch. Fill in the questin page fr the secnd questin. Put the crrect answer in the first answer slt if yu are creating a true/false r multiple-chice questin. Cntinue adding questins t the branch until yu are finished. 235

236 Add an end f branch after the last questin in the branch. Belw the first questin fr the each f the remaining branches, repeat steps 6 thrugh 9. When yu have added all yur pages, review yur lessn by clicking the Check Navigatin link. Flash Cards Flash cards can be a useful way t practice recalling basic facts and definitins. Flash cards allw students t practice rapidly recalling definitins as an initial step tward learning hw t cmmunicate in a new field. The lessn mdule can act like a deck f flash cards, presenting either the whle deck r a subset f cards t students when they want t study the new terms. Each questin page is a separate card, and students can rapidly react t each ne in turn. This is a very different structure than the branching quizzes. Setting up a flash-card lessn requires specifying ptins when yu first create the lessn. T create a flash-card lessn: 1. Fllw steps 1 thrugh 4 fr creating a lessn in the Creating a Lessn sectin. 2. Cnsider setting a lw value fr the maximum grade. Yu want t reward students fr using the flash cards but als make them a valuable learning tl. 3. Use the fllwing ptins: Maximum grade: Cnsider setting a lw value fr the maximum grade. Yu want t reward students fr using the flash cards but als make the cards a valuable learning tl. Student can re-take: Unless yu have a very specific reasn fr limiting re-takes, it s best t set this t yes. Flash cards are used t practice recalling infrmatin rapidly. Save the assessment f students recall skills fr a quiz. Handling f re-takes: If yu set this t use maximum, it will encurage students t reuse the flash cards t attempt t get the maximum scre. Actin after crrect answer: Set this t unseen r unanswered. This tells the lessn mdule yu dn t want it t present the next page in rder. Minimum number f questins: Keep this at zer. The students shuldn t have a chice abut the number f cards they see. Number f pages (cards) t shw: If yu want t limit the number f questins students see each time they practice with the cards, set this t a nnzer number. Make it large enugh t give students enugh 236

237 practice, but nt s large that they becme fatigued by the sheer vlume f questins. 4. Once yu save the lessn ptins, simply create questin pages. The rder desn t matter. Yu re basically creating a deck f questins t draw frm. Once yu ve created the deck f flash cards, yu can release it t yur students s they can practice answering the questins yu ve created. Creative Lessn uses While branching quizzes and flash cards are interesting applicatins, there is a hidden ptential in the lessn mdule that makes it much mre interesting than it at first appears. If yu take advantage f the ability f each answer in a questin page t link t any ther page, yu can create branching Chse Yur Own Adventurestyle simulatins r case studies. Self-directed learning f a new tpic Use the lessn t intrduce a new tpic. The learner starts ut knwing nthing but can prgress at his wn pace, reviewing what he is nt sure f and mving n when he feels ready. Allw fr different learning styles When using the lessn t intrduce a new tpic, ffer pages that deliver the cntent in different ways, accrding t hw the students prefer t learn. Fr example the buttn "d yu prefer t read?" ges t a page f text; "d yu prefer t watch a vide?" ges t a screencast; "d yu prefer t listen t instructins?" - ges t a pdcast and s n. Rle play simulatins/decisin-making exercises Use the lessn t set up situatins where the learner has t make a chice each time and the scenari changes accrding t their selectin. This culd be a medical emergency fr example, deciding upn the crrect treatment, r a custmer relatins exercise, learning hw best t deal with an awkward client. In an educatinal establishment it culd serve well in Humanities subjects cnsidering mral/ethical issues. Interactive fictin Fr yunger (and nt s yunger!) students, the lessn can be used t create a "chse yur wn ending" type f stry where the student reads a page (r even watches a vide/listens t an audi file) and then decides upn the character's next mve. Apart frm the entertainment value f this, it culd be used t help guide pre- 237

238 teens t behave respnsibly by taking decisins fr a character that is in a ptentially dangerus situatin. Differentiated revisin guides Students can be taken t different sets f revisin questins accrding t their answers, allwing them t prgress frm basic t intermediate t advance accrding t their prir knwledge. Summary A lessn activity is self-directed learning tl. The lessn activity s adaptive ability is what makes it unique. Questins in a lessn can be used t create branch pints where students are taken dwn different paths in the lessn depending n hw they answer the questin. When each answer t a questin takes a student t a different series f pages, the lessn becmes a self-directed teaching tl. 238

239 Chapter 13: Wikis A wiki is a cllectin f cllabratively authred web dcuments. A gd example f such a tl is WikiPedia which has becme a knwledge encyclpedia fr wrld infrmatin. Basically, a wiki page is a web page everyne in yur class can create tgether, right in the brwser, withut needing t knw HTML. A wiki starts with ne frnt page. Each authr can add ther pages t the wiki by simply creating a link t a page that desn't exist yet. A wiki is indeed a fast methd fr creating cntent as a grup. It's a hugely ppular frmat n the Web fr creating dcuments as a grup. There is usually n central editr f a wiki, n single persn wh has final editrial cntrl. Instead, the cmmunity edits and develps its wn cntent. Cnsensus views emerge frm the wrk f many peple n a dcument. In Mdle, wikis can be a pwerful tl fr cllabrative wrk. The entire class can edit a dcument tgether, creating a class prduct, r each student can have their wn wiki and wrk n it with yu and their classmates. Yu can als cnsider using wikis fr nline cllabrative assignments ranging frm peer reviewing f papers t grup reprts, t even a new Wikipedia like page based upn yur curse r a single assignment learning utcmes. A histry f previus versins f each page in the wiki is kept, listing the edits made by each participant. Wikis have many uses, such as Fr grup lecture ntes r study guides Fr members f a faculty t plan a scheme f wrk r meeting agenda tgether Fr students t cllabratively authr an nline bk, creating cntent n a tpic set by their tutr Fr cllabrative strytelling r petry creatin, where each participant writes a line r verse As a persnal jurnal fr examinatin ntes r revisin (using an individual wiki) Creating Wikis Creating a wiki is very simple and mst f the wrk invlved with creating wikis becmes easier nce yu start using them. T add a wiki t yur curse: 239

240 Click Turn Editing On if yu are nt already in the editing mde. Click 'Add an activity r resurce' link, then in the activity chser, select "Wiki" and click the Add buttn. Figure 13-1 Adding a new wiki Enter a name* and describe the purpse f the wiki and what yu expect students t cntribute in the descriptin* field. The wiki mde determines whether everyne can edit the wiki - a cllabrative wiki - r whether everyne has their wn wiki which nly they can edit - an individual wiki. Enter the first page name f the Wiki in the "First Page Name"* field. In the Frmat Sectin, yu can set the Frmat f the Wiki. There are 3 ptins t chse frm: HTML- The HTML editr is available Crele - A cmmn wiki markup language fr which a small edit tlbar is available Nwiki - Mediawiki-like markup language used in the cntributed Nwiki mdule. If the frmat is frced (checkbx ticked), there is n ptin t chse a frmat when editing a wiki page. 240

241 In the "Cmmn Mdule Settings" sectin, Yu can chse t either cmpletely hide the Wiki frm students by chsing Hide in the Visible drpdwn. Yu can als set an ID number: Setting an ID number prvides a way f identifying the activity fr grade calculatin purpses. The grup mde defined at curse level is the default mde fr all activities within the curse. Each activity that supprts grups can als define its wn grup mde, thugh if the grup mde is frced at curse level, the grup mde setting fr each activity is ignred. This setting has 3 ptins: N grups - There are n sub grups, everyne is part f ne big cmmunity Separate grups - Each grup member can nly see their wn grup, thers are invisible Visible grups - Each grup member wrks in their wn grup, but can als see ther grups A gruping is a cllectin f grups within a curse. If a gruping is selected, students assigned t grups within the gruping will be able t wrk tgether. Click Save and Display at the Bttm f the page. There are tw wiki types (mdes), cllabrative and individual. In additin, like any activity, the wiki has the Mdle grup mdes: N Grups, Separate Grups and Visible Grups. Accrding t the wiki mde and the grup ptins selected by yu the frmat f wiki which will be displayed t the students and the permissins fr them will be different. Cllabrative N Grups: There is nly ne wiki. The teacher and all students can view and edit this wiki. Separate Grups: There is ne wiki per grup. Students can view and edit the wiki f their wn grup nly. Visible Grups: There is ne wiki per grup. Students can change the wiki f their wn grup nly. They can view the wikis fr all grups. Individual N Grups: Every student has their wn wiki which nly they and their teacher can view and edit. Separate Grups: Every student has their wn wiki, which nly they and their teacher can edit. Students can view the wikis f ther students in their grup. 241

242 Visible Grups: Every student has their wn wiki, which nly they and their teacher can edit. Students can view the wikis f all ther students in the curse. Creating first page f yur wiki After yu create the wiki activity, Mdle will itself take yu t the first page; there als yu can change the frmat f the wiki. Click "Create Page" t prceed. On the edit page screen: Enter the cntent f the first page f yur wiki in the HTML frmat field, if yu are using the HTML frmat. Yu can use the Mdle's native HTML editr fr shwcasing yur cntent. Adding mre pages: Type the name f yur page inside duble brackets. (as shwn in fig 11-2 belw) Yu can preview it by clicking the "preview" buttn twards the bttm f the screen. Press the "save" buttn. Nw click the (red) link fr ne f the pages (as shwn in screensht belw) and yu will be prmpted t create it in the same way yu create the first page. A page nce created has a blue link. *** If yu use the New ptin frm the navigatin blck yu will still need t cpy and paste the name f the new page nt the immediate parent page and surrund it with duble brackets. This creates a link t yur new page and makes it accessible frm the main Wiki page. Otherwise nbdy will recgnize the s called lst new page. Editing Wiki activity Depending n the type f the wiki, there are several ways t edit yur page. The best thing f a wiki is, that nthing is lst. The ld versin will be there - and if smene changes yur versin f the page - yur versin will als be there. *** The ptins fr editing, cmmenting viewing histry, map and files may all be accessed bth frm tabs at the tp and links in the navigatin blck: View: The View tab at the tp r link in the navigatin blck allws users t display and view the wiki page. Edit: The Edit tab at the tp r link in the navigatin blck allws users t edit the wiki page. 242

243 Figure 11-2 Editing a wiki page Cmments: The Cmments tab at the tp r link in the navigatin blck allws users t see and add cmments abut the wiki. Histry: The Histry tab at the tp r link in the navigatin blck allws users t see what has been altered in the wiki. Yu can cmpare the edits by clicking the "Cmpare Selected" buttn. Yu can als restre by clicking the "Restre" buttn f the versin yu wish t restre if the latest edit is unsuitable as shwn in the figure Map: The Map tab at the tp r link in the navigatin blck allws users t view areas f the wiki such as a list f pages (as in the fllwing screensht), updated r rphaned pages etc. T select what yu want t see, click the Map menu drpdwn bx. Files: The Files tab at the tp r link in the navigatin blck allws users t access any files which have been added t the wiki. By default, the Teacher rle can add and manage files t the Files tab, but the Student rle can nly view them. Yu culd 243

244 change this thugh with a permissins verride t the Manage wiki files capability (md/wiki:managefiles) in any particular wiki. Administratin: The Administratin tab at the tp r link in the navigatin blck is available t editing teachers in the curse s they can delete page versins r selected pages. Clicking the "list all" buttn will list available pages t delete. The first page f the wiki cannt be deleted. Figure 11-3 Viewing a wiki page Wiki capabilities Create new wiki pages: This allws a user t create new pages in a wiki. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student Add cmments t pages: This allws a user t add a cmment t wiki pages. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nnediting teacher and student. Save wiki pages: This allws a user t edit the wiki pages. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Manage wiki cmments: This allws a user t delete cmments n wiki pages. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Manage wiki files: This allws a user t manage, delete files attached t the wiki. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nnediting teacher. 244

245 Figure 11-4 Histry f a wiki page Manage wiki settings: This allws a user t edit the wiki settings. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Override wiki lcks: This allws a user t verride lcked wiki pages. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f administratr, teacher and nnediting teacher. View page cmments: This allws a user t view cmments n wiki pages. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. View wiki pages: This allws a user t view the wiki pages. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. *** If yu have grup wiki prjects, cnsider assigning the Override lcked pages capability t the students s they can manage their wn wikis. Effective Wiki practices Wikis are gaining ppularity as a cllabrative tl in many envirnments. There are nw several cmmercial vendrs ffering wikis fr grup cllabratin in crprate settings. Many scial web sites als have wikis t allw their members t cllabrate n dcuments. Effective management practices are the key t a wiki s success. Yu ll need t think abut yur wiki s editrial plicy, as well as its educatinal bjectives. 245

246 Figure 11-5 A Versin diff Wiki basics Wikis are a simple, flexible tl fr cllabratin. They can be used fr everything frm simple lists f web links t building entire encyclpedias. Wikipedia is the largest wiki in the wrld (http://www.wikipedia.rg). The entire Wikipedia site is written by vlunteers frm arund the wrld. An article is started by smene with an interest in the subject, and then anyne in the cmmunity can add cntent, edit ther peple s wrk, r add anther page elabrating n a sub-tpic. It has becme s large and s frequently used that there is a lively debate abut hw authritative a cllabrative wrk withut a central editr can be. Of curse, wikis in yur wn class wn t be that extensive. But it s imprtant t have a plan fr yur wiki befre yu release it t the class. Students need t knw the purpse f the wiki and hw it fits in with the class. If it s a persnal wiki, will they be graded? Is it simply a staging area fr grup wrk that will be submitted later? Students need t knw s they can submit apprpriate wrk. A brainstrming wiki is very different frm ne that will be submitted fr a grade. Yu ll als need t decide n an editing plicy. Will yu be a central editr? Or will yu let the students be cmpletely respnsible fr the wrk? Hw will yu deal with ffensive cntent? In mst circumstances, yu ll find that yu can trust students. But n the rare ccasin a student des d smething ffensive, yu will need t have a plicy t deal with it. Will yu rll back the changes by that authr? Or will yu create a new versin by deleting her cntent? Creating a new versin leaves a trail yu can use fr evidence later, but it als makes it easier fr the perpetratr t restre her cmments. 246

247 Creative wiki practices The free-frm, cllabrative nature f wikis makes them easy t apply in creative ways. Any srt f grup prcess can be facilitated using a wiki. Grup lecture ntes Creating a wiki fr grup lecture ntes after a lecture gives students a chance t cmbine all their ntes. Thse that missed infrmatin can get it frm their peers. The grup can als decide what infrmatin is critical and give it prper emphasis. Grup lecture ntes culd be dne with the entire class, if it is small enugh, r with small wrking grups. Grups can als cmpare ntes fr further discussin and refinement. Grup Prject management A teacher assigning a grup prject can give students a place t wrk by creating a wiki with the grup mde enabled. This will give each grup their wn space t recrd research, t develp utlines and t create the final prduct. Idea Generatin Idea generatin is a nn-judgmental grup creative prcess in which grup members are encuraged t give vice t any ideas they persnally cnsider relevant t the grup exercise. In a face-t-face meeting, a facilitatr will usually stand in frnt f a big piece f paper and elicit ideas frm the participants in the rm. A teacher can create an nline versin f this prcess by setting up a wiki fr the entire class r fr smaller student grups and asking peple t submit ideas arund a tpic. Peple can add ideas as they ccur and link t ther pages fr elabratin. Cntribute t ther wikis A teacher might assign his r her class the task f cntributing t Wikipedia, Wikiversity, r t anther wiki n the Web, n any class tpic, perhaps by assigning students t grups (r making it a class prject if the class is small enugh and the tpic brad enugh) and challenging them t cllabratively create an article they wuld feel cnfident psting t a public-infrmatin space. Students will use the curse wiki t create drafts f the article they will eventually publish t the cmmunity at the end f the semester. Cllabrative stry-telling Yunger students culd be encuraged t wrk tgether n a wiki t build up a stry - each adding a sentence fllwing n frm the previus cntributin. 247

248 Summary Wikis can be used t help prmte grup-based learning by prviding spaces fr students t wrk tgether t create pages built n ideas, cnstructive feedback, and current prjects. Wikis are flexible tls fr cllabratin that yu can implement t imprve yur curse and students understanding f the material. In the next chapter we will take a lk n Blgs and hw it inspires curse participants fr purpseful nline writing. 248

249 Chapter 14: Blgs Blgs are a frm f nline jurnal used by millins f peple arund the wrld fr selfexpressin and cmmunicating with family and friends. Blgs are usually rganized as a chrnlgical series f pstings created by the authr f the blg. Blgs usually are written by ne persn, althugh sme blgs can be authred by grups f peple. The wrd 'blg' is a cntractin f 'web lg'. As the rle f technlgy in the classrm cntinues t grw, teachers are turning t blgging t give students a vice, inspire purpseful writing, prvide an authentic audience, and publish student wrk. Blgging is a pwerful tl that gets students excited abut writing and allws them t cnnect with thers arund the wrld. Blgs are grwing in imprtance arund the wrld. They are used by everyne frm teenagers psting wh they like r dislike at schl t CEOs cmmunicating directly with their custmers t dissidents in ppressed ppulatins expressing their plitical views. Blgs in Mdle are user based - each user has their wn blg. Users can als register their external blgs, such as Blgger r Wrdpress, s that entries are autmatically included in their Mdle blg. Using Blgs Blgs in Mdle are user-based each user has his wn blg, which is nn-cursespecific. Yur prfile page cntains a Blg tab fr accessing yur blg page, as shwn in Figure Adding a blg entry T add a blg entry: Frm the Navigatin blck, click n Blgs>Add a new entry r Alternatively, if the Blg menu blck is enabled in the curse, click Add a new entry there. Write yur entry and give it a title. If yu want t attach a file, click the Add buttn t access the File picker t lcate a file. Be sure yur dcument is smaller than the maximum attachment size. Alternatively, drag and drp yur file int the bx prvided. Chse wh yu wish t publish the entry t i.e. wh may see the entry. There are three ptins: 249

250 Yurself i.e. yur blg entry is a draft Anyne n yur site Anyne in the wrld Select apprpriate fficial tags fr yur entry and/r add ne r mre user defined tags. If yu add mre than ne, they shuld be cmma separated. Click n the "Save changes" buttn. Figure 14-1 A blg page Yu can edit yur blg entry at any time using the Edit link at the bttm f the entry. Yu may want t change the publish ptin frm yurself t anyne n the site. Yu can als delete the blg entry cmpletely if yu wish. Viewing Blg Entries Yu can view all f yur entries by Navigatin Blck >My Prfile >Blgs > View all f my entries r else frm Blg Menu Blck > View all f my entries if the Blg Menu blck is enabled. Yu can als access all the entries in yur curse, yur entries in the curse and add a new entry frm the Blg Menu blck. Alternatively, yu can chse t view all blg entries with a particular tag via links in the Blg Tags blck (which we ll cver in the next sectin). Blg visibility By default, all site users can view all blg entries via the Navigatin Blck > Site Pages > Site Blgs link in the Navigatin Blck if it s enabled by yur site administratr. Hwever, yur system administratr may have restricted blg visibility site-wide s that users can nly see blg entries fr peple with whm they share a curse r a grup. 250

251 Figure 12-2 Adding a new blg entry Blg preferences The Blg preferences link in the Administratin > My Prfile Settings > Blg > Preferences - allws yu t chse hw many blg entries are displayed n a page. The default number f entries is 10. Blg Tags A tag is a relevant keywrd r term assciated with a blg entry, describing it and enabling keywrd-based classificatin f infrmatin fr the purpse f retrieval. Typically, a blg entry will have ne r mre tags assciated with it. Yu can add new blg tags when adding r editing a blg entry. There are tw types f tags: User-defined tags : Persnal tags that any user can add Official tags: Added by an administratr and available fr any site user 251

252 Blg Tags blck T encurage the use f blgs in yur curse, yu may wish t add a Blg Tags blck, as shwn in Figure 12-3, t yur curse page. A Blg Tags blck displays a tag clud, i.e., a list f tags where mre frequently used tags appear in a larger fnt size. Tags can be listed in alphabetical rder r accrding t the last date used, depending n hw the Blg Tags blck is cnfigured. T add a Blg Tags blck t yur curse page: Enter the Editing Mde by clicking the Turn Editing Mde On. Select Blg Tags frm the Add blcks menu. If apprpriate, mve the Blg Tags blck up and/r left, using the drag and drp icn under the blck title.. T cnfigure a Blg Tags blck: Click n the gear icn in the blck header with link "Cnfigure Blg Tags Blck". On the Blg Tags cnfiguratin page, as shwn in Figure 12-4, adjust the settings as required r leave them as default. Click the Save changes buttn. Figure 12-3 Blg tags blck Blg Capabilities Blg capabilities fcus n entries and tags, as yu might expect. *** These capabilities are set at the glbal level, s as a teacher yu may nt have the ability t change them. Create new blg entries: This allws a user t write blg entries. 252

