Walls Low sheen: They are cleaned more often but are susceptible to critical lighting.

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1 Stage 3: Fixing/Pre-Paint Stage Information on Painting The First Coat of Paint is the Most Important Most project homes are specified with a 2 coat finish. Master Painters of Australia recommends 3 coats, where the first coat is a recognised plasterboard sealer. The sealer provides a key for subsequent paint and enhances density of colour. Without it, repainting could cause the ceiling to peel. In wet areas subject to steam, enamel or acrylic paints will withstand the environment better than others. Unbound flat painted ceilings are not recommended for wet areas. Joinery The recommended specification is a coat of primer followed by 2 coats of enamel or acrylic top-coat. In new work, all timber work should be primed. Be careful in your selection of acrylics where they are used on door and window frames. Acrylics have strong cohesion i.e. they stick to themselves. Gloss, Low Sheen or Flat Gloss Paint: Is resistant to moisture. Satin and gloss finish doors, skirting boards, trim and areas which deserve attention. Both finishes are tough and tend to resist dirt and fungal contamination. Flat Paint: Is susceptible to water penetration. It is formulated to diffuse light from lamps and windows and has excellent splatter resistance, but since it has low hiding and scrub resistance it is more appropriate for ceilings than walls. Gloss paint is very effective at highlighting defects in the quality of the surface. A small imperfection on the surface being critically lit will have a shadow which will accentuate the imperfection. Painting Conventions Ceilings Flat white: Ceilings are the surface most likely to be irregular because of the roof structure. They are also the surface least likely to be regularly cleaned yet are most susceptible to critical lighting. Walls Low sheen: They are cleaned more often but are susceptible to critical lighting. Trims Gloss: Critical lighting is not a factor but cleaning is. Wet Area wall and ceilings: Low sheen to gloss. Need for water and steam resistance is more important than defects revealed by critical lighting. Solvent-based versus Water-based Quality interior water-based paints provide better long-term flexibility and resistance to cracking and chipping. They also tend to resist yellowing with age; they emit fewer odours, clean up with water and are not flammable.

2 Solvent-based paints offer superior one coat hiding and better adhesion to difficult surfaces such as those not thoroughly cleaned. Solvent-based paints also allow time for the paint to be brushed before it sets and superior resistance to tackiness once cured. Acrylic versus Vinyl A pure acrylic formula offers many advantages including better colour holdout and adhesion in wet conditions, improved grease resistance, and better resistance to peeling, blistering, dirt and fungal growth. Resistance to staining from water and foods like mustard, tomato sauce and coffee is another plus along with resistance to alkalinity in household cleaners. Use of Colour: Colour operates in a similar way to gloss levels. The darker the colour, the more the defects will be noticed. The lighter, the less they will be seen. If colour intensity and gloss are added together, the effects are further compounded. Texture and Pattern Texture is an often overlooked aspect of surface finish. Different application techniques can also impart a subtle difference in surface texture. It is for this reason that plasterboard ceilings should either be rolled or back rolled after spraying. The light dimpling imparted by the roller diffuses reflected light and helps disguise surface irregularity. In contrast, spray painting techniques can deliver a superbly flat paint film on the right surface.

3 Selecting an Paint: Surfaces Plasterboard Timber Masonry Product Paint Type Kitchen Bathroom Laundry Bedroom Living Room Doors Windows Trims Concrete Brick Fibro Water Flat X X Ceiling X X X Low Sheen X X X Satin X X X Gloss X X X X Water Eggshell X X X Water Textured X Matt Oil Semi Gloss X X X X Oil Gloss X X X X Selecting an Paint: Surfaces Timber Masonry Metal Product Paint Type Weatherboards Concrete Galvanised Steel Windows Doors Trim Brick Fibro Iron Wrought Iron Zinc Water Gloss X X X X Water Low Sheen X X X X Oil Gloss X X X X Water Smooth X Common Paint Problems Cracking and Flaking occurs as hairline cracks; later peeling and flaking of chips occurs as a result of aging, ultimately leading to paint failure. Use of lower quality paint with inadequate adhesion and flexibility Over thinning and overspreading of paint Poor surface preparation or applying paint without primer Painting under cool or windy conditions making paint dry too fast

4 Solution: If cracking does not go down to the substrate, sand to feather the edges of the cracks. Prime any bare spots, and seal the surface with an undercoat to achieve a smooth surface for repainting. If cracking goes all the way down to the substrate remove all the paint by scraping and sanding and/or use a heat gun then prime and repaint. Black, Grey or Brown Mould Areas that are damp or receive little direct sunlight Use of low quality paint that has insufficient amount of fungicide Painting over a surface where mould has not been removed Failure to prime the surface before applying paint Solution: Remove mould with a solution of water and household bleach or a fungicidal wash. Consider installing an exhaust fan in high moisture areas. Peeling due to poor adhesion Inadequate surface preparation Use of low quality paint Applying oil based paint over a wet surface Solution: Prepare surface by removing all paint, sand rough surfaces, prime bare wood, and repaint. Wrinkling which occurs when uncured paint forms a skin Paint applied too thickly Painting a hot surface causing the paint film to dry faster on top Applying a topcoat to an insufficiently dried first coat Painting over a contaminated surface Solution: Scrape and sand to remove the wrinkled coat. Repaint ensuring that the first coat or primer is dry before applying the topcoat. When painting in extremely hot, cool or damp conditions allow extra time for paint to dry completely. Blistering resulting from loss of adhesion and lifting of paint

5 Applying solvent-based paint over a damp surface Moisture seepage through exterior walls Exposure of water-based paint film to high humidity after the paint has dried Solution: If the blisters do not go down to the substrate, remove them by scraping and sanding and repaint with a quality acrylic water-based interior paint. If the blisters go to substrate, remove the source of moisture, perhaps with vents or exhaust fans, remove blisters and prime before applying the top coat. Poor Scrub Resistance causing the paint film to wear away when scrubbed Incorrect sheen for the area Use of low quality paint Using an overly aggressive scrub medium Inadequate drying time after application of the paint Solution: High traffic areas needing frequent cleaning require a high quality satin or gloss paint. Allow adequate drying time for paint to cure and use only mild detergents when cleaning. Poor Stain Resistance or failure of paint to absorb dirt and stains Use of poor quality porous paint Application of paint to un-primed surface Solution: Higher quality water-based paints contain more binder to prevent stains from penetrating the paint surface. Priming new surfaces also provides maximum film thickness of a premium top coat for good stain removability. Yellowing Oxidation of solvent-based paint or varnish Heat from ovens, radiators or heating ducts Lack of light Solution: Top quality water-based paints do not tend to yellow. However, solvent-based paints because of their curing mechanism may yellow in areas protected from sunlight.

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