253 Edit and manage entries: This allws a user t edit and delete ther users' blg entries. The default manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher rles have this capability set t allw. Edit and manage external blgs: This allws a user t register external blgs, such as Blgger r Wrdpress s that entries are autmatically included in their Mdle blg. This capability is allwed fr the default authenticated user rle. Search blg entries: This allws a user t search blg entries via the Blg menu blck. View blg entries: This allws a user t view anther user's blg entries. The default authenticated user rle has this capability set t allw. If yu prhibit this capability, the user will nt be able t read any blgs n the system. View draft blg entries: This allws a user t view anther user's draft blg entries. Only the default manager rle has this capability set t allw. See all user blgs: This allws a user t view the blgs f ther users. The capability is set t allw by default fr the Manager, Teacher, Nn-editing teacher and Student rle. (It is nt set fr Guests and Curse Creatrs.) Figure 12-4 Cnfiguring blg tags blck Assciate blg entries with curses: This allws a user t assciate blg entries with curses. This makes it pssible fr a user t blg "abut" a particular curse. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nnediting teacher, student and authenticated user. 253

254 Assciate blg entries with activity mdules: This allws a user t blg abut a particular activity. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher, student and authenticated user. Effective Blg Practices Blgs in Mdle are a relatively new feature, which many peple are still learning hw t use. There are currently very few examples f gd usage f blgs. Mst blgs are either blgging fr the sake f blgging, r an ill-defined learning jurnal where students engage in unstructured reflectin n what they are learning. It s difficult t maintain students mtivatin fr either f these activities. Students wh are engaging in purpseful blgging fr the first time will have a difficult time successfully psting withut scafflding and sme clear gals. Perhaps a weakness in blgging assignments cmes frm a lack f first-hand experience n the part f teachers but I am sure that my readers must be having enugh experience with the blgging s that they can prvide the required scafflding and clear gals t their students. T begin t understand blgging, we wuld strngly recmmend starting yur wn blg in Mdle. This experience will help yu understand blgs better, and it will als give yu anther channel t cmmunicate with yur students and/r clleagues. As yu develp yur blg, ntice which psts are easy t write and which are a struggle. D yu pst regularly? Or d yu need t remind yurself t pst? Creating interesting psts n a regular basis is nt easy, nr is making time t pst regularly. Hwever, if yu set a gd example fr yur students, yu will find it easier t create gd blgging activities. The mst imprtant element f running an effective blg as part f yur curse is t have a clearly defined gal fr student blgging. At the beginning f a curse, d a quick pll f yur students. Hw many f them are blgging nw? Why are they blgging? Many f yur students will have either Twitter r Facebk accunts where they can pst updates f their activities t their friends. But scial blgging is different frm blgging in a learning envirnment, and yu will need t wrk clsely with yur students t create effective blgs. It s recmmended that yu allw each student t create his wn blgging gals. As David Hawkins writes in his bk The Rts f Literacy, Children can learn t read and write with cmmitment and quality just in prprtin as they are engaged with matters f imprtance t them, and abut which at sme pint they wish t read and write. Blgging is essentially a writing exercise but yu shuld als keep the audience in mind. It can be a persnal, reflective exercise, r it can be a frum fr psting abut the ideas and cncepts imprtant t the authr. 254

255 Once yur students have started blgging, they may respnd better if they have an audience. Knwing smene is reading yur psts is a great mtivatr t cntinue writing. Be sure t cmment, either via messages r in class, n psts students have made public. If students want t keep their psts as private reflectins, allw them t d s. Blgging is always persnal, and yur blgging authrs need t feel a sense f cntrl ver their persnal psts. One simple way t incrprate blgging int nearly any curse is t create a single class blg and pst case studies, news items, r tpics fr cmmentary. Anther ptin is t assign students t pst ntes n each class alng with their thughts n the material, and assign ther students t cmment n the pstings. Blgging Etiquettes fr students: Be hnest and fair: blggers shuld avid plagiarism, always cite (and pssibly link t) their surces, never pst inaccurate infrmatin, distinguish between facts and cmmentary, and refrain frm distrting facts. Treat human beings with respect: blggers shuld be plite and cnsiderate when addressing ther Internet users, especially in the case f children, and avid intruding int anyne's privacy. Be respnsible: blggers shuld admit and crrect their mistakes, explain the aim f each blg and invite dialgue with readers ver the blg's cntent. Be plite: Write in a psitive, friendly way. D nt use sarcasm r nasty language. Als, avid using ALL CAPS, as this indicates yelling. Remember, the way yu write shws yur persnality t everyne wh reads the blg. Be accurate. Make sure that any infrmatin yu write is crrect. This includes facts, names, and web addresses. D nt exaggerate. Write intelligently. Make sure yur message is clear and easy t understand. Remember t stick t the tpic; dn t be verly humrus r creative. Be a cnscientius student. Prfread carefully befre clicking Submit Cmment. Yur writing is fr schl, s be sure t check spelling, punctuatin and grammar, as yu wuld fr any ther type f schl prject. 255

256 Creative Blg Practices As blgs are s new, there is a lt f rm fr new and creative applicatins. As the blgs cntinue t develp in future versins f Mdle, there will be mre capabilities t apply t interesting activities. But even nw, there are a few creative activities yu can develp using the blg tl. Grup wrk with tags Blg tags are used t categrize and lcate blg entries. Usually general categries are used, like teaching r trips. Hwever, creating assignment-specific tags can turn the blg tl int a brainstrming tl. If yu have an assignment n understanding evlutin, create a set f tags fr yur students t tag research findings, claims, cunter-claims, evidence, etc. Once students have begun t create entries, they can cllate the wrk f the entire class by selecting the apprpriate tags, and every pst with that tag will be displayed. One-minute respnses Effective feedback is imprtant fr learning. This is true fr bth the teacher and the student. One-minute-respnse blg psts are an easy way t get infrmal feedback frm students abut a lessn r activity and keep them psting in their blgs. Usually, the instructr gives the students a few prmpts t get quick feedback n the effectiveness f the lessn. Yu can use three questins when asking fr a ne-minute respnse t a lessn: What was the muddiest (i.e., least clear) pint in the lessn? What was the mst imprtant pint? Hw useful/interesting was the lessn? Obviusly, there are many mre prmpts yu can use t get the feedback yu want frm yur students. Yu may want students t reflect n hw they feel abut the class itself, r abut a test, r ask ther questins abut hw they perceive varius aspects f yur curse. Alternatively, yu culd ask them fr quick answers t mre specific, cntent-related questins that yu knw students frequently have prblems with. Assign students a ne-minute respnse as a blg assignment. Pst the questins in a prminent place in yur curse, and ask them t tag the pst with the name r date f the activity. Clicking n the tag will make it easy t cllate all f the student respnses. 256

257 Summary At first glance, the blgging desn t seem t be very interesting but if yu allw yur students t pst nline fr their audience then it can inspire them fr purpseful writing and publishing their wrk. In the next chapter we will take a lk at the Swiss army knife f Mdle knwn as Database and can be used t in a variety f ways e.g. fr cllectin f entries submitted by students. 257

258 Chapter 15: Database The database activity mdule allws the teacher and/r students t build, display and search a bank f recrd entries abut any cnceivable tpic. The frmat and structure f these entries can be almst unlimited, including images, files, URLs, numbers and text amngst ther things. It is a simple, easy-t-use, general purpse database nt meant t be very cmplex r pwerful; it s simply a way fr multiple peple t add structured data t a shared resurce. The database mdule prvides a tl fr cllabrative develpment f a database within the curse. Yu can use database mdule in a lt f creative uses which are limited by yur imaginatin. Yu culd use the database t create glssaries, catalgs, taxnmies, registratins, paper submissins, maps, r anything where the students in yur class can fill in a frm t add data. Yu culd use the database mdule t: allw cllabratin n building a cllectin f web links/bks/jurnal references related t a particular subject display student created phts/psters/websites/pems fr peer cmment and review gather cmments and vtes n a shrtlist f ptential lgs/masct names/prject ideas prvide a student file strage area Maintain a lg f what was dne in a face-t-face class each day, s that absent students can get caught up themselves. Creating database activities is a little mre invlved than mst f the Mdle activities, but it s nt as cmplex as lessns. Yu als have the ptin f using a preset f an empty database activity, rather than creating yur wn frm scratch. The visual layut f infrmatin when listing, viewing r editing database entries may be cntrlled by database templates. Database activities may be shared between curses as presets and a teacher may als imprt and exprt database entries. If the database aut-linking filter is enabled, any entries in a database will be autmatically linked where the wrds r phrases appear within the curse. 258

259 A teacher can allw cmments n entries. Entries can als be rated by teachers r students (peer evaluatin). Ratings can be aggregated t frm a final grade which is recrded in the gradebk. Database activities have many uses, such as A cllabrative cllectin f web links, bks, bk reviews, jurnal references etc. Fr displaying student-created phts, psters, websites r pems fr peer cmment and review Creating Database A database is made up f fields and templates. Fields define the type f data the database will stre: text, dates, files, URLs, etc. Templates allw yu t cntrl the visual layut f infrmatin when listing, viewing, r editing database entries. A database activity has three basic template types: List template The list template allws yu t cntrl the fields used and their layut when viewing multiple entries. Usually an verview f each entry is prvided, with mre detailed infrmatin available by clicking n an entry t access the single view. Single template The single template is fr displaying the detailed view f a single entry. All the data the user entered shuld be visible here. Add template The add template creates the interface frm used when adding r editing database entries. As with many f the activity mdules, a little preplanning can g a lng way when yu are thinking abut develping a database activity. The field definitins determine the fields in the add template, which determine the data yu can display n the list and single templates. Befre yu begin digging int the database, try t sketch ut the fields yu think yu need the students t enter, and hw yu might want t lay them ut in each template. 259

260 Once yu have a rugh sketch, creating the database itself will be easier and yu will less likely need t g back and add fields later (althugh yu can if yu need t). Adding a database The first step t creating a database is adding it t the apprpriate sectin f yur curse. As with mst Mdle activities, yu first set the ptins fr the database, then create the fields and templates. T create a database activity: With the editing turned n, in the sectin yu wish t add yur database, click the "Add an activity r resurce" link and chse Database. In the General Sectin, Give yur new database a name and a descriptin. In the Entries Sectin: Apprval required? - If set t "yes", the entry will nly be visible nce a teacher has checked and apprved it. Figure 15-1 Adding a new database 260

261 Allw cmments n entries - If set t "yes", users will be able t cmment n database entries. Entries required fr cmpletin - Select here hw many entries yu wish the student t add befre the activity can be cnsidered "cmplete". Entries required fr viewing - Select here hw many entries yu wish the student t add befre they are allwed t see entries by ther peple. *** If entries are required befre viewing, the database aut-linking filter shuld be disabled. This is because the database aut-linking filter can't determine whether a user has submitted the required number f entries. Maximum number f entries - Select here the maximum number f entries yu wish students t make. In the Availability Sectin: Available frm/t - Select here when yu want the database t be visible t students. Read nly frm/t - If yu wish, select here the dates yu want students t be able t see entries in the database but nt be able t add their wn. Fr example yu culd make a database 'available frm' January 1st until March 1st, but 'read nly' frm January 1st t February 1st. This means students can nly view entries fr a mnth befre being able t add their wn. ***The 'available frm/t' settings verride the 'read nly frm/t' settings. S if a database has 'read nly' frm 1st January, and "available frm" 1st February, students will nt be able t view its cntent during January. In the Ratings Sectin: Rles with permissin t rate: T submit ratings users require the mdle/rating:rate capability and any mdule specific capabilities. Users assigned the fllwing rles shuld be able t rate items. The list f rles may be amended via the permissins link in the administratin blck. Aggregate type: The aggregate type defines hw ratings are cmbined t frm the final grade in the gradebk. Scale: Select the type f grading used fr this activity. If "scale" is chsen, yu can then chse the scale frm the "scale" drpdwn. If using "pint" grading, yu can then enter the maximum grade available fr this activity. Restrict ratings t items with dates in this range: Select the time range fr which yu want t restrict the ratings. In the Cmmn Mdule Sectin: Visible: Select Shw/Hide t display r hide the activity t yur students. ID Number: Prvide a ID number fr the activity t be shwn in the Gradebk. 261

262 Grup Mde: Select the grup mde fr the wrkshp activity. There are three ptins: N Grups: There are n sub grups, everyne is part f ne big cmmunity Separate Grups: Each grup member can nly see their wn grup, thers are invisible Visible Grups: Each grup member wrks in their wn grup, but can als see ther grups. Gruping: Select gruping type if yu want t make an activity (such as an assignment r a quiz) visible t nly ne set f users within a curse. Click the Save changes buttn and yu will be taken t the database setup page. Building Database When yu visit the database activity then it will be displayed like as shwn in figure Figure 13-2 Adding fields t database There are multiple tabs n the tp f the activity which we will discuss ne by ne. First it will shw yu an errr message with Red backgrund that "There are n fields defined fr this database." S, first yu need t define sme fields r else yu can use Presets. Let s start by defining sme fields fr yur database: Creating Fields The field definitins create the basic structure f the database and determine what kind f infrmatin students can enter int yur database. Fr example a database f famus paintings may have a picture field called painting, fr uplading an image file 262

263 shwing the painting, and tw text fields called artist and title fr the name f the artist and the painting. By cmbining several fields with apprpriate names and types yu shuld be able t capture all the relevant infrmatin abut the items in yur database. Alternatively, yu can use a database preset. Yu are prvided with a chice f 12 data field types. Checkbx: This allws yu t ffer checkbxes fr the user t select. Add the ptins ne under the ther. The wrd will appear next t a checkbx when the user clicks t add an entry. They can check mre than ne bx. Date: This allws a user t enter a date by picking a day, mnth and year frm a drp dwn list. File: Users can uplad a file frm their cmputer. If it is an image file then the picture field may be a better chice. Latitude/lngitude: Users can enter a gegraphic lcatin using latitude and lngitude. When students view the entry, links are autmatically generated t ge- graphic data services such as Ggle Maps, Ggle Earth, r Multimap. Menu: Fr students t select an ptin frm a drp-dwn menu. Enter each ptin n a different line in the ptins text field. Menu (multiselect): Fr students t select multiple ptins frm a drp-dwn menu (by hlding dwn the Cntrl r Shift key as they click). Number: Fr students t enter a number (psitive, negative, r zer). Picture: Fr students t uplad an image file frm their cmputer. Radi buttns: Fr students t select just ne ptin frm a list. If used, radi buttns is a required field; a student may nly submit his database entry after selecting an ptin. Text: Fr students t enter text up t 60 characters in length. Fr lnger text, r fr text that requires frmatting such as headers and bullet pints the textarea field shuld be used. Textarea: Fr students t enter text lnger than 60 characters in length and/r include frmatting such as headers and bullet pints. URL: Fr students t enter a URL. Selecting Autlink the URL will make the URL a clickable link, and entering a frced name fr the link means that the name will be used fr the hyperlink. Yu can chse t have the URL pen in a new windw if s desired. 263

264 Figure 13-3 Database fields T create the fields fr yur database: On the database setup page, select the field type yu want t add frm the Create a new field drpdwn menu. Enter a field name and a field descriptin. The field name is used t create the templates, s make it unique and lng enugh t be descriptive, but nt t lng t retype. If necessary, add/select the ptins fr each field type. Fr example, yu can set the height and width f the text area generated by the textarea field. Once yu ve defined the fields yu want t use in yur database, as shwn in Figure 13-3, yu are ready t begin editing yur templates. Editing Templates Once yu have created the fields fr yur database, yu will prbably want t edit the templates that define the user interface. Creating the fields prduces a default template, as shwn in figure Templates fr the Database activity mdule allw yu t cntrl the visual layut f infrmatin when listing, viewing r editing database entries. Database templates all wrk n the same principle. They are basically HTML pages with a new set f tags fr the database mdule t interpret. When editing a template, Mdle displays a list f available tags n the left side f the editing screen. Duble clicking n any f the tags adds it t the template. The database activity interprets these new tags befre sending the template s HTML t the brwser fr display. It lks fr wrds enclsed in either tw square brackets ([[) r tw hash signs (##), representing tw different types f interface elements it can add t the template. 264

265 The square brackets define data tags, which tell the mdule t replace the wrd in the brackets with the value r frm element f the field with the same name. S if yu have a database with a name field, yu wuld represent it in the template with [[name]]. In the single r list template, the mdule wuld replace it with the data in the name field fr that entry. In the list template, the mdule wuld replace it with a text field, and put the value in the text field if yu re editing the entry instead f creating a new ne. The ## tags indicate the wrd shuld be replaced by an icn r link fr interacting with the mdule. These tags are used t place the edit and delete icns, and links fr Mre, Apprve, Cmments, and User. If yu want t add the edit icn t a template, yu just add a tag that lks like ##edit##. When the user lks at the page with the tag, the database mdule replaces it with the edit icn. If the user then clicks n the icn, it takes her t the edit template. *** The edit and delete icns nly appear fr users with apprpriate capabilities allwed. The Apprve and Cmments links nly appear if these ptins are enabled AND nly fr users with apprpriate capabilities allwed. Figure 13-4 A single template Aside frm the replacement tags, creating a template is just like creating an HTML page. Use a table t lay ut the data elements (this is an acceptable use f tables fr layut), add descriptive text arund the replacement tags, and publish. The 265

266 database makes it easy t rapidly view yur changes by flipping between the Templates tab and the tab fr the template yu are wrking n. *** Dn t frget t save the template befre yu switch views! It s easy t frget, and very frustrating t switch views and have the template lk exactly the same because yu frgt t save! When yu are editing the template, yu may find the HTML editr gets in yur way, especially when editing the list template (mre n the list template belw). Frtunately, Mdle has a tggle buttn fr enabling and disabling the HTML editr in the template editing screen. Just belw the Reset template buttn n the left side f the template page, yu ll see the Enable/Disable editr buttn. Disabling the editr allws yu t get yur hands dirty with the raw HTML cde rather than trying t use the editr s GUI. Mst f the templates are quite simple, and switching the editr ff is a great way t learn hw the templates are structured. As mentined previusly, there are three basic templates necessary t use the database: list, single, and add. The three ther templates RSS, CSS, and JavaScript are mre advanced templates and aren t necessary fr basic database use. T edit a template: 1. On the database page, click the Templates tab. 2. Click ne f the template links belw the rw f tabs. 3. When yu are dne, click the Save template buttn. Add template Add template is used t create and edit new entries. In this template, data tags are replaced with the frm element fr the field. If the user is editing an entry, the field will have the data frm the field in the frm element fr editing as well. If yu have a lt f frm elements, cnsider gruping them tgether lgically. Fr example, if yu have a database asking students t build a catalg f insects fund during a field trip, yu may want t separate the descriptin and taxnmy frm the lcatin data. It will make it easier fr students t fill in and rganize their data. ***It s imprtant t list every field yu want the user t fill in n this template. If yu leave ff a field, the user wn t be able t add r edit its data. Single template The single template, as shwn earlier in Figure 13-4, is the detailed view f an entry. This template shuld list all f the available data. Again, cnsider rganizing the data if yu have a lt f fields in yur database. This is used t display a single entry at a time 266

267 and s has mre space fr display and can use, fr example, larger versins f images r ptinally prvide mre infrmatin than shwn in the list view. List template The list template is the first page students will see when they cme t yur database. The list template shuld give an verview f the entries and enable users t click thrugh t the single r edit template. Organizing a gd list template is a bit f a challenge. First, yu shuld identify the fields that will be mst helpful t users fr selecting the entries they want t view. The default layut almst always has t much infrmatin and is nt laid ut well. The frm has three areas: the Header, Bdy, and Fter. If yu lay ut the list template as a table, yu ll want t use the Header area as the table header, the Bdy fr the data, and the Fter t clse the table, But the HTML editr puts a full table in each area, which makes it difficult t get prper alignment f the elements and nt repeat the headers fr every entry. T make the entire list template as ne table: On the list template page, turn ff the HTML editr. In the Header area f the template, pen the table and add a rw fr yur header text. Each clumn shuld cntain ne element f the header. In the Bdy, create anther rw with the data and cmmand replacement tags. In the Fter, clse the table. Save the template. DO NOT switch the HTML editr n while editing this template. If yu turn the editr back n, it will create tables in each f the areas. RSS template The RSS template allws yu t structure the RSS feed frm the database. If yu have enabled RSS feeds fr the database in the database ptins, the database will publish the entries in a feed. This template allws yu t structure hw the entries in the feed appear t the readers. CSS template The CSS template defines the CSS styles fr all f the templates in the database. If yu knw CSS, yu can adjust the template s fnts, spacing, clrs, and ther display infrmatin. 267

268 JavaScript template Like the CSS template, the JavaScript template is used by the ther templates. The JavaScript template allws yu t add new behavirs t the templates by defining JavaScript rutines that can be laded when the template page lads. Yu can use JavaScript t manipulate the way elements are displayed in the List, Single r Add templates. Basically yu need t enclse the part yu want t manipulate in any named html element. The naming is essential as it allws yu t identify the element fr manipulatin. Managing Databases Once yu have set up yur database, yu and yur students can begin t enter data. Managing yur database as students begin t ppulate it with data is an imprtant factr in the success f a database activity. Smene will need t maintain the quality f the entries and give students credit fr participating. Quality Data Once students have started t add entries t yur database, yu will need t track their data t help ensure they are making useful cntributins. Managing the quality f database entries can be a tedius exercise, but it can als be a learning pprtunity fr yur students. Students will enter their data accrding t their interpretatin f the activity and their abilities. An inaccurate r disrganized entry frm a student is a ptential pprtunity fr feedback t help the student learn. The database mdule has a few tls that will be useful t yu in ensuring data quality: Cmments: Cmments are a great tl fr feedback t mtivate yur students and help them imprve their entries. Require apprval: The ultimate quality assurance tl is the Require apprval ptin in yur database ptins. As mentined earlier, this ptin hides an entry frm the rest f the class until yu r smene with apprval capability apprves it. Yu might want t use this capability t help students prduce gd material by giving them feedback befre apprving an entry. Rating Giving grades fr entries is the single mst pwerful mtivatr fr students. It als rewards students fr their time and effrt. As always, if yu dn t want t assign a numerical grade t an entry, yu can create a custm scale and assign a qualitative grade. When yu rate an entry, the grade is added t the gradebk, like a rated frum pst. 268

269 We wuld strngly recmmend cmbining rating and cmments, as shwn in Figure Rating allws yu t assign a numerical value t an entry, but it desn t give yu a methd t tell the student why she received her particular grade. The cmments bx enables yu t cmmunicate the reasn. Rating and cmments can be turned int a cllabrative venture with yur students. By default, students are allwed t add cmments, but nly teachers are allwed t rate entries. Hwever, yu can enable cllabrative rating by setting a student rle verride. ***If yu dn t see the Override rles link in the Rles tab, ask yur system administratr. By default, teachers are unable t verride rles, s this ability must be granted by yur system administratr, as well as setting which rles can be verridden by the teacher rle. Figure 13-5 Viewing single item in database 269

270 Database Presets T avid the necessity f always having t create a new database frm scratch, the database activity mdule has a presets feature. An image gallery preset is currently included in the database mdule t help get yu started. Yu can create yur wn presets as well and share them with thers. Creating a new preset T create a new preset: On the database page, click the Presets tab. In the "Save as Preset" sectin, prvide a name fr the current preset. Check the Overwrite checkbx t verride an existing preset and click Cntinue. Imprting a preset T imprt a preset: On the database page, click the Presets tab. Figure 13-6 Setting a student rle verride 270

271 The usual way t imprt a preset is clicking the "Chse file" buttn in the Imprt Sectin and brwsing t the ZIP file cntaining the preset (e.g. "preset.zip") stred n the server. If there des nt yet exist a preset ZIP file n the server, uplad it frm yur lcal machine. Chse the desired preset file by clicking n its actin "Chse". Finally, press the "Imprt" buttn. Alternatively, yu can chse a previusly laded preset. After the imprt, yu can start t add r imprt entries. All the hard wrk f setting up the fields and templates has been dne fr yu. If yu desire, yu can still custmize the fields and templates. Yu will see an "Overwrite current settings" checkbx after the "Imprt" buttn has been pressed. If checked, the database activity verwrites sme f its current general settings by thse stred in the preset: the "Intrductin" HTML text "Required entries" "Entries required befre viewing" "Maximum entries" "Cmments" "Require apprval?" rssarticles Exprting a preset If yu wish t share yur database presets with thers, yu have tw ptins: Exprt as a ZIP file, which can then be imprted t anther curse r Mdle site. Save as a preset, which publishes the database fr ther teachers n yur site t use. It will then appear in the preset list. (Yu can delete it frm the list at any time.) *** Only the fields and templates f the database are cpied when exprting r saving it as a preset, nt the entries. Using an Existing Preset Frm the presets tab, yu can chse t use an existing preset saved by yu earlier. In the "Use a Preset" sectin select the existing preset frm the list. 271

272 Database activity capabilities Apprve unapprved entries: This allws a user t apprve and und the apprval f Database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Write cmments: This allws a user t add cmments t Database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Exprt all database entries: This allws a user t exprt all Database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Exprt a database entry: This allws a user t exprt Database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Exprt wn database entry: This allws a user t exprt their wn Database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Manage database activity cmments: This allws a user t edit and delete database activity mdule cmments. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Manage database activity entries: This allws a user t add, edit and delete database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Manage templates: This allws a user t manage database templates. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher. Manage all template presets: This allws a user t manage database presets. This capability is allwed fr the default rle f manager nly. Rate entries: This allws a user t rate database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. *** Yu may want t select a small grup f students as mderatrs and create a rle fr them t prvide feedback t thers. View all raw ratings given by individuals: This allws a user t view all ratings given t database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. View presets frm all users: This allws a user t view database presets frm all users. This allws als a user t exprt entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. View ttal ratings that anyne received: This allws a user t view ttal ratings fr database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. 272

273 View entries: This allws a user t view database activity mdule entries. This capability is mderated by any submissin requirements in the database set-up, such as the number f entries required befre viewing. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher, student and guest. View the ttal rating yu received: This allws a user t view all ratings which they have received fr database activity mdule entries. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Write entries: This allws a user t add entries t a database activity and edit r delete any entries which they have previusly added. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Add a new database activity: This allws a user t add a new database activity t the curse. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher. Effective database practice The database activity is bth pwerful and cmplex. It is prbably the mst technical mdule t set up, thugh a cmplex lessn may take lnger, but it has tremendus pwer. The database is a veritable Swiss Army knife, useful in many situatins with a little ingenuity and wrk. T reduce yur wrklad creating databases, make use f ne f the presets available n Mdle.rg. If a preset desn t meet all f yur requirements, it s easier t custmize an existing database than create ne frm scratch. Yu can als share the wrk f creating a database. If yu want yur students t create and submit a database fr a prject, yu can verride the student rle and grant them authring capabilities. If yu then use the separate grups mde, each grup can create its wn database f research and submit it at the end fr grading. *** Remember t use rles and grups functinality t create additinal flexibility t yur database. Creative Database Practices With a little creativity, the database activity can becme a useful tl fr cllabratin. The structure prvided by the field definitins and the templates makes it easier fr students t understand what yu expect f them and t prvide each ther with gd data. Cmbined with less structured activities, like wikis and frums, yu have a pwerful cmbinatin f thinking tls t enable yur students t prduce gd wrk. 273

274 Summary Database activity is the Swiss army knife in the Mdle curse. It is als mst cmplex t setup a database activity but it can be used t cater lt f creative uses which makes it a quite useful activity mdule. 274

275 Chapter 16: Surveys, Chices and Feedback Mdle has three tls specifically designed fr cllecting ungraded feedback frm yur students: surveys, chices and feedback. The Survey mdule is a curse activity that prvides a number f verified survey instruments, including COLLES (Cnstructivist On-Line Learning Envirnment Survey) and ATTLS (Attitudes t Thinking and Learning Survey), which have been fund useful in assessing and stimulating learning in nline envirnments. The Cnstructivist On-Line Learning Envirnment Survey (COLLES) was designed t help assess key questins abut the quality f an nline learning envirnment frm a scial cnstructivist perspective (Taylr & Mar, 2000). The Attitudes Twards Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS) is an instrument develped by Galtti et al. (1999) t measure the extent t which a persn is a cnnected knwer (CK) r a separate knwer (SK). Teachers can use these t gather data frm their students that will help them learn abut their class and reflect n their wn teaching. The current survey fcuses n getting feedback frm students abut the nature f the curse. Chices are small, ne-questin surveys. They act as small web plls that yu may have seen n ther web sites. Yu can use a chice t get rapid feedback frm yur students abut any tpic yu wish, as lng as it s nly ne questin lng. The feedback activity mdule enables a teacher t create a custm survey fr cllecting feedback frm participants using a variety f questin types including multiple chice, yes/n r text input. S, let s start with Surveys first: Surveys There are three brad types f Survey activity in Mdle which yu can give: Attitudes t Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS) - ATTLS seeks t measure the extent t which a persn is a 'cnnected knwer' (tends t find learning mre enjyable, and is ften mre cperative, cngenial and mre willing t build n the ideas f thers) r a 'separate knwer' (tends t take a mre critical and argumentative stance t learning). Peple with higher CK scres tend t find learning mre enjyable, and are ften mre cperative, cngenial and 275

276 mre willing t build n the ideas f thers, while thse with higher SK scres tend t take a mre critical and argumentative stance t learning 2. Critical incidents survey - The Critical Incidents survey asks students t cnsider recent events and answer questins abut their relatinship t thse events. Figure 15-1 Adding a new survey Cnstructivist On-line Learning Envirnment Survey (COLLES) - Fr mnitring the extent t which the interactive capacity f the Wrld Wide Web may be explited fr engaging students in dynamic learning practices. The COLLES cmprises an ecnmical 24 statements gruped int six scales, each f which helps us address a key questin abut the quality f the n-line learning envirnment: Relevance: Hw relevant is n-line learning t students' prfessinal practices? 2 A preliminary scale t measure cnnected and separate knwing: Knight, K. H., Elfenbein, M. H., Messina, J. A. (1995) 276

277 Reflectin: Des n-line learning stimulates students' critical reflective thinking? Interactivity: T what extent d students engage n-line in rich educative dialgue? Tutr Supprt: Hw well d tutrs enable students t participate in n-line learning? Peer Supprt: Is sensitive and encuraging supprt prvided n-line by fellw students? Interpretatin: D students and tutrs make gd sense f each ther's n-line cmmunicatins? The COLLES has been designed t enable yu t mnitr the extent t which yu are able t explit the interactive capacity f the Wrld Wide Web fr engaging students in dynamic learning practices. It includes the ideal and actual experience feedbacks frm the students. Creating Surveys: The limited nature f the surveys tl makes surveys very easy t create. Basically, yu select the set f prewritten questins yu d like t give, edit the intrductry text, and yu re dne. T create a survey: Click the Turn editing n buttn. Select Survey frm the Add an activity drp-dwn menu in the curse sectin where yu wuld like t add the survey. On the Adding a new survey page, as shwn in Figure 15-1, give the survey a name. Select the type f survey yu want t give frm the drp-dwn menu. The ptins are: ATTLS (20 item versin) Critical Incidents COLLES (Actual) COLLES (Preferred) COLLES (Actual and preferred) Add a descriptin f yur survey in the descriptin field. T display it n the curse page just check the "Display descriptin n the curse page" check bx. Select the cmmn mdule ptins: Visible - This determines whether students may view the activity r nt. ID Number - Setting an ID number prvides a way f identifying the activity fr grade calculatin purpses. If the activity is nt included in any grade calculatin then the ID number field may be left blank. 277

278 Grup mde - This is anther lcatin in which t set the grup mde fr the activity. If grup mde is frced in the curse settings then this setting will be ignred. Gruping - A gruping is a cllectin f grups within a curse. If a gruping is selected, students assigned t grups within the gruping will be able t wrk tgether. Click the Save and display buttn. Administering Surveys Once yu ve created the survey, students can begin t give their feedback. They simply click n the survey name in the curse sectin and answer the questins. Once students have begun t answer the survey questins, yu can track results via the View xx survey respnses link at the tp right f the survey page where xx stands fr the number f the respnses submitted. The survey reprt page cntains links at the tp right fr viewing the data by Scales, by participants, r by questins. Yu can als dwnlad the data in a chice f three frmats: Open Dcument Spreadsheet, Excel, r text. Figure 15-2 A COLLES survey reprt summary 278

279 The COLLES and ATTLS questins are five-pint scales that range in respnses frm Almst Always t Almst Never. These results are reprted in graphical frm when yu view them. The Critical Incidents survey is a free-respnse survey where students must type their answers. Yu can see what students have typed fr each answer. Survey Capabilities The survey mdule has three capabilities: Dwnlad respnses - This allws a user t dwnlad survey respnses. Respnd t survey - This allws a user t participate in a survey. View respnses - This allws a user t read survey respnses via the View xx survey respnses link at the tp right f the survey page. Chice Activity A chice activity is very simple the teacher asks a questin and specifies a chice f multiple respnses. It can be useful as a quick pll t stimulate thinking abut a tpic; t allw the class t vte n a directin fr the curse; r t gather research cnsent. Unlike surveys, the chice tl allws yu t ask any questin yu d like, as lng as it s multiple-chice. Once yu ve set up yur chice, it acts as a pll in yur curse. Students click n the chice and select their answer. Yu can chse when and if students see the results f the chice and even let them change their minds. A chice activity may be used As a quick pll t stimulate thinking abut a tpic T quickly test students' understanding T facilitate student decisin-making, fr example allwing students t vte n a directin fr the curse Creating Chices T create a chice: Click the Turn editing n buttn if yu are nt in the editing mde already. Select "Chice" frm the Add an activity r resurce drp-dwn link. On the Adding a new chice page, as shwn in Figure 15-3, given the chice a descriptive name. 279

280 Type the questin that yu want yur students t answer in the descriptin field. An example f the chice text culd be "What is yur favrite clr?" There is als an ptin t display the chice descriptin n the curse page belw the link t the activity. Figure 15-3 Adding a chice activity 280

281 Display mde fr the ptins: Chse "Display hrizntally" if yu nly have three r fur chices maximum; chse "display vertically" if yu have a large number f chices. In the Optins Sectin: Allw chice t be updated - If this is set t "Yes", students can change their mind after they have vted. If it's set t "N", students cannt change their chice. Limit the number f respnses - Enabling this ptin allws yu t limit the number f participants wh can select each particular chice. When that number has been reached, n ne else can select that chice. Optin 1,2,3,4,5 - Here yu can specify the ptins that participants have t chse frm. They will becme radi buttns when the chice is saved. Yu can fill in any number f these. If yu leave sme f the ptins blank, they will nt be displayed. If yu need mre than 8 ptins, click the "Add 3 fields t frm" buttn. Limit 1,2,3,4,and 5 - Here yu can specify the limit f the number f participants wh can select each particular chice. If Limits is disabled, then any number f participants can select any f the ptins. *** If yu unintentinally check the limit f respnses check bx but dn't add a number then yur students wn't be able t select any chices and will get cnfused. In the "Availability" Sectin: Restrict answering: 1. If yu check this bx yu can set an "pen and clse" date fr yur chice. 2. If yu leave it, they can respnd at any time. In the "Results" Sectin: Publish results: 1. This determines whether (and when) the students will be able t view the results f the chice activity. They may: 1. D nt publish results t students - Students will never see the results f the chice. 2. Shw results t students after they answer - Students will see the results nly after they have given the answer themselves. 3. Shw results t students nly after the chice is clsed - Students will see the results nly after the clsing date f the chice. 4. Always shw results t students - students will always see the results. 281

282 Privacy f results: If "Publish" was chsen abve, then this drpdwn in unlcked. Yu can decide whether t shw names f students r merely the number wh respnded but withut names. Shw clumn fr unanswered: If set t "Yes", this will display a clumn shwing hw many participants have nt answered the chice activity yet. If set t "N", the results will nly include the participants wh have already vted. Select the cmmn mdule ptins: Visible - This determines whether students may view the activity r nt. ID Number - Setting an ID number prvides a way f identifying the activity fr grade calculatin purpses. If the activity is nt included in any grade calculatin then the ID number field may be left blank. Grup mde - This is anther lcatin in which t set the grup mde fr the activity. If grup mde is frced in the curse settings then this setting will be ignred. Gruping - A gruping is a cllectin f grups within a curse. If a gruping is selected, students assigned t grups within the gruping will be able t wrk tgether. Click the Save and display buttn. Administering Chices After students have answered the chice, yu can see their respnses via the View xx respnses link at the tp right f the chice page. Unlike the students view f the results, irrespective f whether results are published annymusly, yu ll see a clumn fr each respnse with the student s picture and name, as shwn in Figure Figure 15-4 Viewing chice respnses Selected respnses may be deleted if yu wish. Yu may like t delete any test respnse yu made. 282

283 As fr surveys, results may be dwnladed in a chice f three frmats (Excel, ODS r Text) by clicking the apprpriate buttn at the bttm f the chice respnses page. Chice Capabilities The chice mdule capabilities are restricted t managing the respnses frm students: Recrd a chice - This allws a user t answer the chice. Read respnses - This allws a user t view ther users respnses. Delete respnses - This allws a user t delete chice respnses. Dwnlad respnses - This allws a user t dwnlad the full dataset f respnses frm ther users. Feedback Feedback respnses may be annymus if desired, and results may be shwn t all participants r restricted t teachers nly. Any feedback activities n the site frnt page may als be cmpleted by nn-lgged-in users. Hwever, feedback mdule is disabled by default. If yu are nt able t see the feedback activity in the "Add an activity/resurce drp dwn" then please cntact yur site administratr fr enabling the same. Why use Feedback Apart frm the bvius use here f evaluating a curse, feedback surveys have a variety f uses, bth within a curse and fr nn-lgged in users n the frnt page. The ability t set them as "annymus" means als thse sensitive issues can be surveyed withut students wrrying wh might see their respnses. Sme ideas: Guest surveys Annymusly, n the frnt page, nn-lgged in users such as parents can be questined n their pinins abut, e.g., the website design, schl plicies, schl meals. Sign up! Guests can be invited t sign up fr events/curses via the feedback mdule. 283

284 Cntact us Nn-lgged in users can use an instance f the feedback mdule as a "cntact us" frm. Anti-bullying surveys Students can be asked t highlight annymusly any incidences f bullying, alng with their lcatin and type. Making chices Students can select curse mdules r subjects they wish t study in a subsequent year/semester. The results can be exprted and easily cllated t match availability IT Skills audit Staff - r students - can be surveyed t discver their IT skills and weaknesses t highlight training needs. Use f Mdle! Staff can be surveyed n which Mdle mdules they use/wuld like mre training in Creating Feedback T create a Feedback activity: Click the Turn editing n buttn. Select "Feedback" frm the Add an activity r resurce drp-dwn link. On the Adding a new feedback page, as shwn in Figure 15-5, enter a descriptive name f the chice activity. Add a descriptin fr yur Feedback instance in the descriptin field. In the "Availability" sectin yu can chse the perid when users can cmplete feedback. In the " Questin and submissin settings" sectin: Recrd User Names: Chse here whether t shw the names f users wh cmplete the feedback r nt. Allw multiple submissins: Chse here whether r nt t allw users t cmplete the feedback mre than nce. This is imprtant when using Feedback fr annymus surveys n the frnt page as it will allw nnlgged in users t cmplete the feedback. Enable ntificatin f submissins: If enabled, teachers will receive ntificatin f feedback submissins. Aut-number questins: If set t 'Yes' then the questins will be autmatically numbered. 284

285 In the "After Submissin" sectin: Shw analysis page: The summary results can be shwn t respndents, r shwn nly t teachers. Cmpletin message: This allws yu t present users with a persnalized message after they have answered the questins. Link t next activity: After submitting the feedback, a cntinue buttn is displayed, which links t the curse page. Alternatively, it may link t the next activity if the URL f the activity is entered here. In the "Cmmn mdule settings" sectin: Visible - This determines whether students may view the activity r nt. ID Number - Setting an ID number prvides a way f identifying the activity fr grade calculatin purpses. If the activity is nt included in any grade calculatin then the ID number field may be left blank. Grup mde - This is anther lcatin in which t set the grup mde fr the activity. If grup mde is frced in the curse settings then this setting will be ignred. Gruping - A gruping is a cllectin f grups within a curse. If a gruping is selected, students assigned t grups within the gruping will be able t wrk tgether. Click the Save and display buttn. Figure 15-5 Adding a new feedback activity 285

286 Building Feedback After setting a new Feedback yu have t design it by adding questins. Select the type f questin frm the drp dwn list. Add yur questin details and click 'Save questin'. The fllwing ptins apply t all r mst questin types. Psitin This number cntrls the rder f the questins. Psitin 1 is the questin nearest the tp f the page, s when yu create r edit a questin, yu can chse frm the drpdwn f available psitins. Yu can als rearrange questins by clicking the psitin up and dwn arrws n the main add questins screen. Required These questins are required t be answered and will prmpt the user if they are left unanswered. These questins are highlighted with a red star fr users, and have a yellw exclamatin pint beside them when editing Feedback questins. Questin Types The available questin types are: Captcha A test t make sure a real persn is filling in the frm and nt an autmatic spamming prgram f sme srt. Asks a persn t write ut sme distrted text which is displayed n screen. Yu nrmally wn't need this unless yu find yu are getting spammed a lt. Infrmatin This allws yu t chse t display ne f three types f infrmatin: the time f respnding; the curse and/ r the categry where the feedback is lcated. Label Like a standard Mdle label, this allws yu t add arbitrary text between questins allwing fr extra explanatin r t divide the Feedback int sectins. Lnger Text Answer This ptin is fr creating a text bx (yu specify hw big it will appear in rws and clumns) which peple can write a lng answer int. 286

287 Multiple chice - multiple answers This will give yu a series f ptins with a checkbx next t each ne. The respndent can check as many as they want and there is currently n way t specify a limit t hw many they can chse which is lwer than the ttal. Multiple chice - single answer allwed (drpdwnlist) This will give yu a drpdwn list frm which nly ne answer can be selected. Drpdwnlist (rated) This is similar t the drpdwnlist ptin, except that each ptin has a numerical value assciated with it. Numeric answer Here, yu ask a questin which must have a number as an answer and specify the acceptable range e.g. "Hw many arms wuld yu like, if mre than 2 were pssible? (please specify 0-10)" with a range f 0-10 set in the ptins. It helps if yu specify the acceptable range in the questin text. Multiple chice - single answer This will give yu a series f radi buttns, which starts n 'Nt selected' and then has yur ptins afterwards. Only ne can be chsen and 'Nt selected' is a valid answer if the questin is nt set t 'required'. Figure 15-6 Viewing a feedback activity 287

288 Multiple Chice (Rated) This is similar t the ther multiple chice ptins, except that each ptin has a numerical value assciated with it. Shrt Text Answer This ptin lets yu specify a single line answer, with an input bx which is a set number f characters lng (yu chse). Yu als specify the maximum number f characters yu will accept, s that the answer is nt t lng and/r des nt run ver the length f the bx n screen. Dependence item and Dependence value It is pssible t direct the user t specific questins depending n a previus answer. Fr example, if they say 'Yes' t the questin "D yu have a car?" they will be directed t a different questin frm if they answer 'N'. T set dependent questins: Set up yur initial questin and give it a name in the Label field: Add a Page break Add the questin t g t if (fr example)the user replies 'Yes'. In 'Dependence item', select the Label f yur first questin. In 'Dependence value' type yur dependent answer (such as 'Yes' in ur example.) Fllw the same prcess fr the ther respnse (such as 'N') Managing Feedback: When yu first visit the feedback activity page just after creating it, then yu will find several tabs in the tp bar like: Overview, Edit Questins, Templates, Analysis and shw respnses. Overview: When a feedback survey has been cmpleted the teacher will see, via the Overview tab, the number f students wh have respnded s far including the numbers f questins, submitted answers, descriptin and cmpletin message f the activity. Edit questins: The Edit Questins tab allws yu t add/edit the questins in the feedback activity. Template: The Template tab allws yu t save this particular survey's questins as a template fr future use, r t use a template that has already been created. 288

289 Analysis: This screen shws a graphical summary f the results f each questin, alng with the ptin t dwnlad the results t Excel. Shw respnses: This screen allws the teacher t see and then delete individual respnses. Shw nn-respndents: Unless the respnses are set t "annymus", there will als be a "Shw nn-respndents" tab where the Teacher r Feedback activity administratr can select sme r all users wh have nt yet cmpleted the feedback and send them a reminder message. Figure 15-7 Feedback analysis Feedback Templates: Within the Feedback Mdule yu can create and re-use sets f Feedback questins using the Template tl. The Templates tab prvides the fllwing template features: Use a template Previusly saved Templates will be listed in this area and can be selected using the drpdwn menu. After selecting a Template, Mdle will display a preview f the Feedback questins cntained within the Template and cnfirm Are yu sure yu want t use this template? Yu will als be required t select ne f tw ptins: 289

290 Delete ld items: Remve any questins/text types previusly added t the Feedback Activity yu are viewing befre imprting items frm the selected Template Append new items: Add items stred within the selected template t the current Feedback activity, t any existing questins/text types. Once yu have made yur selectin click Save changes t cpy acrss the Feedback items r press Cancel t exit frm the template cpy prcess. Save these questins as a new template Figure 15-8 Sending messages t nn-respndents students After creating a new Feedback activity and ppulating it with questins, yu can save it as a Template fr re-use by yurself r thers. When saving a new Template enter a descriptive title in the Name field and chse whether yu wish t make this Template available fr use by thers via the Public tickbx. A Public template may be viewed and re-used by users with apprpriate access rights such as administratrs and teacher/trainers. When a Public template is used as a basis fr a new Feedback, the activity settings and questins within it may be edited by the teacher/trainer; hwever the riginal Template remains unchanged. 290

291 Delete Template T remve a Template yu have created r have apprpriate permissins t edit, frm yur Mdle site, use the Delete template... link and click the delete icn next t the crrespnding template name. Exprt Questins The Exprt Questins tl allws yu t save the questins/text types within yur Feedback Activity in.xml frmat. Clicking the Exprt questins link will prmpt yu t Save r Open this file Imprt Questins When yu have previusly exprted and saved questins frm a Feedback activity in.xml frmat, yu can reimprt them int a new Feedback activity. The Imprt questins tl is particularly useful where yu need t imprt questins frm a different instance f Mdle and the Template tl is nt applicable. *** Yu can als use the Imprt/Exprt ability t cmbine multiple Imprts frm multiple templates; als it can be used t avid creating duplicates when using Append. After clicking n the Imprt questins link yu will be prmpted t select ne f the fllwing ptins: Delete ld items - The current questins and all yur user's respnses will be deleted within the current Feedback activity Append new items - All ld questins and the assigned values will be preserved within the current Feedback activity and the imprted questins will be added t the existing questins. Use the Chse a file buttn t navigate t the curse Files area and uplad and/r select the relevant.xml file. Once selected, use the Imprt frm this file buttn t imprt the questins r use Cancel t return t the Templates general tab. Feedback Capabilities: Cmplete a feedback: This allws a user t cmplete a feedback frm. This capability is allwed fr the default rle f student nly. Create private template: This allws a user t create templates fr their wn use in the feedback mdule. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher 291

292 Create public template: This allws a user t create templates fr thers t use in the feedback mdule. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher. Delete cmpleted submissins: This allws a user t delete feedback mdule submissins. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher. Delete template: This allws a user t delete feedback mdule templates. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher. Edit items: This allws a user t edit feedback mdule items. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher. Map curses t glbal feedbacks: This allws a user t map curses t glbal feedback fr the feedback mdule. This capability is allwed fr the default rle f manager nly. Receive ntificatin: This allws a user t receive ntificatin f feedback mdule submissins. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f teacher and nn-editing teacher. View a feedback: This allws a user t view a feedback activity. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher, student and guest. View the analysis page after submit: This allws a user t view the feedback mdule analysis page after submitting the frm. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and student. View reprts: This allws a user t view feedback mdule reprts. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Add a new feedback: This allws a user t add a new feedback activity t the curse. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher Summary This chapter deals with the different tls fr gathering feedback data frm students. Mdle surveys are frmal and based in thery. Chices are quick and simple fr bth yu and yur students. They can bth prvide useful data abut yur curse and yur students success. Feedbacks can be used t create surveys which can be utilized t gather data abut sme sensitive issues. 292

293 Chapter 17: SCORM & External Tl (LTI) Mdle prvides a number f ways t share the tls and educatinal resurce created in sme ther systems. A teacher can utilize the vides, quizzes and ther activities which are created in standard packages like SCORM, LTI cmpliant systems t be utilized in his Mdle curse. SCORM Packages A SCORM package is a cllectin f files which are packaged accrding t an agreed standard fr learning bjects. The SCORM activity mdule enables SCORM r AICC packages t be upladed as a zip file and added t a curse. Cntent is usually displayed ver several pages, with navigatin between the pages. There are varius ptins fr displaying cntent in a pp-up windw, with a table f cntents, with navigatin buttns etc. SCORM activities generally include questins, with grades being recrded in the gradebk. SCORM activities may be used Fr presenting multimedia cntent and animatins As an assessment tl Nte: Mdle des nt generate SCORM cntent. Mdle presents the cntent in SCORM packages t learners, and saves data frm learner interactins with the SCORM package. Adding SCORM Activity T add a SCORM package t yur curse First methd: Click the 'Turn editing n' buttn at the tp right f the curse page Drag and drp the SCORM package zip file nt the curse sectin where yu'd like it t appear Answer 'Add a SCORM package' t the ppup dialgue asking what yu want t d with the zip file then click the uplad buttn If necessary, edit the title f the file by clicking the pencil icn, r edit ther ptins by clicking the editing icn. 293

294 Figure 16-1 Adding a new SCORM activity Secnd methd: Click the 'Turn editing n' buttn at the tp right f the curse page. Click the 'Add an activity r resurce' link in the sectin yu wish t add yur SCORM package, then in the activity chser, select SCORM package then click the Add buttn (r select 'SCORM package' frm the 'Add an activity' drpdwn menu) In the General Sectin: Enter a name and a descriptin (which may be required r ptinal accrding t the admin settings) In the Package Sectin: 294

295 Either drag and drp a SCORM package zip file int the bx with an arrw r click the Add buttn t pen the File picker menu in rder t chse a file frm yur cmputer r a repsitry. Aut Update Frequency: If yu access yur SCORM package frm a repsitry (such as File system repsitry r Private files) yu can chse t create an alias/shrtcut t it and then set an update frequency t set hw ften Mdle shuld check t see if there is an updated zip. In the Appearance Sectin: Display Package: Chse frm current r new windw. Nte that if yu chse a new windw, students need t ensure pp ups are enabled. Display activity name: Whether r nt t display the activity name abve the SCORM player. Display curse structure n entry page: If this is enabled then the table f cntents f the package will be displayed when the students clicks t access the package. Display attempt status: This preference allws a summary f the users attempts t shw in the curse verview blck in My hme and/r the SCORM entry page. Width*: Stage size width as a css value, either % r pixels. Default is 100% Height*: Stage size height as a css value, either % r pixels. Default is 500 pixels. Optins (Prevented by sme brwsers)*: There is a series f check bxes fr: Allw the windw t be resized ad scrlled, displaying directry links, lcatin bar, menu bar, tlbar and/r status. Student skip cntent structure page*: This setting specifies whether the cntent structure page shuld ever be skipped (nt displayed). If the package cntains nly ne learning bject, the cntent structure page can always be skipped. Disable preview mde*: Preview mde allws a student t brwse an activity befre attempting it. If preview mde is disabled, the preview buttn is hidden. Display curse structure n entry page*: If enabled, the table f cntents is displayed n the SCORM utline page. Display curse structure in player*: Hw the table f cntents is displayed in the SCORM player. Shw Navigatin*: This setting specifies whether t shw r hide the navigatin buttns and their psitin. There are 3 ptins: N - Navigatin buttns are nt shwn Under cntent - Navigatin buttns are shwn belw the SCORM package cntent Flating - Navigatin buttns are shwn flating, with the psitin frm the tp and frm the left determined by the package 295

296 Display attempt status*: This preference allws a summary f the users attempts t shw in the curse verview blck in My hme and/r the SCORM entry page. In the Availability Sectin: Chse here the dates yu wish the SCORM package t be available t students. In the Grade Sectin: Grading methd: The grading methd defines hw the grade fr a single attempt f the activity is determined. There are 4 grading methds: Learning bjects - The number f cmpleted/passed learning bjects Highest grade - The highest scre btained in all passed learning bjects Average grade - The mean f all the scres Sum grade - The sum f all the scres Maximum grade: Nt applicable if Grading Methd is Learning bjects. Usual setting is 100. If yur SCORM's high scre is smething ther than 100, yu shuld adjust this value apprpriately. When grading Methd is ne f the scre settings, then the gradebk grade is package scre divided by this number. In the Attempts Management Sectin: Number f attempts: This setting enables the number f attempts t be restricted. Attempts grading: If multiple attempts are allwed, this setting specifies whether the highest, average (mean), first r last cmpleted attempt is recrded in the gradebk. Frce new attempt: If enabled, each time a SCORM package is accessed will be cunted as a new attempt. Lck after final attempt: If enabled, a student is prevented frm launching the SCORM player after using up all their allcated attempts. In the Cmpatibility Settings Sectin: Frce cmpleted: If enabled, the status f the current attempt is frced t "cmpleted". Aut-cntinue: If enabled, subsequent learning bjects are launched autmatically; therwise the Cntinue buttn must be used. In the Cmmn Mdule Settings: Visible: Check whether t shw/ hide the activity frm the students. ID Number: Prvide an ID number fr the activity if yu want t identify the activity fr the grade calculatin purpse. Click Save and Display t shw up the SCORM activity. 296

297 Figure 16-2 Viewing a SCORM activity Using SCORM Activity Like a Mdle curse, each SCORM package will vary with the mdules used in its cnstructin by the teacher and by the SCORM activity settings established by the teacher. The Inf tab displays the general infrmatin abut the activity. A teacher can access 3 reprt types fr the SCORM activity via the reprts tab: Basic reprt: The basic reprt page shws a table f attempts fr the SCORM activity. If yu have the SCORM activity set up t allw multiple attempts, there may be mre than ne attempt fr sme users. The basic reprt may be dwnladed in ODS, Excel r text frmat. A detailed reprt f each user's attempts may be btained by clicking n the number in the attempts clumn. The track details link prvides infrmatin n specific SCORM values recrded in Mdle by the SCORM bject. Graph reprt: The graph reprt displays graphs f percentage btained against number f participants. Interactins reprt: The interactins reprt shws students' respnses t questins tgether with the crrect answers. Objectives Reprt: The bjectives reprt shws the bjectives data. SCORM Capabilities Delete wn attempts: This allws a user t delete their wn SCORM attempts. This capability is nt set fr any f the default rles. This capability is intended 297

298 fr use by develpers t run ADL tests, as it makes it easier if the student can clear their wn attempts. Delete SCORM attempts: This allws a user t delete SCORM attempts. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Save tracks: This allws a user's SCORM tracks (scres etc.) t be saved. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher and student. Skip verview: This allws a user t skip SCORM/AICC verviews. This capability is allwed fr student s rle nly. View reprts: This allws a user t view SCORM/AICC reprts. This capability is allwed fr Administratr, teacher and nn-editing teacher. View scres: This allws a user t view SCORM/AICC scres. This capability is allwed fr Administratr, teacher and nn-editing teacher and student. Figure 16-3 SCORM activity reprts page 298

299 External Tls (LTI) The external tl is an activity mdule supprting LTI (Learning Tls Interperability). It is similar t SCORM as a standard fr educatinal bjects, but instead f being a package f cntent that is upladed t Mdle, LTI is a way f integrating the functinality prvided by anther system int yur curse. The external tl enables Mdle users t interact with LTI-cmpliant learning resurces and activities n ther web sites. Fr instance, an external tl culd prvide access t a new activity type r learning materials frm a publisher. T create an external tl activity, a tl prvider which supprts LTI (Learning Tls Interperability) is required. A teacher can create an external tl activity r make use f a tl cnfigured by the site administratr. External tl activities differ frm URL resurces in a few ways: External tls are cntext aware i.e. they have access t infrmatin abut the user wh launched the tl, such as institutin, curse and name External tls supprt reading, updating, and deleting grades assciated with the activity instance External tl cnfiguratins create a trust relatinship between yur site and the tl prvider, allwing secure cmmunicatin between them A teacher can add an external tl frm their curse page and an administratr can make an external tl available t all teachers n the site. Adding a new external tl T add a new external tl t yur curse: With the editing turned n, in the sectin yu wish t add yur external tl, click the "Add an activity r resurce" link (r, if nt present, the "Add an activity" drp dwn menu) and chse External tl. This will take yu t the settings page titled "Adding a new external tl". All settings may expanded by clicking the "Expand all" link tp right. If the external tl has nt been cnfigured by the administratr, yu will need t have in advance the crrect cnfiguratin URL, Launch URL, cnsumer key and secret. These shuld have been prvided t yu by the managers f the LTI cmpliant website yu are ging t be cnnecting t. In the General Sectin: 299

300 Activity Name: Prvide the title yu wish the students t see n the curse page. External Tl Type: this is hw Mdle cmmunicates with the tl prvider. If in dubt, leave as default. If yur administratr has made a tl available sitewide, yu will be able t select it here. Otherwise, yu can add an external tl by clicking n the "+" icn besides the field which will pen in a new tab. T add an external tl: Enter the Tp Base URL (Cnfiguratin url), cnsumer key and secret in the respective fields. Click Save changes and it will take yu back t the same page. Launch URL: This is the URL fr cnnecting t site. The Launch URL indicates the web address f the External Tl, and may cntain additinal infrmatin, such as the resurce t shw. Launch cntainer- this is hw the external tl will be displayed. Default -if in dubt; leave as default Embed - the external tl will be embedded in the Mdle curse page with blcks and navigatin bar Embed withut blcks - the external tl will be embedded in the Mdle curse page but withut blcks New Windw - the external tl will pen in a new windw. (A new windw r tab will pen with the External tl and the ld brwser windw cntaining the curse page will nt change.) The fllwing settings are available by clicking ""Shw mre": Activity descriptin - give a shrt descriptin here Display descriptin n curse page - chse t shw the descriptin alng with the activity name Display activity name when launched - have this appear when the student clicks the link. Display activity descriptin when launched - have this appear when the student clicks the link. Secure launch URL If yu want t launch it in a secured manner then mentin the URL with https:// in this field. Cnsumer key -this tells the cnnecting LTI cmpliant site that yur Mdle is allwed t cnnect. The "tl prvider", i.e. the manager f the cnnecting LTI cmpliant site will issue yu with this key. If yu are merely linking t a tl with n secure access r gradebk sharing then yu wn't need a cnsumer key. Shared secret - this is the "passwrd" t cnnect t the tl - the LTI cmpliant site. Custm parameters - mst times yu can leave this blank. The tl prvider might use this t allw yu t display a specific resurce. 300

301 Icn URL - yu can display a different icn frm the default External Tl icn by entering its URL here Secure Icn URL - enter the URL f a different icn here if yur students are accessing Mdle securely via SSL. In the Privacy Sectin: Share launcher's name with the tl: this checkbx means that the student's name will be displayed n the cnnected site. Share launcher's with the tl: this means that the student's will be displayed n the cnnected site Accept grades frm the tl: if this is checked, the cnnecting site will send back grades t Mdle's gradebk. In the Cmmn Mdule Settings: Visible: If yu want t Shw/Hide activity frm the students then yu can chse here. ID Number: Setting an ID number prvides a way f identifying the activity fr grade calculatin purpses. Click "Save and Display" and Mdle will display the resurce frm the external LTI tl within the Mdle site. Figure 16-4 Adding a new External Tl Why use an external tl? Many websites prvide materials and interactive learning exercises different frm and cmplementary t Mdle's wn resurces and activities. The External tl mdule 301

302 ffers a way fr teachers t link t these activities frm within their Mdle curse page and where available t have grades sent back int Mdle. Students nly need t lg in t Mdle; they d nt have t lg in a secnd time t the cnnecting site. External Tl Capabilities: Add external tl: This allws a user t add an External tl activity t the curse. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher Submit a tl t admins fr cnfiguratin: This allws a user t submit an External tl t admins fr cnfiguratin. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Grade external tl activities: This allws a user t grade External tl activities. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. Edit external tl activities: This allws a user t edit External tl activities. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher and nn-editing teacher. View external tl activities: This allws a user t view External tl activities. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager, teacher, nn-editing teacher, student and guest. Add a new external tl activity: This allws a user t add a new external tl activity t the curse. This capability is allwed fr the default rles f manager and teacher. Figure 16-5 Graph builder LTI in Mdle 302

303 List f LTI Apps Yu can find a lt f useful LTI tls cmpliant t Mdle frm the link: Yu may need t cntact the specific vendr t prvide the URL, cnsumer key and secret which can be integrated within yur Mdle. Sme ppular LTI tls are: Yutube, Khan Academy, Chemvantage, Wrdpress, Piazza and many mre. Summary Using an SCORM r external tl can help the teachers t share the functinality prvided by ther systems within the Mdle curse. Teachers can use the quizzes, vides and ther resurces prvided by the ther systems t integrate within the Mdle curse and imprve the student interactin t enhance the learning experience. 303

304 Chapter 18: Grades and Scales Grades are a necessary evil in mdern educatin. They take a cmplex task learning a new subject and reduce it t a single measure. Grades can functin as bth carrt and stick fr mtivating students, and they are the primary measure f success in a curse. Tracking and calculating grades are serius and tedius tasks. Frtunately, Mdle has a great tl t help. The Mdle grades area is a sphisticated tl fr tracking student scres in yur curse. Yu can use it fr scred activities in the classrm, in Mdle and in extracurricular activities. Grades aren t the nly way t give feedback t students. With Mdle s scales, yu can create lists f nnnumeric feedback ptins fr assessing student wrk. Mdle cmes with ne scale by default, Separate and Cnnected ways f knwing, which we ll discuss later in this chapter. Yu can easily create yur wn additinal scales fr feedback ptins that are meaningful t yu and yur students. Grades Interface Yu can access the grades area fr each student in a curse in the curse gradebk, r 'Grader reprt' in Administratin > Curse administratin > Grades. The grader reprt cllects items that have been graded frm the varius parts f Mdle that are assessed, and allws yu t view and change them as well as srt them ut int categries and calculate ttals in varius ways. When yu add an assessed item in a Mdle curse, the gradebk autmatically creates space fr the grades it will prduce and als adds the grades themselves as they are generated, either by the system r by yu. *** Nte that varius default ptins fr the gradebk are set at system level by the administratr and can be marked as being verridable by yu, r fixed. This means that the ptins will nt always be set up the same way fr every user when they see the grader reprt fr the first time. The View Grades page, as shwn in Figure 17-1, cntains several rws: first the curse, then the categry, then the clumns fr each graded activity (fr example: Assignment, Quiz, and Lessn). Any activities settings which were left "uncategrized" will appear in the general categry which is named after the curse by default. There are three ways that the categries can be displayed: Grades nly - withut the categry ttals clumn 304

305 Cllapsed - Categry ttal clumn nly Full view - grades and the aggregates (the ttals clumn fr the categry) Each sectin has a small icn immediately t the right f its name. Clicking this will cycle thrugh these display mdes fr that categry. + Ges t grades nly view, ges t full view and - ges t cllapsed view. Figure 17-1 Viewing Grades Editing Editing anything in the gradebk refers t editing the grades nly and nne f the available peratins bear any relatinship t editing the main curse page i.e. the appearance f yur curse page cannt be influenced by anything yu d in the gradebk. The "Turn editing n" buttn functins separately frm the main curse ne, s editing can be n in the gradebk, but simultaneusly ff when yu switch back t curse view. This is because editing grades and editing the curse page are separate capabilities. Highlighting rws and clumns When yur gradebk starts t grw, it can be hard t keep track f which student and which assignment a cell refers t. Highlighting slves that. Clicking n empty space in the cell that cntains the students name will tggle the highlighting f that entire rw 305

306 Clicking n empty space in the cell at the tp f each clumn will tggle highlighting f the entire clumn. Srting by clumns Yu can srt by any clumn. Click the symbl near the tp f a clumn t srt by that clumn. This will change the symbl t a single dwn arrw. Clicking again will srt lwest-t-highest (ascending), changing the symbl t an up arrw. The arrws will tggle between these tw states until yu click n a different clumn. The student name clumns d nt have the symbl. Clicking n either the first r last name will cause the reprt t srt. Highlighting scres that are either adequate r unacceptable in red and green Turn editing n and click n the edit icn in the cntrls cell at the tp f the clumn. Yu can then (maybe need t click 'shw advanced') see the ptin t enter a 'grade t pass'. Once set, any grades falling abve this will be highlighted in green and any belw will be highlighted in red. *** Nte that the highlighting will nt shw if the Grader reprt is viewed in the editing mde. Hrizntal scrllbar A hrizntal scrllbar enables teachers t scrll grades in the grader reprt. The hrizntal scrllbar is available bth at the bttm and at the tp f the grader reprt. Muse-ver tltips Whenever yu mve yur muse each grade cell in the table displays a tltip indicating the user and grade item t which the grade belngs. Hiding clumns r individual grades In the cntext f the gradebk, hiding refers t whether a student will be able t see that grade r grade item in their user reprt. Yu can have an activity available n the curse page fr which yu wuld nt want the students t knw their grade. Als in reverse - an ffline activity that is hidden in the curse page, but which yu want the students t knw their grade fr. T hide/shw clumns r individual grades just click - "Turn editing On" & then clicking the Gear Icn link will take yu t the cntrl page f that individual activity/ clumn where yu can check the "Hidden" checkbx fr hiding the grades. 306

307 Altering the grades Yu can click "Turn editing n" at the tp right t shw an edit icn next t each grade. Clicking n the icn will bring up the editing screen fr that grade which will allw yu t set the grade, its written feedback and a number f ther attributes. Alternatively, yu can chse "Quick grading" and "Quick feedback" in 'My preferences' t make the reprt appear with editable bxes cntaining each grade, s yu can change many at nce. Set Preferences Yu can set yur persnal preferences fr the grader reprt via 'My preferences'. These settings will apply t all curses fr yu as a teacher. Yu can change them at any time. The Set Preferences page cntains the fllwing settings: Shw calculatins: If enabled, when editing is turned n, a calculatr icn is shwn fr each grade item and categry, with tl tips ver calculated items and a visual indicatr that a clumn is calculated. Shw shw/hide icns: If enabled, when editing is turned n, a shw/hide icn is shwn fr each grade fr cntrlling its visibility t the student. Shw clumn averages: If enabled, the grader reprt will cntain an additinal rw displaying the average (mean) fr each categry and grade item. Shw lcks: If enabled, when editing is turned n, a lck/unlck icn is shwn fr each grade fr cntrlling whether the grade can be autmatically updated by the related activity. Shw user prfile images: Yu can chse t display user prfile pictures fr easy identificatin f students. Shw activity icns: If enabled, activity icns are shwn next t activity names. Shw ranges: If enabled, the grader reprt will cntain an additinal rw displaying the range fr each categry and grade item. Shw grade analysis icn: If the activity mdule supprts it, the grade analysis icn links t a page with mre detailed explanatin f the grade and hw it was btained. Grades selected fr clumn averages: This setting determines whether cells with n grade shuld be included when calculating the average (mean) fr each categry r grade item. Shw number f grades in averages: If enabled, the number f grades used when calculating the average (mean) is displayed in brackets after each average. 307

308 Quick grading: If enabled, when editing is turned n, a text input bx appears fr each grade, allwing many grades t be edited at the same time. Changes are saved and highlighted when the update buttn is clicked. *** Nte that when a grade is edited in the grader reprt, an verridden flag is set, meaning that the grade can n lnger be changed frm within the related activity. Figure 17-2 Setting Grade reprt preferences Shw quick feedback: If enabled, when editing is turned n, a feedback text input bx with a dtted brder appears fr each grade, allwing the feedback fr 308

309 many grades t be edited at the same time. Changes are saved and highlighted when the update buttn is clicked. *** Nte that when feedback is edited in the grader reprt, an verridden flag is set, meaning that the feedback can n lnger be changed frm within the related activity. Students per page: This setting determines the number f students displayed per page in the grader reprt. Shw nly active enrlments: This setting determines, if nly active enrlled users will be visible in gradebk reprt. If enabled suspended users will nt be shwn in gradebk. Enable AJAX: Adds a layer f AJAX functinality t the grader reprt, simplifying and speeding up cmmn peratins. Depends n JavaScript being switched n at the user's brwser level. Grade Categries Grades can be rganized int grade categries. A grade categry has its wn aggregated grade which is calculated frm its grade items. There is n limit t the level f nesting f categries (a categry may belng t anther categry). Hwever, each grade item may belng t nly ne categry. Als, all grade items and categries belng t at least ne, permanent categry: the curse categry. Adding a grade categry T add a grade categry: Select "Categries and items" frm the gradebk drpdwn menu. Click the "Add categry" buttn near the bttm f the page. Give the grade categry a meaningful name. Select the aggregatin methd fr the grades: The aggregatin determines hw grades in a categry are cmbined, such as Mean f grades - The sum f all grades divided by the ttal number f grades Median f grades - The middle grade when grades are arranged in rder f size Lwest grade Highest grade Mde f grades - The grade that ccurs the mst frequently Sum f grades - The sum f all grade values, with scale grades being ignred In the "Categry Ttal" Sectin: Grade Type: There are 4 grade types: 309

310 Nne - N grading pssible Value - A numerical value with a maximum and minimum Scale - An item in a list Text - Feedback nly *** Only value and scale grade types may be aggregated. The grade type fr an activity-based grade item is set n the activity settings page. Scale: This setting determines the scale used when using the scale grade type. Maximum and Minimum Grade: Enter the maximum and minimum grades fr the categry. Yu can als set passing marks fr the categry by clicking the "Shw Mre" link. Select grade categry settings as apprpriate. Advanced settings may be made available by clicking the "Shw Mre" buttn. Click the "Save changes" buttn. Figure 17-3 Setting weights n edit categry page Grade calculatins A grade calculatin is a frmula used t determine grades, based (ptinally) n ther grade items. Calculatins fr the gradebk fllw the pattern f frmulas/functins in ppular spreadsheet prgrams. They start with an equal (=) sign, and use cmmn 310

311 mathematical peratrs and functins t prduce a single numerical utput. This utput is then used as the cmputed value fr the grade item yu are editing. Setting a grade calculatin T set a grade calculatin: Click n Grades in the curse administratin blck Click the 'Categries and items' tab (r select it frm the gradebk drpdwn menu) Click the 'calculatr symbl' (in the 'Actins' clumn, n the categry ttal line) fr the categry yu wish t set a calculatin fr Start with an equal sign (=) Chse a functin; Example: =sum() Plug in yur ID numbers enclsed in duble square brackets, fr example =sum([[item1]][[item2]][[item3]]) Separate each ID number with a cmma, fr example =sum([[item1]],[[item2]],[[item3]]) Click the "Save Changes" buttn. Assigning ID numbers Yu can include the values f ther grade items by using their ID number as references in yur frmulas. The ID number is surrunded by duble square brackets, fr example if yu have a grade item with Quiz.3 as ID number, yu will refer t this item as [[Quiz.3]] in yur calculatin. Belw the calculatin field is a list f yur curse with its grade categries and grade items. Next t each item r categry's ttal is displayed the ID number yu can use in yur calculatin (already surrunded with duble square brackets). Hwever, since the ID number is ptinal, sme items may nt yet have ne. These items withut an ID number have instead a frm field which lets yu enter an ID number directly. As sn as yu have assigned the ID numbers yu need, yu can click the "Add ID numbers" buttn, and the page will relad and shw yu the same list with the ID numbers yu have just assigned. Calculatin functins Every calculatin must start with an equal sign (=). Fllwing is a list f the functins supprted by the calculatin. The cmma (,) character is used t separate arguments 311

312 within functin brackets. The cmma can als be used t separate different functins. (The separatr character culd be a semicln (;) in ther languages, see belw). average([[item1]], [[item2]]...): Returns the average f a sample max([[item1]], [[item2]]...): Returns the maximum value in a list f arguments min([[item1]], [[item2]]...): Returns the minimum value in a list f arguments md(dividend, divisr): Calculates the remainder f a divisin pi(): Returns the value f the number Pi pwer(base, pwer): Raises a number t the pwer f anther rund(number, cunt): Runds a number t a predefined accuracy flr(number): Maps a real number t the largest previus integer ceil(number): Maps a real number t the smallest fllwing integer sum([[item1]], [[item2]]...): Returns the sum f all arguments an asterisk (*) gives the prduct f tw items: [[item1]]*[[item2]] Grade letters Grade letters, als called letter grades, are symbls used t represent a range f grades. Yu may chse letters (e.g., A, B, C, D, E) r wrds (e.g., Belw Pass, Pass, Merit, Distinctin). T set yur grade letter scale Grade letters are set initially at site level. T use different grade letters in a particular curse: Fllw the grades link in the curse administratin blck. Select Letters frm the frm the gradebk drpdwn menu. Click the edit tab in the middle f the page. Check the verride site defaults bx. Change grade letters and/r bundaries as required. (Yu may wish t use wrds, fr example Belw Pass, Pass, Merit, Distinctin, rather than letters.) Scrll t the bttm f the page and click the "Save changes" buttn. Displaying letter grades T change particular grade items, categry and curse summaries (called aggregatins) in the grader reprt and user reprts t display letter grades: Fllw the grades link in the curse administratin blck. Select "Categries and items" frm the gradebk drpdwn menu. Click the edit icn fr Categry ttal r Curse ttal. Frm the Grade display type menu, select letter. Click the "Save changes" buttn at the bttm f the page. 312

313 Repeat this fr any ther ttals that yu want displayed as letters. Alternatively, t display ALL grades as letter grades: Hw t use Mdle 2.7 Fllw the grades link in the curse administratin blck. Select "Curse settings" frm the gradebk drpdwn menu. Frm the Grade display type menu, select letter. Click the "Save changes" buttn. Student Grade View Students can check their grades by clicking the Grades link in their Administratin blck. They can see nly their wn grades, nt the ther students, as shwn in Figure Figure 17-4 Viewing grades as student Exprt Grades (Backing up yur gradebk) We recmmend that yu regularly dwnlad yur gradebk fr backup. Yur system administratr shuld be backing up the entire server n a regular basis, but yu can never be t certain. After all, yur students will cmplain t yu if they lse their grades, nt t the system administratr. T dwnlad yur gradebk: Navigate t Administratin > Grade Administratin > Exprt and chse the frmat in which yu want t exprt the gradebk. 313

314 Select the preferences fr exprting the grades like items t be included and including feedback in exprt etc. and click Submit. It will take yu t the preview page where yu can take a preview f the exprted file. Click Dwnlad t dwnlad the gradebk t yur cmputer. If yu fllw the backup prcedure n a regular basis, yu will have a recrd f student grades if there is a catastrphic lss f data n the server. Yu can always recver students grades up t that pint in the semester if yu have a regular backup. Imprt Grades Grades may be imprted as a CSV r XML file. The imprt file frmat is the same as the crrespnding exprt frmat. T imprt grades int the gradebk: Navigate t Administratin > Grade Administratin > Imprt & Select yur chsen imprt frmat frm the gradebk drpdwn menu. Brwse and uplad yur previusly saved file. Set ptins as required. Click the "Uplad grades" buttn Scales Scales are a way f evaluating r rating a students' perfrmance. Administratrs can create standard scales which are available acrss the site, and teachers can create custm scales just fr their wn curse. Scales may be used in Frums, Glssaries and Assignments fr rating and/r grading a student's activity. Creating a new scale T create a scale fr yur curse: Click the "Add a new scale" buttn in Curse administratin > Grades > Scales. On the next page give yur scale a name in the Name bx that will identify it amng ther scales. 'Standard' scale is a scale which can be applied t every curse in Mdle. Only thse with site permissins such as administratrs can make a new scale 'standard'. A regular teacher can nly create a scale fr their wn curse. 314

315 In the Scale bx, create yur scale. Each item in the scale shuld be separated by a cmma. Yu can use as many ptins here as yu require. Yu must rder the cmma separated elements in increasing rder f value. Fr example, an A,B,C,D scale must be entered as D,C,B,A. Write a detailed descriptin in the Descriptin bx t remind yu (r ther teachers) f hw the scale is t be used. Save the changes. Figure 17-5 Creating a new scale Using scales Yu can select a scale by ging t the Edit settings screen f any activity, fr example an assignment, scrlling t 'Grade' and then selecting 'Scale' frm the Type drpdwn: Which will then pen up the 'Scale' drpdwn, allwing yu t chse the scale yu wish t use. Creative Grade Uses The gradebk can be as useful in a business cntext as it is in traditinal educatin. Mst business training tends t be shrter and mre fcused than traditinal educatin, but scres are still imprtant. Usually, managers and trainers are nly interested in exceptinal/pass/fail r ther simple scales fr bth activities and final scres. But trainees will still want t be able t track their prgress and see hw they are perfrming. 315

316 Gradebk scres can als be used t track prgress against cmpetency mdels. Try creating a categry fr each cmpetency and track student scres n activities designed t measure the students perfrmance against the perfrmance standard. Figure 18-6 Viewing Scales Scale Practices Scales give yu the ability t prvide qualitative, rather than quantitative, feedback, but they require careful wrding. When creating scales, ensure that yur wrd chices are meaningful t the students and prvide infrmatin they can use t imprve their perfrmance in the future. Summary This chapter deals with the mst imprtant aspect f nline learning envirnment i.e. grading. Mdle has gt sphisticated grading tls thrugh which yu can grade the wrk f students. In the next chapter, we will take a glance n the administratin part f the Mdle site. 316

317 Chapter 19: Mdle Administratin If yu are the administratr fr yur Mdle site, there are a lt f ptins at yur fingertips. Mst f the time, the default settings that cme with yur Mdle installatin will wrk well. But there are a lt f ptins fr custmizatin and perfrmance that can make yur versin f Mdle wrk exactly as yu d like. The number f administratin settings has increased a lt in recent versins f Mdle and it can take a while t understand it all. We can nly prvide a brief mentin f each setting in this bk; hwever, the Mdle Dcs fr this page links at the bttm f each page in Mdle prvide access t further infrmatin. This chapter is rganized int sectins that are the same as the links in the Site Administratin blck, which yu ll find n yur Mdle frnt page when yu lg in as an administratr. We ll finish with a sectin n Mdle supprt, just in case! *** A gd way t learn abut Mdle administratin is t dwnlad and install a Mdle package n yur wn cmputer. Create sme test user accunts and assign them the rles f student and teacher. Try lgging in as a student r a teacher in a different brwser frm the ne displaying yu lgged in as an administratr. Yu can change an administratin setting, and then see hw it affects students r teachers by refreshing the page (r lgging ut, then lgging in again fr rle changes). Ntificatins In the middle f the Ntificatins page yu'll find a link "Check fr Available updates" clicking which will give yu the updates available fr yur Mdle cre and plugins installed n yur Mdle site. It will als warn yu abut yur server settings which are nt recmmended, if any. If yu haven't setup crn task then sme f yur Mdle functins may nt wrk n scheduled basis like sending cpies f new frum psts. The crn is a script that is run regularly and checks whether certain tasks need perfrming. S, it is imprtant t setup the crn jb fr yur site. And, in the bttm f the page, there is a buttn which will shw that "yur site is nt registered." Registering yur site with Mdle.rg is recmmended in rder t receive security alert ntificatins, t cntribute Mdle usage statistics (http://mdle.net/stats/) and t share yur curses n Mdle.net, if yu want t. 317

318 *** Yu can als find a lt f curses shared by the ther Mdle users n Mdle.net fr getting started with the curses. Belw the Mdle Registratin buttn is yur Mdle versin number. If yu are asking any questins n Mdle Cmmunity frums r else if yu add a bug reprt t the Mdle tracker (http://tracker.mdle.rg/), yu shuld state yur Mdle versin number. Figure 19-1 Site Ntificatins 318

319 Registratins The registratins link will take yu t a frm where yu have t fill the details abut yur Mdle site and sme statistics are chsen by default like Site URL, Mdle Versin, Number f curses etc. Yu can als pt ut frm the list f registered sites by chsing "Please d nt publish this site". Advanced Features This link cntains a lt f advanced features which are enabled by the Site Administratr as per the plicies adpted fr the institutins. It cntains features like Badges, Cnditinal Access, and Cmpletin Tracking etc. We will g thrugh the links in Advanced Features page ne by ne: Enable Outcmes: Outcmes are specific descriptins f what a student has demnstrated and understd at the cmpletin f an activity r curse. Each utcme is rated by sme srt f scale. Other terms fr utcmes are Cmpetencies and Gals. In simple terms utcmes are similar t sub cmpnents f a grade. A grade is an assessment f verall perfrmance that may include tests, participatin, attendance and prjects. Outcmes assess specific levels f knwledge thrugh a series f statements, which maybe cded with numbers r letters. Thus an verall grade can be given fr a curse, alng with statements abut specific cmpetencies in the frm f utcmes. Enable Cmments: Enabling Cmments enables users t add cmments t glssary, database activities and blg entries. The cmments interface uses AJAX s that cmments are added instantly withut needing a page refresh. Enable Tags functinality: Tags allws students and teachers t describe their interests in a way that is easy fr peple with similar interests t find them. The user's prfile has a place t enter interests, which will create r add the user t an existing tag. Tag pages can be viewed and blg psts can be tagged. Enable Ntes: The Ntes feature is a way t attach infrmatin abut a user by anther user. Fr example, a teacher might attach a nte t a specific student abut the hbbies and interests that seems t engage that student. Enable Prtflis: Prtflis in Mdle make it easy fr a student t exprt their wrk t an external prtfli. Fr example, student wrk might include frum psts r assignment submissins that they believe demnstrates their knwledge. Enable Web Services: Web services enable ther systems t lgin t Mdle and perfrm peratins. Mdle cmes with a built-in web service designed fr mbile applicatins. It is required t run the fficial Mbile app. Enable it nly if yu want peple t use the fficial app r if a third party app explicitly requires it. 319

320 Figure 19-2 Enabling/Disabling Advanced features Enable Messaging System: "Messaging" refers bth t autmatic alerts frm Mdle abut new frum psts, assignment submissin ntificatins etc., and als t cnversatins using the instant messaging feature. Hide Read Ntificatins: This ptin will Hide read ntificatins f events like frum psts when viewing messaging histry. Delete Read Ntificatins: Read ntificatins can be deleted t save space. Yu can chse the time delay fr deleting the read ntificatins. Ntificatin verride: This ptin allws users t have message ntificatins sent t an address ther than the address in their prfile. Enable Statistics: If yu chse 'yes' here, Mdle's crnjb will prcess the lgs and gather sme statistics. If statistics are enabled fr the site, graphs and tables f user activity may be generated. The statistics graphs and tables shw hw many hits there have been n varius parts f yur site during varius time frames. They d nt shw hw many distinct users there have been. They are prcessed daily at a time yu specify. Enable RSS Feeds: RSS (really simple syndicatin) feeds in Mdle enable peple t stay up t date with frum psts, glssary entries and ther events 320

321 within Mdle. Yu can als use a Remte RSS feeds blck which enables RSS feeds (either frm within Mdle r frm an external site) t be displayed n pages in Mdle. Enable Blgs: Blgs are a frm f nline jurnal used by millins f peple arund the wrld fr self-expressin and cmmunicating with family and friends. Yu can enable blgs fr cmplete site using this ptin. Netwrking: The Mdle netwrk feature allws a Mdle administratr t establish a link with anther Mdle r a Mahara site and t share sme resurces with the users f that Mdle. Users g frm the first Mdle t the linked site via the Netwrk server s blck. Enable Cmpletin Tracking: Activity cmpletin allws the teacher t set cmpletin criteria in a specific activity's settings. A check (tick) appears against the activity when the student meets this criterin. The criterin might be viewing, receiving a certain scre r a student marking it as cmplete. *** If Cmpletin tracking has been enabled, the teacher will see the Activity cmpletin grup in their curse settings. Hwever, it is pssible t track activity cmpletin withut using the Curse cmpletin feature. It is als pssible t use this feature with the Cnditinal activities feature. These 3 features can be used separately r in varius cmbinatins in an activity. Default Cmpletin Tracking: The default setting fr cmpletin tracking when creating new activities. Enable Cnditinal Access: Cnditinal activities enable teachers t restrict the availability f any activity r even a curse sectin (in Mdle 2.3 nwards) accrding t certain cnditins such as dates, grade btained, r activity cmpletin. When it is enabled by the administratr, a "Restrict access" setting appears in the settings f activities r resurces and als when editing a curse sectin. Enable Plagiarism Plugins: Plagiarism is when a student submits cntent they have cpied and the real authr was nt given credit fr the wrds. Plagiarism preventin detects when this frm f cheating r academic dishnesty has happened. Mdle desn't cme with any pre-installed plagiarism preventin methds - they need t be added by a site administratr. Enable Badges: Badges are a gd way f celebrating achievement and shwing prgress. Badges may be awarded based n a variety f chsen criteria and are fully cmpatible with Mzilla Open Badges. Badges created in Mdle may be displayed n a user's prfile r pushed t their Open Badges backpack and public badge cllectins in their backpack will display in their Mdle prfile. 321

322 Users User management can be ne f the mst time-cnsuming jbs fr an administratr. As yur system grws, the number f users wh lse their passwrd r have difficulty creating a new accunt grws as well. Frtunately, there are a few tls t help make the jb f user management easier. Accunts Each user n yur Mdle site has an accunt that cntains prfile infrmatin, frum psts, blg entries, and activity reprts. Brwse list f users: The Brwse list f users page prvides a list f all user accunts. Yu can als add a new user using the link n the tp f the page "Add a new user". Yu can als filter the users using the advanced filter tls n the tp f the page. If yu are using -based self-registratin and a user has a prblem cnfirming his accunt, yu can cnfirm his accunt fr him by clicking the cnfirm link ppsite his name. Yu can als search fr a particular user, using her name r address as the search term, and then edit her prfile. Yu will need t d s in rder t reset user passwrds if users are unable t lg in. Anther reasn fr editing a user s prfile is t disable her address if yu are receiving lts f undelivered mail! *** If yu want t temprarily disable an accunt (i.e., prevent a user frm lgging in t Mdle), yu can d s by clicking the "Eye icn" in the Edit clumn t suspend the user. Bulk User Actins: The bulk user actins feature enables administratrs t select users by creating a filter and then perfrm any f the fllwing actins: Cnfirm user accunts created thrugh -based self-registratin which are nt yet cnfirmed by the user Send a message (requires Messaging t be enabled) Delete user accunts Display a list f users n a page Dwnlad user data in text, ODS r Excel file frmat Frce users t change their passwrds Add users t a chrt Add a new user: This link will take yu directly t add a new user page where yu can prvide the details fr the user like Name, , Cuntry, etc. Yu can chse t frce change the passwrd n first lgin. 322

323 User prfile fields: Yu can create new user prfile categries and fields which may be a menu f chices, text area, text input r a checkbx and may be required r nt. New prfile fields will appear n each user s prfile page and can be displayed n Signup page als. Chrts: Chrts are site-wide r categry-wide grups. Chrts enable all members f a chrt t be enrlled in a curse in ne actin, either manually r synchrnized autmatically. Uplad Users: The Uplad users page allws yu t imprt a list f users via a text file. Mdle creates an accunt fr each user and, if yu want, can als enrll students in curses and arrange them in grups. The user data text file must fllw a certain frmat, as described in the uplad users help file. There are many rbust ptins fr uplading infrmatin (fields assciated with a user) with this methd: frm enrlling users in multiple curses with curse specific rles t updating user infrmatin in the User prfile t deleting users frm the site. Rather than uplading the text file, it can als be simply dragged frm the desktp and drpped int the uplad area. The frmat f the file shuld be as fllws: Each line f the file cntains ne recrd Each recrd is a series f data separated by cmmas (r ther delimiters) The first recrd cntains a list f fieldnames defining the frmat f the rest f the file Required fieldnames are username, passwrd, firstname, lastname, Uplad User Pictures: Site Administratr can als uplad the user pictures in bulk t the Mdle site. Yu need t create a zip file cntaining the image files. The names f the files shuld be named in username.extensin frmat. Permissins User Plicies: This page will enable yu t define plicies fr the default users. The available ptins are: Rle fr Visitrs: Users wh are nt lgged in t the site will be treated as if they have this rle granted t them at the site cntext. The default rle is Guest. Rle fr Guest: This rle is autmatically assigned t the guest user. Default Rle fr all users: All lgged in users will be given the capabilities f the rle yu specify here, at the site level; in ADDITION t any ther rles they may have been given. 'Creatrs' rle in new curses: If the user des nt already have the permissin t manage the new curse, the user is autmatically enrlled using this rle. 323

324 'Restrers' rle in curses: If the user des nt already have the permissin t manage the newly restred curse, the user is autmatically assigned this rle and enrlled if necessary. Aut-lgin guests: Shuld visitrs be lgged in as guests autmatically when entering curses with guest access? Hide user fields: Select which user infrmatin fields yu wish t hide frm ther users ther than curse teachers/admins. Shw user identity: When selecting r searching fr users, and when displaying lists f users, these fields may be shwn in additin t their full name. Full name frmat: This defines hw names are shwn when they are displayed in full. Maximum users per page: Maximum number f users displayed within user selectr in curse, grup, chrt, webservice etc. Enable Gravatar: When enabled Mdle will attempt t fetch a user prfile picture frm Gravatar if the user has nt upladed an image. Site Administratrs: Users may be assigned the rle f site administratr by using this setting. Select the user whm yu wish t assign the site administratr rle and click Add in the middle f the page. Figure 19-3 Define Rles *** Nte: The primary administratr (created when the site was created) cannt be remved frm the site administratr rle. 324

325 Hw t use Mdle 2.7 Define Rles: This is the place t add custm rles r mdify existing rles. The "Manage rles" tab, allws the system administratr t edit any ne f ver 350 different capabilities assciated with any rle. The "Allw rle assignments", "Allw rle verrides" and "Allw rle switches" cntain a matrix which give the ability fr a specific rle t wrk with ther specific rles. Assign System Rles: In Mdle, apart frm the site administratr, users d nt nrmally have a glbal, site-wide rle. Yu may have a rle f teacher in sme curse whereas yu can als be a student in sme ther curse. By assigning a rle t a user in a cntext, yu are granting them the permissins cntained in that rle, fr the current cntext and all lwer cntexts. By default there are tw rles t chse frm: Manager and Curse Creatr. Check System Permissins: T check the permissins f a particular user in System Cntext yu can use this page. It will display the cmplete list f capabilities f the user in the System cntext. Capability Overview: This reprt shws, fr a particular capability, what permissin that capability has in the definitin f every rle (r a selectin f rles), and everywhere in the site where that capability is verridden. Unsupprted Rle Assignments: Unsupprted rle assignments are rle assignments in cntexts that make n sense fr that rle, such as the curse creatr rle in the curse r activity cntext, r the teacher rle in the user cntext. Figure 19-4 Rle Assignments Curses Yu, as the administratr, tgether with any clleagues yu have assigned as curse creatrs, are respnsible fr adding curses t Mdle. 325

326 Manage Curse and Categries: Curse categries rganize curses fr all Mdle site participants. The default curse categry n a new Mdle site is "Miscellaneus". Althugh yu are certainly free t put all yur classes in the miscellaneus categry, yur students will find it easier t find their classes if they are rganized in descriptive categries. The list f curses within a categry by default shws the teachers and the summary f each curse. The page is having 3 different view ptins: Curse Categries and curses: All categries are shwn n the left side and the curses within the selected categry are shwn n the right side. Curse Categries: Display nly the categries within the Mdle site. Curses: Display the curses within a particular categry which can be chsen frm a drp dwn menu n the tp right crner. Add a categry: Mst peple rganize their curses by department and cllege r by tpic. Be sure t test the rganizatinal scheme with a few users befre entering a large number f curses, t save time in mving them later. Yu can add a new categry by: G t Administratin > Site administratin > Curses > Add a categry Cmplete the details required and click 'Create categry.' ***Alternatively, yu can g t Administratin>Site administratin>curses>manage curses and categries and click the link 'Create new categry'. Figure 19-5 Curse and categry management 326

327 Yu nw have a new curse categry, which yu can mve up r dwn r int an existing categry t create a subcategry. Once yu set up a few curse categries, yu are ready t create a curse. Restre Curse: A curse backup file (.mbz) may be restred frm within any existing curse fr which yu have permissin. During the restre prcess, yu will be given the ptin t restre as a new curse r int an existing curse. *** If yur new curse has fewer sectins than the curse yu are restring, the extra sectins will appear as "rphaned activities". Increase the number f sectins in the new curse t make them visible. Curse Default Settings: Yu can enter the default settings fr the new curses like the frmat f the curse, n. f sectins, curse layut, news items t be displayed etc. Curse Request: By default a regular teacher can't add a new curse. This page will allw any authenticated user n the site t request a curse t be created. Yu can define the default categry fr curse requests and curse request ntificatin. Backups: General Backup Defaults: A curse can be saved with sme r all f its parts by using the curse backup. On this page yu can define the default settings fr the items which will be included in the backup f the curse like Users, Activities, Blcks, Filter s etc. General Imprt defaults: On this page yu can prvide the number f curses that are listed during the first step f the imprt prcess. Autmated Backup setup: Uplad Curses: Yu can uplad multiple curses via text file. In additin t creating new curses, this functinality may als be used t update r delete curses, r imprt cntent frm anther curse. The frmat f the file shuld be as fllws: Each line f the file cntains ne recrd Each recrd is a series f data separated by cmmas (r ther delimiters) The first recrd cntains a list f fieldnames defining the frmat f the rest f the file Required fieldnames are shrtname, fullname, and categry Grades General Settings: Here yu can set the general grades settings which will be applicable sitewide. Yu can define the rles t be graded, the reprt available 327

328 n the user prfile page, navigatin methd, maximum grade pints and the default grade pints fr an activity. Grade Categry Settings: This page enables yu t chse which ptins appear fr teachers when adding/editing a grade categry in their curse gradebk, and their default values. There are 2 check bxes next t mst features n this page. The "Frce" check bx eliminates any ptins the teacher will see. Fr example, if yu check the Frced checkbx besides the Aggregatin drpdwn, then the teacher will nly see and are able t use the "mean f all grades" as an aggregatin. The "Advanced" checkbx will hide the specific feature until the "Shw advanced" buttn is used by the teacher. This will reduce initial menu chices fr teachers but allw them t see them if they wish. Grade Item Settings: Grade item settings are the varius settings that the administratr is able t edit fr all gradebks used by teachers. These settings will change what items are displayed fr each grade. Let's suppse that yu want the grades t be displayed n the frm f Letters (t represent a range f percentages) t the students then yu have t set the grade display type ptin t letters s that the actual grades entered by the teachers will be displayed as letters t the students. Scales: Scales are a way f evaluating r rating a students' perfrmance. Administratrs can create standard scales which are available acrss the site, and teachers can create custm scales just fr their wn curse. We have discussed abut Scales in chapter 17. Letters: TO define the range f percentage in the frm f letters yu can define the letters n this page. Mdle will prvide yu with sme default letter grades. Yu can custmize the same by clicking Edit Letter Grades anytime. Reprt Settings: Grader Reprt: Here yu can define the default preferences fr the Grader reprt t be displayed sitewide t all teachers. Yu can define hw many students t be displayed n a page, quick grading, quick feedback, AJAX t be enabled by default r nt, etc. Hwever, teachers can still be able t change the default settings by using the "My Reprt Preferences" link. Overview Reprt: The verview reprt lists all the curses a student is enrlled in tgether with the ttal grade fr each curse. Yu can define whether t Shw the rank f the students in relatin t the rest f the class fr each grade item and whether ttals which cntain hidden grade items are shwn t students r replaced with a hyphen symbl. User Reprt: The user reprt shws the currently lgged in user's grades in the current curse. It includes: 1. A breakdwn f the grades fr each assessment (grade item) in the curse. 2. The ptinal teacher-given feedback fr each grade. 3. The verall grade fr the curse (called curse ttal). 328

329 *** Teachers can chse whether t shw r hide rank and percentages in the Gradebk curse settings. Badges Badge Settings: Here yu can set the name and address f the badge issuer. Yu may set the name f the institutin in this field as this name will be displayed while viewing the badges. Yu can als set the cnnectin t the external backpacks like Mzilla's Open Badges. *** Yu can als enable the curse badges n this page which allws the teachers t create and award badges. Manage Badges: On this page yu can manage the Site Badges. Site badges can nly be awarded t users fr site-related activities. These include cmpleting a set f curses r parts f user prfiles. Site badges can als be issued manually by ne user t anther. Badges fr curse-related activities must be created at the curse level. Curse badges can be fund under Curse Administratin > Badges. Yu will find a link n this page t "Add a new Badge" t add a new badge t the Site badges. Add a new badge: Yu can add a new site wide badge using this link. Yu have t enter the details like the name and descriptin f the badge alng with the badge image. Yu have t enter the Issuer details n this page like the Name and address in the Issuer Sectin. Yu may als enter the expiry date fr the badges awarded by yur institutin. Optinally, badges can expire n a specific date, r the date can be calculated based n the date when the badge was issued t a user. Lcatin Lcatin Settings: The lcatin settings page includes the fllwing ptins: Default TimeZne: This sets the default time zne fr date display. This can be verridden by a user s prfile setting unless the default time zne is frced. 329

330 Default Cuntry: Select yur cuntry s that it appears by default n the new accunt page. IP Address Lkup: By default Mdle uses the free nline NetGe (The Internet Gegraphic Database) server t lkup lcatin f IP addresses, which is nt maintained anymre. It is recmmended t install lcal cpy f free GeLite City database frm MaxMind. IP address lcatin is displayed n simple map r using Ggle Maps. Update Timeznes: This page will search fr new infrmatin abut wrld timeznes (including daylight savings time rules) and update yur lcal database with this infrmatin. Language One f Mdle s many strengths is its language-handling capabilities. As we mentined in Chapter 2, yu can prvide users with a chice f language r frce a language in a particular curse. Even if yu want yur site in English nly, yu may well find the language editing facility useful fr making changes t the standard text in Mdle. Language Settings: The language settings page includes the fllwing ptins: Default language: This sets the default language fr the site. The setting can be verridden by users using the language menu, r the setting in their persnal prfile. *** If a preferred language is set in a user s brwser, then this will verride the default site language. Display language menu: This sets whether the language menu is displayed n the lgin page and the frnt page. If it is turned ff, the nly places where a user can change the language setting are in her user prfile r in the curse settings if she is a teacher. Languages n the language menu: If yu want t limit the number f languages students and teachers can select frm, enter a reduced list here. Cache language menu: If enabled, the list f available translatins is cached. Cache all language strings: Caches all the language strings int cmpiled files in the data directry. Sitewide lcale: It's generally best t leave this setting empty, as it's set thrugh each language pack. Excel encding: Leave as default (Unicde) unless yu have a particular reasn fr wanting Latin encding. 330

331 Language Custmizatin: The language editing interface enables yu t easily change any wrd r phrase used n the site. Fr example, yu may want t change the wrd Curse t Unit. Figure 19-6 Editing wrd r phrases 331

332 T change a wrd r phrase: G t the Administratin > Site administratin > Language> Language custmizatin page. Pick the language t custmize frm the pull dwn list. Click n the "Open language pack fr editing" buttn. This may take sme time t prcess. Once the language pack has laded, click n the "Cntinue" buttn. Click r Ctrl+Click t select the files in the "Shw strings f these cmpnents" list. Ntice that the files are gruped. Fr example, yu will find the lessn strings under "md" and mdle.php under "cre". After selecting the file(s), it is pssible t use the "Only strings cntaining" filter alng with ther filters. Fr example, t lk at nly the string text that has the wrd "teacher" the file(s) yu selected. Click n "Shw strings". Make yur changes in the apprpriate "Lcal custmizatin" bx. Click n "Apply changes and cntinue editing" if yu want t use anther filter r edit ther file(s). Click n "Save changes t the language pack" t save all f the changes yu have made. Language Packs: At the time f this writing, ver 100 language packs are available fr yu t install n yur Mdle site. Simply select the languages yu require frm the list f available language packs and click the Install selected language pack buttn. *** All language packs, apart frm English, are stred in the mdledata/lang flder. Plugins As mentined in the beginning f this bk, Mdle is an acrnym fr Mdular Object Oriented Develpmental Learning Envirnment. It has a mdular design which can be extended by using the Plugins designed by the cmmunity members. Yu can extend the functinality f yur Mdle site by chsing Plugins frm the large cllectin f plugins n Mdle Cmmunity site. Install Plugin In Mdle 2.7 yu can install the plugins right within the Mdle site frm yur brwser either directly frm the Mdle plugins directry r by uplading a ZIP file. N 332

333 need t install plugins thrugh yur FTP interface. Alternatively, an add-n cde may be deplyed manually at the server. *** The web server prcess has t have write access t the plugin type flder where the new add-n is t be installed in rder t use either f these methds. T install a plugin frm the Mdle plugins directry t yur Mdle site: G t Administratin > Site administratin > Plugins > Install plugins. Click the buttn 'Install plugins frm Mdle plugins directry'. Search fr a plugin with an Install buttn, click the Install buttn then click Cntinue. Check that yu btain a 'Validatin passed!' message, and then click the buttn 'Install plugin'. Plugins Overview The Plugins verview page in Administratin > Site Administratin > Plugins > Plugins verview lists all installed plugins, tgether with the versin number, release, availability (enabled r disabled) and settings link (if applicable). Figure 19-7 Installing plugins A 'Check fr available updates' buttn enables admins t quickly check fr any updates available fr plugins installed n the site (frm the plugins directry). Any updates 333

334 available are highlighted, with further infrmatin and a dwnlad link in the ntes clumn ppsite the plugin. Activity Mdules The activities page, as shwn in Figure 19-8, enables yu t manage Mdle s activity mdules. The Hide/Shw clumn allws selected mdules t be hidden, s they d nt appear in any curse Add an activity drp-dwn menu and cannt be used in any curse. T hide a mdule, click the eye icn s that it changes t a clsed eye. Fr varius reasns, few mdules are hidden by default. Fr example, the Assignment 2.2 and Feedback mdules are included in Mdle fr histrical reasns but kept as disabled by default. Figure 19-8 Managing activities 334

335 The activities page als lists hw many activities fr each mdule there are n yur Mdle site. If yu click n a number, the list f curses cntaining that activity will be displayed. Apart frm the basic standard mdules, any mdule can be deleted using the link in the Delete clumn. There is n reasn fr standard mdules t be deleted. Hwever, nnstandard mdules may need t be deleted befre upgrading. *** T delete a mdule cmpletely, in additin t deleting it n the activities page, yu als need t remve/delete the actual mdule flder frm the mdle/md flder. Otherwise, Mdle will reinstall it next time yu access the site administratin. This als applies t blcks. Many f the mdules have additinal settings, which can be accessed via the links in the Settings clumn. Settings yu may want t change include: Assignment: Yu can set the default feedback plugin, submissin statement and varius ther default assignment settings. Bk: Here yu can define the available ptins fr chapter frmatting and the default ptin fr chapter frmatting. Chat: By default the chat methd is Ajax which can be changed t Nrmal methd r Chat Server daemn. Ajax methd wrks everywhere but if many peple are using chat simultaneusly then it can put a large lad n the server. On this page yu can define the settings fr the chat methd yu have chsen. Database, Frum & Glssary: If yu have enabled RSS acrss the site (in the Server > RSS sectin f the Site Administratin blck), yu will als need t enable RSS in the Database, Frum, and Glssary mdules. Yu can als set the default settings fr Frum and Glssary activities. IMS Cntent Package: IMS cntent package settings page allws yu t set whether the descriptin fr the activity is required r nt and hw many packages shuld be archived. Label: Label mdule settings page allws yu t set whether Mdle shuld ffer t create a label when media files are dragged & drpped nt a curse and the resized height and width f the image. Lessn: Yu can define the slideshw and ppup media settings and the actin which has t be taken after a crrect answer. External Tl (LTI): Yu can add external tls prviders (LTI prviders) frm this page. We have discussed abut external tls in Chapter 16. Page: Yu can define the available display ptins fr the page resurce. By default nly pen is selected. Yu can als display a page resurce in a ppup windw. 335

336 Quiz: Yu can define the default values that are used in the settings frm when yu create a new quiz. Yu can simplify the Add a new quiz page by selecting a number f ptins t be hidden frm teachers by default and nly displayed when teachers click the Shw Mre buttn. File: Yu can define the available display ptins and the default values available t the teacher while adding a file resurce. SCORM: SCORM settings page will allws yu t define the default settings like whether t display the curse structure n entry page, the directry links, lcatin bar, menu bar etc. Yu can als define the grading settings fr the SCORM activity packages. URL: This page allws yu t define the available display ptins fr URL resurce and the ppup height /width. Wrkshp: Wrkshp settings page allws yu t default grade settings fr submissin and assessment alng with the maximum attachment size and grading strategy etc. Admin Tls Yu can uninstall the default available admin tls frm the manage admin tls link. The page will display a table cntaining the name f the tl alng with the versin number and a link t uninstall it. Authenticatin One f the first things yu need t cnsider when setting up yur Mdle site is user authenticatin, i.e., enabling peple t lg in t yur Mdle site. In Chapter 2, we cvered hw t create a user accunt using -based selfregistratin. Yu created the accunt and Mdle sent yu an with a link t cnfirm yur address. While this is an effective and efficient way t create new accunts, particularly fr smaller sites, Mdle prvides a number f ther authenticatin methds as well. If yu are in a university envirnment and have access t a university r directry server, yu can tell Mdle t use them t authenticate new user accunts instead. External servers prevent users frm creating multiple accunts and prevent peple frm utside yur rganizatin accessing yur server when they shuldn t. Authenticatin methds (als knwn as authenticatin plug-ins) include: Manual accunts: This methd requires the administratr t manually create all user accunts. It may be used tgether with the uplad users facility -based self-registratin: With this methd, users can create their wn accunts. They then receive an at the address they specified in their accunt prfile t cnfirm their accunt. 336

337 External database: This methd uses an external database t check whether a given username and passwrd are valid. Yu can chse whether certain Mdle user prfile fields are filled with infrmatin frm the external database. FirstClass/POP/IMAP/LDAP/NNTP server: These methds use an external server t check whether a given username and passwrd are valid. If the name and passwrd match, an accunt with the same username is created in Mdle. MNet Authenticatin: Mdle Netwrking is a feature enabling resurces t be shared between Mdle sites using a single sign-n. Yu can als use the MNet authenticatin methd t lgin t the external prtfli sites like Mahara. Figure 19-9 Manage Authenticatin plugins 337

338 N authenticatin: Users can create accunts with n external validatin. This ptin shuld nly be used fr testing purpses. Shibbleth: Shibbleth is pen surce sftware that prvides a single sign-n acrss r within rganizatinal bundaries. Web Services Authenticatin: Web Services Authenticatin methd shuld be used fr accunts that are exclusively fr use by web service clients. T set the authenticatin methd: Click n Authenticatin in the Site Administratin blck. On the authenticatin page, as shwn in Figure 16-1, click n the clsed-eye icn t enable yur chsen authenticatin plug-in. If yu want, yu may chse t use mre than ne authenticatin methd. Use the up/dwn arrw icns t arrange the plug-ins in rder, with the plug-in handling the mst lgins at the tp f the page. This will minimize authenticatin server lad. If yu have curses with guest access, set the Guest lgin buttn t shw. Click the Save changes buttn. Click n Settings ppsite the authenticatin plug-in(s) yu have chsen. Cnfigure the required settings and click the Save changes buttn. Blcks The blcks page, which lks similar t the activities page, enables yu t manage blcks in Mdle. As fr activity mdules, yu can shw, hide, and delete blcks. The blcks page als lists the number f instances f each blck. Clicking n a number results in the list f curses cntaining that blck being displayed. A few blcks have additinal settings, which can be accessed via the links in the settings clumn. Settings that yu may want t change include: Remte RSS feeds Yu may want t allw teachers r even everyne t be able t add new RSS feeds. If nt, then teachers will have t cntact yu t add new RSS feeds. T add a new RSS feed: Click the Add/edit feeds link at the bttm f the Remte RSS feeds settings page. On the Add/edit feeds page, add the news feed URL and a custm title (ptinal). 338

339 Click the Add buttn. Curse Frmats Yu as a site administratr can manage which Curse frmats are available fr curses. Curse frmats can be disabled (hidden), re-rganized r deleted. Enrlments By nw yu shuld have set up user authenticatin, i.e., enabled peple t lg in, created sme curses, and assigned teachers t them. The next thing t cnsider is curse enrllment, which is, assigning users the rle f student in a curse. By default, students can enrll themselves in whatever curses they chse. They d s by clicking n the curse name, then answering Yes t the questin Yu are abut t enrll yurself as a member f this curse. Are yu sure yu wish t d this? This methd f enrllment is called self-enrllment. Whilst self-enrllment is an effective and efficient way f managing curse enrllment, particularly if yu dn t have a lt f curses, Mdle als prvides a number f ther enrllment methds (r enrllment plug-ins). They include: Paypal: This methd allws yu t set up an e-cmmerce system s students can pay t enrll in a curse. If yu are running a business selling Mdle-based curses, yu can use this methd t enable students t use a credit card. External database: This methd lks up enrllments in anther database. Yu ll need t cnfigure the lgin settings s Mdle can access the remte server and map the fields in Mdle t the fields in the external database. Flat/IMS Enterprise file: Like the uplad users tl, these methds allw yu t imprt user enrllment data via a specially frmatted text file. IMS Enterprise file frmat is described in a help file, and flat file frmat is described n the flat file settings page. Self-Enrllment: This is the default enrllment methd, as described abve. LDAP: Yu can use an LDAP server t manage enrllment as well as manage authenticatin. Setup instructins can be fund in the Mdle dcumentatin. 339

340 Figure Managing enrllment plugins T set the enrllment methd: Click n the Site Administratin > Plugins > Enrllments > Manage Enrllments. On the enrllments page, as shwn in Figure 19-10, click the clsed eye icn ppsite t yur chsen enrllment plug-in t enable it. As fr authenticatin methds, yu may chse mre than ne enrllment methd, if yu wish. Fr example, if yu have sme curses that students must pay fr and sme free curses, yu can use PayPal and self-enrllment. Click n Settings link ppsite the enrllment plug-in(s) yu have chsen. Cnfigure the required settings and click the Save changes buttn. Filters Filters allw fr the autmatic transfrmatin f entered text int different, ften mre cmplex frms. Fr example, the titles f resurces can autmatically becme hyperlinks that take yu t the relevant resurce, r URLs pinting t MP3 files can becme Flash cntrls embedded in the web page that let yu pause and rewind the audi. There are a number f standard filters included with Mdle and many mre specialized filters available frm the Mdle.rg mdules and plug-ins database. The filters included in the standard dwnlad are: 340

341 Activity names aut-linking - This scans text fr activity titles that exist in the same curse and creates a link. Algebra ntatin - This filter will cnvert algebra cde int GIF images Cnvert URLs int links - This filter cnverts URLs in selected frmats, such as Mdle aut-frmat, t click-able links Database aut-linking - As the name suggests, this filter enables autmatic linking f Database mdule entries Display emticns as images - This cnverts emticn (smiley) characters int images prtectin - This bfuscates address links t make them mre difficult fr spammers t harvest Glssary aut-linking - This scans text fr glssary entries that exist in the same curse and creates a link MathJax - Fr adding Mathematical equatins and expressins using an equatin editr Figure Managing Filters Multimedia plugins - This finds a link in text that pints t a multimedia resurce and replaces the link with an apprpriate multimedia player cde which can play the resurce 341

342 Multi-language cntent - This filter enables resurces t be created in multiple languages Wrd censrship - This filter "blacks ut" wrds fund n a list T enable a filter: G t Administratin > Curse administratin > Filters r if yu are in an activity Administratin > Activity administratin > Filters Set each filter n r ff as required Click the 'Save changes' buttn. Certain filters have additinal settings, which can be accessed via the links in the settings clumn. Licences Yu can enable/disable any/all f the licences in Administratin > Site administratin > Plugins > Licences > Manage licences fr user selectin when publishing a curse t a Cmmunity Hub r uplading a file frm a File Repsitry. Lcal Plugins Yu can manage any lcal plugins frm this page. It is basically meant fr plugins develped by yur wn r any lcal custmizatin f a standard plugin. Lgging Yu can define which lg stres are available, and in which rder. Available stres are: Standard, Legacy and External database. The default Standard lg is very detailed and shuld meet mst requirements. The Legacy lg shuld be disabled unless yu have ld custm reprts that need it. An External database lg stre als allws yu t cnnect t an external lg database. *** A new Mdle site will have Standard lgging enabled and Legacy lgging disabled. A site which has been upgraded will have bth enabled. Message Outputs There are fur default types f utput methds fr messaging: ppup ntices, Jabber IM type messages, messages sent as and mbile ntificatins. By default Ppup and are bth enabled, thugh will nly wrk f curse if the site has been prperly cnfigured t deliver . Jabber and Mbile ntificatins are ff by default and needs t be cnfigured first. 342

343 Questin Behavirs On this page yu can disable few questin types r even uninstall them if yu are nt ging t use them. Yu will als find ut the infrmatin abut N f questin attempts and the versin number. Questin Type Yu can manage the questin types available fr the teachers n yur mdle site t chse frm. Yu can see the n f questins are there fr a particular questin type and a link t uninstall a few f them. Reprts Yu can manage the available reprts n yur site frm the manage reprts page. Repsitries Yu can enable/disable the repsitries available fr yur Mdle site using this page. Yu can set any repsitry plugin t: Enabled and visible - appears in the file picker Enabled and hidden Disabled - default setting The rder in which repsitries are shwn in the file picker may be set using the up and dwn arrws. Yu can als change the cmmn repsitry settings using this link and change the individual repsitry settings. We have discussed abut repsitries in Chapter 5. Text Editrs Manage Editrs page will shw yu abut the available text editrs n yur Mdle site. Yu can enable/disable, uninstall and change the rder f the text editrs accrding t yur preference. Apart frm this yu can access the settings page f any text editr using the settings link where yu can define the settings fr the individual text editr like Att r TinyMCE text editr. Web Services In the sub links yu can manage the web services t be enabled and activated n yur Mdle site. 343

344 Security The Mdle prject takes security seriusly and is cntinuusly imprving Mdle t fix any security issues that may arise. We recmmend that yu take the fllwing basic security measures: Update Mdle regularly n each release. Published security hles draw crackers attentins after release. The lder the versin, the mre vulnerabilities it is likely t cntain. Disable register glbals. This will help prevent against pssible XSS prblems in third-party scripts. Ensure that administratrs and teachers use strng passwrds. This prtects against brute frce cracking f accunts. Only give teacher permissins t trusted users and avid creating public sandbxes with free teacher accunts. *** Further security advice can be fund in the Mdle dcumentatin. Yu will find the fllwing links in the Security tree: IP Blcker: If yu are using Mdle n yur wn lcal server then yu can define the list f the allwed IP addresses and blcked IP addresses. Yu can als define whether t prcess the allwed IP's r the blcked IP's first. Site Plicies: Yu can set site plicies affecting the security and privacy f the site n the Site Plicies Page. The site plicies page includes the fllwing ptins: Prtect Usernames: It will enable t hide the user name in case f any frget passwrd reset attempt. It will nt prvide any hint t guess the username. Frce Users t Lgin: Requires everyne t lgin befre being able t view the frnt page als. Frce users t lgin fr prfiles: Requires any visitr t lgin t the site with a valid accunt befre being able t access any user s prfile. Frce users t lg in t view user pictures: If enabled, users must be lgin in rder t view user prfile pictures. Open t Ggle: Enabling this setting allws Ggle s search spider s guest access t yur site. Any part f the site that allws guest access will then be searchable n Ggle. In additin, peple cming int yur site via a Ggle search will autmatically be lgged in as a guest. Prfile visible rles: Yu can select the list f rles that are visible n user prfiles and participatin page. Maximum upladed file size: Uplad file sizes are restricted in a number f ways each ne in this list restricts the fllwing: The Apache setting LimitRequestBdy 344

345 The PHP settings pst_max_size and uplad_max_filesize The site-wide maximum upladed file size setting in the Security > Site plicies sectin f the Site Administratin blck The curse maximum upladed file size setting in the curse settings Certain activity mdule settings User quta: The limit f file size area fr the user s private files. By default it is set t 100MB. Allw EMBED and OBJECT tags: As a default security measure, nrmal users are nt allwed t embed multimedia (like Flash) within texts using explicit EMBED and OBJECT tags in their HTML. If yu wish t allw these tags then enable this ptin. Enable trusted cntent: By default Mdle will always thrughly clean text that cmes frm users t remve any pssible bad scripts, media etc. that culd be a security risk. The Trusted Cntent system is a way f giving particular users that yu trust the ability t include these advanced features in their cntent withut interference. T enable this system, yu need t first enable this setting, and then grant the Trusted Cntent permissin t a specific Mdle rle. Texts created r upladed by such users will be marked as trusted and will nt be cleaned befre display. Maximum time t edit psts: This sets the editing time fr frum pstings. The editing time is the amunt f time users have t change frum pstings befre they are mailed t subscribers. Allw extended characters in usernames: Enable this setting t allw students t use any characters in their usernames. Site plicy URL: If yu have a site plicy that all registered users must see and agree t befre using this site, then specify the URL t it here, therwise leave this field blank. Site plicy URL fr guests: If yu have a site plicy that all guests must see and agree t befre using this site, then specify the URL t it here. Keep tag name casing: Check this if yu want tag names t keep the riginal casing as entered by users wh created them. Prfiles fr enrlled users nly: T prevent misuse by spammers, prfile descriptins f users wh are nt yet enrlled in any curse are hidden. New users must enrll in at least ne curse befre they can add a prfile descriptin. Crn executin via cmmand line nly: If this is set, then the crn script can nly be run frm the cmmand line instead f via the web. This verrides the crn passwrd setting belw. Crn passwrd fr remte access: This means that the crn.php script cannt be run frm a web brwser withut supplying the passwrd. 345

346 Accunt lckut threshld: Select number f failed lgin attempts that result in accunt lckut. This feature may be abused in denial f service attacks. Accunt lckut bservatin windw: Observatin time fr lckut threshld, if there are n failed attempts the threshld cunter is reset after this time. Accunt lckut duratin: Lcked ut accunt is autmatically unlcked after this duratin. Passwrd plicy: Turning this n will make Mdle check user passwrds against a valid passwrd plicy i.e. whether the passwrd shuld cntains minimum number f digits, uppercase, lwercase, numerical letters t be included in the passwrd. Maximum time t validate passwrd reset request: This specifies the amunt f time peple have t validate a passwrd reset request befre it expires. 30 minutes will be the default value. Grup enrlment key plicy: Turning this n will make Mdle check grup enrlment keys against a valid passwrd plicy. Disable user prfile images: Disable the ability fr users t change user prfile images. change cnfirmatin: Require an cnfirmatin step when users change their address in their prfile. Remember username: Enable if yu want t stre permanent ckies with usernames during user lgin. *** Permanent ckies may be cnsidered a privacy issue if used withut cnsent. Strict validatin f required fields: If enabled, users are prevented frm entering a space r line break nly in required fields in frms. HTTP Security: The HTTP security page cntains the fllwing ptins: Use HTTPS fr lgins: HTTPS encrypts the user s lgin data, s it s difficult t sniff ut a user s username and passwrd n the netwrk. Yu will need t enable HTTPS n yur server befre yu turn n this setting, r else yu will be lcked ut f yur site. Every web server has a different methd fr enabling HTTPS, s yu shuld check the dcumentatin fr yur web server. Secure ckies nly: If server is accepting nly https cnnectins it is recmmended t enable sending f secure ckies. Only http ckies: Enables new PHP feature - brwsers are instructed t send ckie with real http requests nly, ckies shuld nt be accessible by scripting languages. Allw frame embedding: Allw embedding f this site in frames n external sites. (*** Enabling f this feature is nt recmmended fr security reasns.) 346

347 Prevent passwrd aut cmpletin n lgin frm: Having this ff will let users save their accunt passwrd in their brwser. Switching this setting n will result in yur site n lnger fllwing XHTML strict validatin rules. Ntificatins: The ntificatins page cntains the fllwing ptins: Display lgin failures t: Set this t Administratrs t be warned f anyne attempting t steal student r teacher lgins. When set, a link stating the number f failed lgins appears in the tp-right crner f the page when an administratr lgs in. Click the link t access the lgin errr page. lgin failures: If yu re cncerned abut lgin failures, yu can set up ntificatin fr administratrs. Threshld fr ntificatins: This sets the number f failed lgins fr a given user frm a single cmputer that will trigger ntificatin. Antivirus: The use f the pen surce virus scanner clam AV n upladed files can be enabled t make use f Mdle s anti-virus feature. The pen surce virus scanner ClamAV shuld be installed n yur server. *** See fr mre infrmatin. Appearance Themes: A theme sets the appearance clrs, fnts, and icns fr yur Mdle site. Theme settings: The theme settings page includes the fllwing ptins: Theme list: This lists the themes available fr curse and user themes. Leave this blank t allw any valid theme t be used. Theme designer mde: Turn this n if yu are designing and testing themes as it will stp the themes being cached and enable yu t see theme changes quickly. Allw curse themes: If yu enable this, then teachers will be able t set their wn curse themes. Allw categry themes: When enabled, themes can be set at the categry level. This will affect all child categries and curses unless they have specifically set their wn theme. 347

348 Allw theme changes in the URL: If this is checked then the theme may be changed by adding?theme=theme_name (r &theme=theme_name if there are ther URL parameters) t the URL in the brwser. Allw users t hide blcks: D yu want t allw users t hide/shw side blcks thrughut this site? This feature uses JavaScript and ckies t remember the state f each cllapsible blck, and nly affects the user's wn view. Allw blcks t use the dck: If enabled and supprted by the selected theme users can chse t mve blcks t a special dck. Custm menu items: The custmmenuitems setting allws yu t create a drp dwn menu that can be displayed by themes that supprt it. Currently all themes that are prvided with Mdle 2.7 supprt this custm menu. Enable device detectin: Enables detectin f mbiles, smartphnes, tablets r default devices (desktp PCs, laptps, etc.) fr the applicatin f themes and ther features. Device detectin regular expressins: This will allw yu t custmize the theme selectr ptins. Fr example, yu can add a custm theme fr IE6 and anther fr Windws CE by entering the identifying expressins the brwser sends and the "Return value" yu want t display as the theme selectrs "Device type". Theme Selectr: An administratr can set a theme fr the site frm the theme selectr page. Mdle has tw standard themes: Clean, a respnsive, btstrap based theme which is used as default, and Mre, a theme custmizable frm within the admin interface. Different themes may be set accrding t 'device type' - default, legacy (fr lder brwsers), mbile and tablet. T change the theme fr the device type fr which yu wish t change the theme: G t Administratin > Site administratin > Appearance > Themes > Theme selectr Click n the "Select theme" buttn next t the type yu wish t change Scrll dwn t see the previews f the available themes and click n the "Use theme" buttn t chse the theme The next screen will prvide infrmatin abut the theme. Click "Cntinue" *** Mdle caches themes s if yu dn't immediately see changed settings that yu were expecting, click the "Clear theme caches" buttn at the tp f the Theme selectr page. 348

349 *** The selected theme may be verridden if user/curse r categry themes have been allwed in the Theme settings. Figure Selecting a theme fr device type Belw the theme selectr link yu will find the links fr custmizing the individual theme thrugh the settings page f the theme. By default there will be nly Clean and Mre themes which can be custmized. Calendar: Yu can change the default display settings fr the site calendar. The fllwing ptins are available: Calendar type: The admin can chse a default calendar type fr the whle site here. Individual users can verride this in the curse settings r in their user prfile. Admins see all: Whether admins see all calendar events r just thse that apply t themselves Time display frmat: Whether a 12 r 24 hur frmat is used. This setting can be verridden by user preferences. Start f week: Default is Sunday Weekend days: Weekend days are shwn in a different clr. Days and events t lk ahead: Fr determining hw many events are listed in the Upcming Events blck. If the Upcming Events blck becmes t lng yu can reduce the number f days and events t lk ahead. 349

350 Calendar exprt days t lk ahead and back: A custm range f dates, such as a schl term r year, may be set as a calendar exprt ptin. Calendar exprt salt: The calendar exprt salt is a randm string f characters used fr imprving f security f authenticatin tkens used fr exprting f calendars. Shw surce infrmatin fr ical events: If enabled, the subscriptin name and link will be shwn fr ical-imprted events. Blg: Here yu can set the default settings applicable t the blgs sitewide. The fllwing ptins are available: Enable blg assciatins: Enables the assciatin f blg entries with curses and curse mdules. Blg visibility: This setting allws yu t restrict the level t which user blgs can be viewed n this site. Nte that they specify the maximum cntext f the VIEWER nt the pster r the types f blg psts. Blgs can als be disabled cmpletely if yu dn't want them at all. Enable external blgs: Enables users t specify external blg feeds. Mdle regularly checks these blg feeds and cpies new entries t the lcal blg f that user. External blg crn schedule: Hw ften Mdle checks the external blgs fr new entries. Maximum number f external blgs per user: The number f external blgs each user is allwed t link t their Mdle blg. Enable cmments: Blg cmments are enabled by default, thugh may be disabled if required Shw cmments cunt: Shw cmments cunt, it will cst ne mre query when display cmments link. Navigatin: There are tw standard blcks n every page - the Navigatin blck and the Administratin blck. Yu can change navigatin settings, such as the default hme page, and whether t shw curse categries in the navigatin. The fllwing ptins are available: Default hme page fr users: This determines the hme page fr lgged in users Allw guest access t My hme: If enabled guests can access My hme, therwise guests are redirected t the site frnt page. Shw curse full names: If enabled, curse full names will be used in the navigatin rather than shrt names. 350

351 Shw curse categries: Shw curse categries in the navigatin bar and navigatin blcks. This des nt ccur with curses the user is currently enrlled in; they will still be listed under mycurses withut categries. Shw my curse categries: If enabled curses in the users my curses branch will be shwn in categries. Shw all curses: This setting determines whether users wh are enrlled in curses can see Curses (listing all curses) in the navigatin, in additin t My Curses. Srt my curses: This determines whether curses are listed under My curses accrding t the srt rder (i.e. the rder set in Site administratin > Curses > Manage curses and categries) r alphabetically by curse setting. Curse limit: Limits the number f curses shwn t the user when they are either nt lgged in r are nt enrlled in any curses. Use site name fr site pages : If enabled the site's shrtname will be used fr the site pages nde in the navigatin rather than the string 'Site pages' Link admin categries: If enabled admin setting categries will be displayed as links in the navigatin and will lead t the admin categry pages. Shw frnt page activities in the navigatin: If enabled, frnt page activities will be shwn n the navigatin under site pages. Add links t view user psts: If enabled tw links will be added t each user in the navigatin t view discussins the user has started and psts the user has made in frums thrughut the site r in specific curses. HTML Settings: The HTML settings page has tw ptins nly: Remve HTML tags frm all activity names: Uncheck this setting t allw HTML tags in activity and resurce names. By default it is set t remve HTML tags frm the activity names. Emticns: Yu can define the list f images that will be used t replace the emticn text. The frm table maps the emticn characters like :- ) t an image that will be used t display that emticn. Images can be prvided either by the Mdle cre itself r by any ther installed plugin (like an activity mdule, blck, theme r yur lcal plugin). Fr accessibility reasns, alternative texts fr these images shuld be defined, t. Yu can als define custm emticns t fr yur Mdle site. Media Embedding: Yu can enable the embedding f media files by selecting apprpriate media players n this page. When players are enabled in these 351

352 settings, files can be embedded using the media filter (if enabled) r using a File r URL resurces with the Embed ptin. When nt enabled, these frmats are nt embedded and users can manually dwnlad r fllw links t these resurces. The list f available players are: YuTube (displays vides hsted n yutube) Vime (displays vides hsted n vime).mp3 - MPEG Audi Stream, Layer III.flv - Flash vide.f4v - Flash vide.swf - Macrmedia Flash animatin File (Adbe, Inc.).gg - HTML 5 audi.acc - HTML 5 audi.mp3 - HTML 5 audi.webm - HTML 5 vide.m4v - HTML 5 vide.gv - HTML 5 vide Legacy media players: The fllwing legacy media player frmats are als available but nt recmmended fr general usage:.mv - QuickTime player (requires QuickTime player r cdec).mp4 - QuickTime player (requires QuickTime player r cdec).m4a - QuickTime player (requires QuickTime player r cdec).mpg - MPEG animatin - QuickTime player (requires QuickTime player r cdec).wmv - Windws media player (Micrsft)-nt guaranteed t wrk in brwsers ther than IE and nn-windws systems.avi - Windws media player - nt guaranteed t wrk in brwsers ther than IE and nn-windws systems Mdle Dcs: By default, managers, teachers and nn-editing teachers have "Mdle Dcs fr this page" links at the bttm f each page in Mdle fr accessing cntextspecific dcumentatin. An administratr can change Mdle Dcs settings in Administratin > Site administratin > Appearance > Mdle Dcs. The fllwing ptins are available: Mdle Dcs dcument rt: It defines the path t the Mdle Dcs fr prviding cntext-specific dcumentatin via 'Mdle Dcs fr this page' links in the fter f each page. If the field is left blank, links will nt be displayed. Language fr dcs: This language will be used in links fr the dcumentatin pages. 352

353 Open in new windw: If yu enable this, then links t Mdle Dcs will be shwn in a new windw. Default my hme page: Yu as a site administratr can define which blcks will appear n the default My Hme page. But first yu need t turn n the Blck editing Mde t make any changes t the blck cnfiguratin. Default prfile page: In a similar manner yu can define the default lk f the Prfile page i.e. which blcks will appear n the prfile page by default fr a new user. Curses: Here yu can define the display settings related t curse. The ptins available are: Curse Cntacts: This setting allws yu t cntrl wh appears n the curse descriptin. Users need t have at least ne f these rles in a curse t be shwn n the curse descriptin fr that curse. By default Teacher's rle is selected t be displayed n the curse descriptin. Display Extended Curse names: If enabled, curse shrt names will be displayed in additin t full names in curse lists. Curses per Page: Enter the number f curses t be displayed per page in a curse listing. Curses with summaries limit: The maximum number f curses t display in a curse listing including summaries befre falling back t a simpler listing. Curse summary files limit: The maximum number f files that can be attached t a curse summary. Curse summary files extensins: A cmma-separated list f allwed curse summary files extensins. AJAX and JavaScript: Ajax is required fr drag and drp functinality and is enabled by default. Yu can change the default settings related t AJAX and JavaScript fr yur Mdle site. Use nline YUI libraries: Instead f using lcal files, use nline files available n Yah s servers. *** This requires an internet cnnectin, r n AJAX will wrk n yur site. This setting is nt cmpatible with sites using https. YUI cmb lading: This ptin enables cmbined file lading ptimizatin fr YUI libraries. This setting shuld be enabled n prductin sites fr perfrmance reasns. 353

354 Cache JavaScript: JavaScript caching and cmpressin greatly imprves page lading perfrmance. It is strngly recmmended fr prductin sites. Develpers will prbably want t disable this feature. Activity chser default: Shuld the activity chser be presented t users by default? Activity editing menus: If enabled many f the activity editing icns shwn when viewing a curse with editing n will be displayed within a drp-dwn menu. This reduces the cntent n screen when editing a curse by hiding the icns until they are needed. Blck editing menus: If enabled many f the blck editing icns shwn when editing is n will be displayed within a drp-dwn menu. This reduces the cntent n screen by hiding the icns until they are needed. Manage Tags: The manage tags page prvides a list f tags, tgether with infrmatin n their creatrs, hw many times they are used, when they were last mdified and which tags have been flagged as inapprpriate. Inapprpriate tags are shwn in red when using the default theme. Selected tags may be having their flag reset (in ther wrds remve the inapprpriate flag) r be deleted. Tag names and types may als be changed. The manage tags page als allws fr fficial tags t be added. Official tags are tags which are added by a site administratr and are displayed t all users f the Mdle site when adding a blg entry. Creating a set f fficial tags fr cmmnly used tpics can reduce the amunt f duplicatin in blg tags. Additinal HTML: Using the Additinal HTML link yu can add additinal HTML r CSS r JavaScript t every page. These settings allw yu t specify HTML r CSS r JavaScript that yu want added t every page withut altering the Mdle cde files. Yu can add HTML, CSS r JavaScript, t three sectins in the Additinal HTML page. Within HEAD: within the <head></head> tag fr the page. (Example: Meta tags, CSS, JavaScript). When BODY is pened: abve the header sectin f the main bdy f the page that is displayed. (Example: Banner image r text heading, alert message). When BODY is clsed: belw the fter f the page. (Example: Ggle Analytics). Ding this allws yu add custm headers r fters n every page, r add supprt fr services like Ggle Analytics very easily and independent f yur chsen theme. 354

355 Anther way f adding a custm fter r supprt fr Ggle Analytics is via the settings f certain themes such as the Clean theme. Frnt Page: The frnt page is the initial page seen by smene reaching a Mdle site after r befre a lgin. Typically a student will see curses, sme blcks f infrmatin, displayed in a theme. In the Navigatin bar and Navigatin blck it is called "Hme". In many ways, a Frnt Page has similar features and functins t thse in a Curse. Fr example, Activities, Resurces and Blcks can be added t the Frnt Page t give it different lks. The frnt page settings link enables yu t custmize the appearance f the frnt page f yur Mdle site. The frm has the fllwing ptins t chse frm: Full site name: This name appears at the tp f every page abve the navigatin bar. Shrt name fr site: The shrt name appears at the beginning f the navigatin bar as a link back t yur site frnt page. Frnt page summary: This summary can be displayed n the frnt page using the curse/site summary blck. Frnt page & Frnt page items when lgged in: The center f the frnt page can display any cmbinatin f the fllwing: news items, a list f curses, a list f enrlled curses, a list f curse categries, a list f categries and curses, a curse search bx r nne. The rder is determined by a cmbinatin bx. It is pssible t create ne setting fr anyne wh gets t the frnt page withut lgging in t the Mdle site, and anther lk fr nly thse wh have lgged int the Mdle site. There are tw cmbinatin bxes. Maximum categry depth: This specifies the maximum depth f child categries expanded when displaying categries r cmb list. Deeper level categries will appear as links and user can expand them with AJAX request. Maximum number f curses: Maximum number f curses t be displayed n the site's frnt page in curse listings. Include a tpic sectin: This adds a tpic sectin t the center-tp f the frnt page. When editing is turned n, resurces and/r activities can be added t the tpic sectin using the drpdwn menus, in the same way as n a curse page. *** The label resurce can be used t add text and/r an image t the center-tp f the frnt page. News items t shw: This setting nly applies if the frnt page is set t display news items r if yu are using the Latest News blck. 355

356 Cmments displayed per page: Each curse may include a Cmments blck which allws the display f user cmments. The number f cmments displayed at any time is set here. Default frntpage rle: The default frntpage rle enables lgged-in users t participate in frnt page activities. It is recmmended that it is set t frntpage rle. Figure Editing yur site's frnt page settings Server System Paths: An administratr can set the fllwing system paths Path t du: If yu enter this, pages that display directry cntents will run much faster fr directries with a lt f files. Path t aspell: T use spell-checking within the editr, yu MUST have aspell 0.50 r later installed n yur server, and yu must specify the crrect path t access the aspell binary. Path t dt: T be able t generate graphics frm DOT files, yu must have installed the dt executable and pint t it here. 356

357 Supprt Cntact: can specify a supprt name, and/r supprt page fr including in the cnfirmatin sent fr based self-registratins. Sessin Handling: Once smene lgs in t yur Mdle server, the server starts a sessin. The sessin data allws the server t track users as they access different pages. The available settings are: Use database fr sessin infrmatin: Mdle needs t stre the sessin data in sme strage. By default either file r database sessin strage is selected, this ptin allws admin t change it. *** This ptin disappears if yu specify sessin driver in cnfig.php file. Timeut: If users dn't lad a new page during the amunt f time set here, Mdle will end their sessin and lg them ut. Be sure this time frame is lng enugh t cver the lngest test yur teachers may ffer. If a student is lgged ut while they are taking a test, their respnses t the test questins may be lst. Ckie prefix: This setting custmizes the name f the ckie used fr Mdle sessins. This is ptinal, and nly useful t avid ckies being cnfused when there is mre than ne cpy f Mdle running within the same web site. Ckie path: The relative path t this Mdle installatin, this may be used t frce sending f Mdle sessin ckie t parent directries. Invalid values are ignred autmatically. Ckie dmain: This can be used t send sessin ckies t higher dmains instead f just the server dmain. This may be useful fr sme SSO slutins. Invalid values are ignred autmatically. HTTP: here yu can change the prxy settings fr yur server. The settings are: Use slash arguments: Files (images, uplads etc.) are prvided via a script using 'slash arguments'. This methd allws files t be mre easily cached in web brwsers, prxy servers etc. Reverse prxy: If yur server is lcated behind a reverse prxy yu may need t select apprpriate rder f headers that is being used in yur setup. Cntact yur netwrk administratr if nt sure. Web prxy settings: Yur Mdle server may need t access the Internet thrugh a prxy server, depending n yur netwrk cnfiguratin. If yu're nt sure abut whether yu need a prxy server, cntact yur netwrk administratr r ISP. Maintenance Mde: Maintenance mde is fr preventing any users ther than administratrs frm using the site while maintenance is taking place, thugh it's nt designed t prevent user access during versin upgrades. 357

358 When users attempt t access a curse when yur site is in maintenance mde, they btain a message infrming them that the site is in maintenance mde. If yu wish, yu can create a custmized maintenance mde message, perhaps stating when the site will be available again r giving the reasn fr ding maintenance. *** The frnt page f yur site will appear as nrmal when yur site is in maintenance mde. Users will nly see the maintenance mde message when they attempt t access a curse. Cleanup: Yu can limit the size f certain tables in the database by setting apprpriate ptins n this page. Delete nt fully setup users after: If yu are using authenticatin, this is the perid within which a respnse will be accepted frm users. After this perid, ld uncnfirmed accunts are deleted. Delete incmplete users after: After this perid, ld nt fully setup accunts are deleted. Disable grade histry: Disable histry tracking f changes in grades related tables. This may speed up the server a little and cnserve space in database. Grade histry lifetime: This specifies the length f time yu want t keep histry f changes in grade related tables. It is recmmended t keep it as lng as pssible. If yu experience perfrmance prblems r have limited database space, try t set lwer value. Envirnment: Yu can check that whether yur site meets all system requirements fr the current and future versins f Mdle in Administratin > Site administratin > Server > Envirnment. *** It is imprtant t check system requirements prir t upgrading yur site t a new Mdle versin. PHP Inf: The phpinf display cntains infrmatin abut the cnfiguratin f yur PHP installatin. This is useful fr checking: That yur PHP installatin meets Mdle's system requirements. the values that are currently applied t yur server's PHP install, e.g. File uplad limits That yu have installed the required mdules needed fr Mdle t wrk, e.g. the LDAP mdule fr LDAP authenticatin. 358

359 Perfrmance: Varius perfrmance settings can be changed by an administratr in Administratin > Site administratin > Server > Perfrmance. The available ptins are: Extra PHP memry limit: Sme scripts like search, backup/restre r crn require mre memry. Set higher values fr large sites. Maximum time limit: The setting "Maximum time limit" lets yu restrict the maximum PHP executin time that Mdle will allw withut any utput being displayed. curl cache TTL: Time-t-live fr curl cache, in secnds. Bitrate t use when calculating curl timeuts (Kbps): This setting is used t calculate an apprpriate timeut during large curl requests. As part f this calculatin an HTTP HEAD request is made t determine the size f the cntent. Setting this t 0 disables this request frm being made. Hubs: An administratr can register their site with mdle.rg in Administratin > Site Administratin > Registratin. When yu register yur site with Mdle.rg : Yu are added t a lw-vlume mailing list fr imprtant ntificatins such as security alerts and new releases f Mdle Statistics abut yur site will be added t the statistics f the wrldwide Mdle cmmunity Yur site is als registered with Mdle.net, allwing users with the publish curses capability (by default nly managers) the ptin f publishing curses t Mdle.net. Update Ntificatins: Yu can cnfigure the default update ntificatins abut yur Mdle site n this page. Yu can change ptins like turn ff autmatic updates, Alpha maturity plugins t be installed n yur site etc. The available ptins are: Autmatically check fr available updates: If enabled, yur site will autmatically check fr available updates fr bth Mdle cde and all additinal plugins. If there is a new update available, a ntificatin will be sent t site admins. Enable updates deplyment: If enabled, yu will be able t dwnlad and install available updates directly frm Mdle administratin pages. Nte that yur web server prcess has t have write access int flders with Mdle installatin t make this wrk. *** That can be seen as a ptential security risk. Required cde maturity: Ntify abut available updates nly if the available cde has the selected maturity level at least. Updates fr plugins that d nt declare their cde maturity levels are always reprted regardless this setting. 359

360 Ntify abut new builds: If enabled, the available update fr Mdle cde is als reprted when a new build fr the current versin is available. Scheduled tasks: An administratr can schedule rutine tasks very precisely frm Administratin>Site administratin>server>scheduled tasks. Figure Scheduled Tasks settings *** Yu still need t run the CRON scripts at regular intervals. Clicking the edit icn allws the administratr t specify the minute/hur/day/mnth r day f the week the task is t be run. It is als pssible t reset the task t its default setting r disable it cmpletely. *** When typing int the fields, the frmat is the same as fr Unix crn. Reprts Just as teachers can btain detailed lgs and reprts f student activity in their curse, as an administratr yu have access t lgs and reprts fr the whle site. Cmments: Yu will get a cmplete list reprt f cmments psted n yur Mdle site including the authr name and the cntent f the cmment. Yu can als delete the unwanted/spam cmments. 360

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